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Judas’ Decision to Betray Jesus

22 Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread,[a] which is called the Passover, was approaching. The[b] chief priests and the experts in the law[c] were trying to find some way[d] to execute[e] Jesus,[f] for they were afraid of the people.[g]

Then[h] Satan[i] entered Judas, the one called Iscariot, who was one of the twelve.[j] He went away and discussed with the chief priests and officers of the temple guard[k] how he might[l] betray Jesus,[m] handing him over to them.[n] They[o] were delighted[p] and arranged to give him money.[q] So[r] Judas[s] agreed and began looking for an opportunity to betray Jesus[t] when no crowd was present.[u]

The Passover

Then the day for the feast[v] of Unleavened Bread came, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed.[w] Jesus[x] sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover[y] for us to eat.”[z] They[aa] said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare[ab] it?” 10 He said to them, “Listen,[ac] when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water[ad] will meet you.[ae] Follow him into the house that he enters, 11 and tell the owner of the house,[af] ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 12 Then he will show you a large furnished room upstairs. Make preparations there.” 13 So[ag] they went and found things[ah] just as he had told them,[ai] and they prepared the Passover.

The Lord’s Supper

14 Now[aj] when the hour came, Jesus[ak] took his place at the table[al] and the apostles joined[am] him. 15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired[an] to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again[ao] until it is fulfilled[ap] in the kingdom of God.”[aq] 17 Then[ar] he took a cup,[as] and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit[at] of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”[au] 19 Then[av] he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body[aw] which is given for you.[ax] Do this in remembrance of me.” 20 And in the same way he took[ay] the cup after they had eaten,[az] saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant[ba] in my blood.

A Final Discourse

21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays[bb] me is with me on the table.[bc] 22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined,[bd] but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 23 So[be] they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

24 A dispute also started[bf] among them over which of them was to be regarded as the greatest.[bg] 25 So[bh] Jesus[bi] said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’[bj] 26 Not so with you;[bk] instead the one who is greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader[bl] like the one who serves.[bm] 27 For who is greater, the one who is seated at the table,[bn] or the one who serves? Is it not[bo] the one who is seated at the table? But I am among you as one[bp] who serves.

28 “You are the ones who have remained[bq] with me in my trials. 29 Thus[br] I grant[bs] to you a kingdom,[bt] just as my Father granted to me, 30 that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom, and you will sit[bu] on thrones judging[bv] the twelve tribes of Israel.

31 “Simon,[bw] Simon, pay attention![bx] Satan has demanded to have you all,[by] to sift you like wheat,[bz] 32 but I have prayed for you, Simon,[ca] that your faith may not fail.[cb] When[cc] you have turned back,[cd] strengthen[ce] your brothers.” 33 But Peter[cf] said to him, “Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!”[cg] 34 Jesus replied,[ch] “I tell you, Peter, the rooster will not crow[ci] today until you have denied[cj] three times that you know me.”

35 Then[ck] Jesus[cl] said to them, “When I sent you out with no money bag,[cm] or traveler’s bag,[cn] or sandals, you didn’t lack[co] anything, did you?” They replied,[cp] “Nothing.” 36 He said to them, “But now, the one who[cq] has a money bag must take it, and likewise a traveler’s bag[cr] too. And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. 37 For I tell you that this scripture must be[cs] fulfilled in me, ‘And he was counted with the transgressors.’[ct] For what is written about me is being fulfilled.”[cu] 38 So[cv] they said, “Look, Lord, here are two swords.”[cw] Then he told them, “It is enough.”[cx]

On the Mount of Olives

39 Then[cy] Jesus[cz] went out and made his way,[da] as he customarily did, to the Mount of Olives,[db] and the disciples followed him. 40 When he came to the place,[dc] he said to them, “Pray that you will not fall into temptation.”[dd] 41 He went away from them about a stone’s throw, knelt down, and prayed, 42 “Father, if you are willing, take[de] this cup[df] away from me. Yet not my will but yours[dg] be done.” 43 [Then an angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him. 44 And in his anguish[dh] he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground.][di] 45 When[dj] he got up from prayer, he came to the disciples and found them sleeping, exhausted[dk] from grief. 46 So[dl] he said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you will not fall into temptation!”[dm]

Betrayal and Arrest

47 While he was still speaking, suddenly a crowd appeared,[dn] and the man named Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He walked up[do] to Jesus to kiss him.[dp] 48 But Jesus said to him, “Judas, would you betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”[dq] 49 When[dr] those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said, “Lord, should[ds] we use our swords?”[dt] 50 Then[du] one of them[dv] struck the high priest’s slave,[dw] cutting off his right ear. 51 But Jesus said,[dx] “Enough of this!” And he touched the man’s[dy] ear and healed[dz] him. 52 Then[ea] Jesus said to the chief priests, the officers of the temple guard,[eb] and the elders who had come out to get him, “Have you come out with swords and clubs like you would against an outlaw?[ec] 53 Day after day when I was with you in the temple courts,[ed] you did not arrest me.[ee] But this is your hour,[ef] and that of the power[eg] of darkness!”

Jesus’ Condemnation and Peter’s Denials

54 Then[eh] they arrested[ei] Jesus,[ej] led him away, and brought him into the high priest’s house.[ek] But Peter was following at a distance. 55 When they had made a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat down together, Peter sat down among them. 56 Then a slave girl,[el] seeing him as he sat in the firelight, stared at him and said, “This man was with him too!” 57 But Peter[em] denied it: “Woman,[en] I don’t know[eo] him!” 58 Then[ep] a little later someone else[eq] saw him and said, “You are one of them too.” But Peter said, “Man,[er] I am not!” 59 And after about an hour still another insisted,[es] “Certainly this man was with him, because he too is a Galilean.”[et] 60 But Peter said, “Man, I don’t know what you’re talking about!” At that moment,[eu] while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed.[ev] 61 Then[ew] the Lord turned and looked straight at Peter, and Peter remembered the word of the Lord,[ex] how he had said to him, “Before a rooster crows today, you will deny me three times.” 62 And he went outside and wept bitterly.[ey]

63 Now[ez] the men who were holding Jesus[fa] under guard began to mock him and beat him. 64 They[fb] blindfolded him and asked him repeatedly,[fc] “Prophesy! Who hit you?”[fd] 65 They also said many other things against him, reviling[fe] him.

66 When day came, the council of the elders of the people gathered together, both the chief priests and the experts in the law.[ff] Then[fg] they led Jesus[fh] away to their council[fi] 67 and said, “If[fj] you are the Christ,[fk] tell us.” But he said to them, “If[fl] I tell you, you will not[fm] believe, 68 and if[fn] I ask you, you will not[fo] answer. 69 But from now on[fp] the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand[fq] of the power[fr] of God.” 70 So[fs] they all said, “Are you the Son of God,[ft] then?” He answered[fu] them, “You say[fv] that I am.” 71 Then[fw] they said, “Why do we need further testimony? We have heard it ourselves[fx] from his own lips!”[fy]

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

23 Then[fz] the whole group of them rose up and brought Jesus[ga] before Pilate.[gb] They[gc] began to accuse[gd] him, saying, “We found this man subverting[ge] our nation, forbidding[gf] us to pay the tribute tax[gg] to Caesar[gh] and claiming that he himself is Christ,[gi] a king.” So[gj] Pilate asked Jesus,[gk] “Are you the king[gl] of the Jews?” He replied, “You say so.”[gm] Then[gn] Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no basis for an accusation[go] against this man.” But they persisted[gp] in saying, “He incites[gq] the people by teaching throughout all Judea. It started in Galilee and ended up here!”[gr]

Jesus Brought Before Herod

Now when Pilate heard this, he asked whether the man was a Galilean. When[gs] he learned that he was from Herod’s jurisdiction,[gt] he sent him over to Herod,[gu] who also happened to be in Jerusalem[gv] at that time. When[gw] Herod saw Jesus, he was very glad, for he had long desired to see him, because he had heard about him and was hoping to see him perform[gx] some miraculous sign.[gy] So[gz] Herod[ha] questioned him at considerable length; Jesus[hb] gave him no answer. 10 The chief priests and the experts in the law[hc] were there, vehemently accusing him.[hd] 11 Even Herod with his soldiers treated him with contempt and mocked him. Then,[he] dressing him in elegant clothes,[hf] Herod[hg] sent him back to Pilate. 12 That very day Herod and Pilate became friends with each other,[hh] for prior to this they had been enemies.[hi]

Jesus Brought Before the Crowd

13 Then[hj] Pilate called together the chief priests, the[hk] leaders, and the people, 14 and said to them, “You brought me this man as one who was misleading[hl] the people. When I examined him before you, I[hm] did not find this man guilty[hn] of anything you accused him of doing. 15 Neither did Herod, for he sent him back to us. Look, he has done nothing[ho] deserving death.[hp] 16 I will therefore have him flogged[hq] and release him.”[hr]

18 But they all shouted out together,[hs] “Take this man[ht] away! Release Barabbas for us!” 19 (This[hu] was a man who had been thrown into prison for an insurrection[hv] started in the city, and for murder.)[hw] 20 Pilate addressed them once again because he wanted[hx] to release Jesus. 21 But they kept on shouting,[hy] “Crucify, crucify[hz] him!” 22 A third time he said to them, “Why? What wrong has he done? I have found him guilty[ia] of no crime deserving death.[ib] I will therefore flog[ic] him and release him.” 23 But they were insistent,[id] demanding with loud shouts that he be crucified. And their shouts prevailed. 24 So[ie] Pilate[if] decided[ig] that their demand should be granted. 25 He released the man they asked for, who had been thrown in prison for insurrection and murder. But he handed Jesus over[ih] to their will.[ii]

The Crucifixion

26 As[ij] they led him away, they seized Simon of Cyrene,[ik] who was coming in from the country.[il] They placed the cross on his back and made him carry it behind Jesus.[im] 27 A great number of the people followed him, among them women[in] who were mourning[io] and wailing for him. 28 But Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem,[ip] do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves[iq] and for your children. 29 For this is certain:[ir] The days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore children, and the breasts that never nursed!’[is] 30 Then they will begin to say to the mountains,[it]Fall on us!and to the hills,Cover us![iu] 31 For if such things are done[iv] when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?”[iw]

32 Two other criminals[ix] were also led away to be executed with him. 33 So[iy] when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,”[iz] they crucified[ja] him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. 34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”][jb] Then[jc] they threw dice[jd] to divide his clothes.[je] 35 The people also stood there watching, but the leaders ridiculed[jf] him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save[jg] himself if[jh] he is the Christ[ji] of God, his chosen one!” 36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine,[jj] 37 and saying, “If[jk] you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!” 38 There was also an inscription[jl] over him, “This is the king of the Jews.”

39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t[jm] you the Christ?[jn] Save yourself and us!” 40 But the other rebuked him, saying,[jo] “Don’t[jp] you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?[jq] 41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing[jr] wrong.” 42 Then[js] he said, “Jesus, remember me[jt] when you come in[ju] your kingdom.” 43 And Jesus[jv] said to him, “I tell you the truth,[jw] today[jx] you will be with me in paradise.”[jy]

44 It was now[jz] about noon,[ka] and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon,[kb] 45 because the sun’s light failed.[kc] The temple curtain[kd] was torn in two. 46 Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit![ke] And after he said this he breathed his last.

47 Now when the centurion[kf] saw what had happened, he praised God and said, “Certainly this man was innocent!”[kg] 48 And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts.[kh] 49 And all those who knew Jesus[ki] stood at a distance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee saw[kj] these things.

Jesus’ Burial

50 Now[kk] there was a man named Joseph who was a member of the council,[kl] a good and righteous man. 51 (He[km] had not consented[kn] to their plan and action.) He[ko] was from the Judean town[kp] of Arimathea, and was looking forward to[kq] the kingdom of God.[kr] 52 He went to Pilate and asked for the body[ks] of Jesus. 53 Then[kt] he took it down, wrapped it in a linen cloth,[ku] and placed it[kv] in a tomb cut out of the rock,[kw] where no one had yet been buried.[kx] 54 It was the day of preparation[ky] and the Sabbath was beginning.[kz] 55 The[la] women who had accompanied Jesus[lb] from Galilee followed, and they saw the tomb and how his body was laid in it. 56 Then[lc] they returned and prepared aromatic spices[ld] and perfumes.[le]

On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.[lf]

The Resurrection

24 Now on the first day[lg] of the week, at early dawn, the women[lh] went to the tomb, taking the aromatic spices[li] they had prepared. They[lj] found that the stone had been rolled away from the tomb,[lk] but when they went in, they did not find the body of the Lord Jesus.[ll] While[lm] they were perplexed[ln] about this, suddenly[lo] two men stood beside them in dazzling[lp] attire. The[lq] women[lr] were terribly frightened[ls] and bowed[lt] their faces to the ground, but the men said to them, “Why do you look for the living[lu] among the dead? He is not here, but has been raised![lv] Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee,[lw] that[lx] the Son of Man must be delivered[ly] into the hands of sinful men,[lz] and be crucified,[ma] and on the third day rise again.”[mb] Then[mc] the women remembered his words,[md] and when they returned from the tomb they told all these things to the eleven[me] and to all the rest. 10 Now it was Mary Magdalene,[mf] Joanna,[mg] Mary the mother of James, and the other women with them who told these things to the apostles. 11 But these words seemed like pure nonsense[mh] to them, and they did not believe them. 12 But Peter got up and ran to the tomb.[mi] He bent down[mj] and saw only the strips of linen cloth;[mk] then he went home,[ml] wondering[mm] what had happened.[mn]

Jesus Walks the Road to Emmaus

13 Now[mo] that very day two of them[mp] were on their way to a village called Emmaus, about seven miles[mq] from Jerusalem. 14 They[mr] were talking to each other about all the things that had happened. 15 While[ms] they were talking and debating[mt] these things,[mu] Jesus himself approached and began to accompany them 16 (but their eyes were kept[mv] from recognizing[mw] him).[mx] 17 Then[my] he said to them, “What are these matters[mz] you are discussing so intently[na] as you walk along?” And they stood still, looking sad. 18 Then one of them, named Cleopas, answered him,[nb] “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know[nc] the things that have happened there[nd] in these days?” 19 He[ne] said to them, “What things?” “The things concerning Jesus the Nazarene,” they replied, “a man[nf] who, with his powerful deeds and words, proved to be a prophet[ng] before God and all the people; 20 and how our chief priests and leaders handed him over[nh] to be condemned to death, and crucified[ni] him. 21 But we had hoped[nj] that he was the one who was going to redeem[nk] Israel. Not only this, but it is now the third day since these things happened. 22 Furthermore, some women of our group amazed us.[nl] They[nm] were at the tomb early this morning, 23 and when they did not find his body, they came back and said they had seen a vision of angels,[nn] who said he was alive. 24 Then[no] some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said, but they did not see him.”[np] 25 So[nq] he said to them, “You[nr] foolish people[ns]—how slow of heart[nt] to believe[nu] all that the prophets have spoken! 26 Wasn’t[nv] it necessary[nw] for the Christ[nx] to suffer these things and enter into his glory?” 27 Then[ny] beginning with Moses and all the prophets,[nz] he interpreted to them the things written about[oa] himself in all the scriptures.

28 So they approached the village where they were going. He acted as though he wanted to go farther,[ob] 29 but they urged him,[oc] “Stay with us, because it is getting toward evening and the day is almost done.” So[od] he went in to stay with them.

30 When[oe] he had taken his place at the table[of] with them, he took the bread, blessed and broke it,[og] and gave it to them. 31 At this point[oh] their eyes were opened and they recognized[oi] him.[oj] Then[ok] he vanished out of their sight. 32 They[ol] said to each other, “Didn’t[om] our hearts[on] burn within us[oo] while he was speaking with us on the road, while he was explaining[op] the scriptures to us?” 33 So[oq] they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem. They[or] found the eleven and those with them gathered together 34 and[os] saying, “The Lord has really risen, and has appeared to Simon!”[ot] 35 Then they told what had happened on the road,[ou] and how they recognized him[ov] when he broke the bread.

Jesus Makes a Final Appearance

36 While they were saying these things, Jesus[ow] himself stood among them and said to them, “Peace be with you.”[ox] 37 But they were startled and terrified, thinking[oy] they saw a ghost.[oz] 38 Then[pa] he said to them, “Why are you frightened,[pb] and why do doubts[pc] arise in your hearts? 39 Look at my hands and my feet; it’s me![pd] Touch me and see; a ghost[pe] does not have flesh and bones like you see I have.” 40 When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet.[pf] 41 And while they still could not believe it[pg] (because of their joy) and were amazed,[ph] he said to them, “Do you have anything here to eat?”[pi] 42 So[pj] they gave him a piece of broiled fish, 43 and he took it and ate it in front of them.

Jesus’ Final Commission

44 Then[pk] he said to them, “These are my words that I spoke to you while I was still with you, that everything written about me[pl] in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms[pm] must be fulfilled.” 45 Then he opened their minds so they could understand the scriptures,[pn] 46 and said to them, “Thus it stands written that the Christ[po] would suffer[pp] and would rise from the dead on the third day, 47 and repentance[pq] for the forgiveness of sins would be proclaimed[pr] in his name to all nations,[ps] beginning from Jerusalem.[pt] 48 You are witnesses[pu] of these things. 49 And look, I am sending you[pv] what my Father promised.[pw] But stay in the city[px] until you have been clothed with power[py] from on high.”

Jesus’ Departure

50 Then[pz] Jesus[qa] led them out as far as Bethany,[qb] and lifting up his hands, he blessed them. 51 Now[qc] during the blessing[qd] he departed[qe] and was taken up into heaven.[qf] 52 So[qg] they worshiped[qh] him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy,[qi] 53 and were continually in the temple courts[qj] blessing[qk] God.[ql]

Footnotes

  1. Luke 22:1 sn The Feast of Unleavened Bread was a week long celebration that followed the day of Passover, so one name was used for both feasts (Exod 12:1-20; 23:15; 34:18; Deut 16:1-8).
  2. Luke 22:2 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  3. Luke 22:2 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  4. Luke 22:2 tn Grk “were seeking how.”
  5. Luke 22:2 tn The Greek verb here means “to get rid of by execution” (BDAG 64 s.v. ἀναιρέω 2; cf. also L&N 20.71, which states, “to get rid of someone by execution, often with legal or quasi-legal procedures”).
  6. Luke 22:2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Luke 22:2 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him. The verb were trying is imperfect. It suggests, in this context, that they were always considering the opportunities.
  8. Luke 22:3 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  9. Luke 22:3 sn The cross is portrayed as part of the cosmic battle between Satan and God; see Luke 4:1-13; 11:14-23.
  10. Luke 22:3 tn Grk “Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve.”
  11. Luke 22:4 tn The full title στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ (stratēgos tou hierou; “officer of the temple” or “captain of the temple guard”) is sometimes shortened to στρατηγός as here (L&N 37.91).
  12. Luke 22:4 tn Luke uses this frequent indirect question to make his point (BDF §267.2).
  13. Luke 22:4 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  14. Luke 22:4 tn Grk “how he might hand him over to them,” in the sense of “betray him.”
  15. Luke 22:5 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  16. Luke 22:5 sn The leaders were delighted when Judas contacted them about betraying Jesus, because it gave them the opportunity they had been looking for, and they could later claim that Jesus had been betrayed by one of his own disciples.
  17. Luke 22:5 sn Matt 26:15 states the amount of money they gave Judas was thirty pieces of silver (see also Matt 27:3-4; Zech 11:12-13).
  18. Luke 22:6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the arrangement worked out in the preceding verse.
  19. Luke 22:6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  20. Luke 22:6 tn Grk “betray him to them”; the referent of the first pronoun (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  21. Luke 22:6 tn Grk “apart from the crowd.”sn The leaders wanted to do this quietly, when no crowd was present, so no public uproar would result (cf. v. 21:38; 22:2).
  22. Luke 22:7 tn The words “for the feast” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.
  23. Luke 22:7 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Luke had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.
  24. Luke 22:8 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  25. Luke 22:8 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 22:14). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.
  26. Luke 22:8 tn Grk “for us, so that we may eat.”
  27. Luke 22:9 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  28. Luke 22:9 tn In the Greek text this a deliberative subjunctive.
  29. Luke 22:10 tn Grk “behold.”
  30. Luke 22:10 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for Peter and John to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.
  31. Luke 22:10 sn Jesus is portrayed throughout Luke 22-23 as very aware of what will happen, almost directing events. Here this is indicated by his prediction that a man carrying a jar of water will meet you.
  32. Luke 22:11 tn Grk “to the master of the household,” referring to one who owns and manages the household, including family, servants, and slaves (L&N 57.14).
  33. Luke 22:13 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions.
  34. Luke 22:13 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  35. Luke 22:13 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.
  36. Luke 22:14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  37. Luke 22:14 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  38. Luke 22:14 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  39. Luke 22:14 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”
  40. Luke 22:15 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).
  41. Luke 22:16 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.
  42. Luke 22:16 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.
  43. Luke 22:16 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.
  44. Luke 22:17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  45. Luke 22:17 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).
  46. Luke 22:18 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).
  47. Luke 22:18 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.
  48. Luke 22:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  49. Luke 22:19 tc Some significant Western witnesses (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. It is found in a variety of witnesses that represent a broad geographical base (P75 א A B C L Tvid W Δ Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M al co), rendering the rise of the shorter reading much easier of explanation than the reverse. Further, the inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.
  50. Luke 22:19 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.
  51. Luke 22:20 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.
  52. Luke 22:20 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnēsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipneō) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”
  53. Luke 22:20 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.
  54. Luke 22:21 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.
  55. Luke 22:21 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him—somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.
  56. Luke 22:22 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).
  57. Luke 22:23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.
  58. Luke 22:24 tn Or “happened.”
  59. Luke 22:24 tn Though the term μείζων (meizōn) here is comparative in form, it is superlative in sense (BDF §244).
  60. Luke 22:25 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the dispute among the apostles.
  61. Luke 22:25 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  62. Luke 22:25 sn The title ‘benefactor,’ highlighting grace and meaning something like “helper of the people,” was even given to tyrants (2 Macc 4:2; 3 Macc 3:19; Josephus, J. W. 3.9.8 [3.459]).
  63. Luke 22:26 tn Grk “But you are not thus.”
  64. Luke 22:26 tn Or “the ruler.”
  65. Luke 22:26 sn And the leader like the one who serves. Leadership was not to be a matter of privilege and special status, but of service. All social status is leveled out by these remarks. Jesus himself is the prime example of the servant-leader.
  66. Luke 22:27 tn Grk “who reclines at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  67. Luke 22:27 tn The interrogative particle used here in the Greek text (οὐχί, ouchi) expects a positive reply.
  68. Luke 22:27 sn Jesus’ example of humble service, as one who serves, shows that the standard for a disciple is different from that of the world. For an example see John 13:1-17.
  69. Luke 22:28 tn Or “continued” (L&N 34.3). Jesus acknowledges the disciples’ faithfulness.
  70. Luke 22:29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ perseverance with Jesus.
  71. Luke 22:29 sn With the statement “I grant to you a kingdom” Jesus gave the disciples authority over the kingdom, as God had given him such authority. The present tense looks at authority given presently, though the major manifestation of its presence is yet to come as the next verse shows.
  72. Luke 22:29 tn Or “I give you the right to rule” (cf. CEV). For this translation of διατίθεμαι βασιλείαν (diatithemai basileian) see L&N 37.105.
  73. Luke 22:30 tn This verb is future indicative, and thus not subordinate to “grant” (διατίθεμαι, diatithemai) as part of the result clause beginning with ἵνα ἔσθητε (hina esthēte) at the beginning of v. 30. It is better understood as a predictive future.
  74. Luke 22:30 sn The statement you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.
  75. Luke 22:31 tc The majority of mss (א A D W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M as well as several versional witnesses) begin this verse with an introductory comment, “and the Lord said,” indicating a change in the subject of discussion. But this is apparently a reading motivated by the need for clarity. Some of the best witnesses, along with a few others (P75 B L T 1241 2542c sys co), do not contain these words. The abrupt shift is the more difficult reading and thus more likely to be autographic.
  76. Luke 22:31 tn Grk “behold” (for “pay attention” see L&N 91.13).
  77. Luke 22:31 sn This pronoun is plural in the Greek text, so it refers to all the disciples of which Peter is the representative.
  78. Luke 22:31 sn Satan has demanded permission to put them to the test. The idiom “sift (someone) like wheat” is similar to the English idiom “to pick (someone) apart.” The pronoun you is implied.
  79. Luke 22:32 sn Here and in the remainder of the verse the second person pronouns are singular, so only Peter is in view. The name “Simon” has been supplied as a form of direct address to make this clear in English.
  80. Luke 22:32 sn That your faith may not fail. Note that Peter’s denials are pictured here as lapses, not as a total absence of faith.
  81. Luke 22:32 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  82. Luke 22:32 tn Or “turned around.”
  83. Luke 22:32 sn Strengthen your brothers refers to Peter helping to strengthen their faith. Jesus quite graciously restores Peter “in advance,” even with the knowledge of his approaching denials.
  84. Luke 22:33 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  85. Luke 22:33 sn The confidence Peter has in private (Lord, I am ready…) will wilt under the pressure of the public eye.
  86. Luke 22:34 tn Grk “he said”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  87. Luke 22:34 sn That is, Peter’s denials will happen before the sun rises.
  88. Luke 22:34 sn Once again, Jesus is quite aware that Peter will deny him. Peter, however, is too nonchalant about the possibility of stumbling.
  89. Luke 22:35 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  90. Luke 22:35 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  91. Luke 22:35 tn Traditionally, “purse” (likewise in v. 36).
  92. Luke 22:35 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).
  93. Luke 22:35 sn This refers back to 9:3 and 10:3-4. The Greek construction anticipates a negative reply which is indicated in the translation by the ‘tag’ at the end, “did you?” Nothing was lacking.
  94. Luke 22:35 tn Grk “said.”
  95. Luke 22:36 tn The syntax of this verse is disputed, resulting in various translations. The major options are either (1) that reflected in the translation or (2) that those who have a money bag and traveler’s bag should get a sword, just as those who do not have these items should sell their cloak to buy a sword. The point of all the options is that things have changed and one now needs full provisions. Opposition will come. But “sword” is a figure for preparing to fight. See Luke 22:50-51.
  96. Luke 22:36 tn Or possibly “beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145).
  97. Luke 22:37 sn This scripture must be fulfilled in me. The statement again reflects the divine necessity of God’s plan. See 4:43-44.
  98. Luke 22:37 tn Or “with the lawless.” sn This is a quotation from Isa 53:12. It highlights a theme of Luke 22-23. Though completely innocent, Jesus dies as if he were a criminal.
  99. Luke 22:37 tn Grk “is having its fulfillment.”
  100. Luke 22:38 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments about obtaining swords.
  101. Luke 22:38 sn Here are two swords. The disciples mistakenly took Jesus to mean that they should prepare for armed resistance, something he will have to correct in 22:50-51.
  102. Luke 22:38 sn It is enough. The disciples’ misunderstanding caused Jesus to terminate the discussion.
  103. Luke 22:39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  104. Luke 22:39 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  105. Luke 22:39 tn Grk “went.”
  106. Luke 22:39 sn See the note on the Mount of Olives in Luke 19:29.
  107. Luke 22:40 sn Luke does not mention Gethsemane by name, but calls it simply the place.
  108. Luke 22:40 sn Jesus’ instructions to pray not to fall into temptation is an allusion to Luke 22:28-38, especially 22:31. The temptation is Satan’s challenge to them to defect, like what happened to Judas and what will happen to Peter.
  109. Luke 22:42 tn Luke’s term παρένεγκε is not as exact as the one in Matt 26:39. Luke’s means “take away” (BDAG 772 s.v. παρένεγκε 2.c) while Matthew’s means “take away without touching,” suggesting an alteration (if possible) in God’s plan. For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1759-60.
  110. Luke 22:42 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Pss 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.
  111. Luke 22:42 sn With the statement “Not my will but yours be done” Jesus submitted fully to God’s will.
  112. Luke 22:44 tn Grk “And being in anguish.”
  113. Luke 22:44 tc Several significant Greek mss (P75 א1 A B N T W 579 1071*) along with diverse and widespread versional witnesses lack 22:43-44. In addition, the verses are placed after Matt 26:39 by ƒ13. Floating texts typically suggest both spuriousness and early scribal impulses to regard the verses as historically authentic. These verses are included in א*,2 D L Θ Ψ 0171 ƒ1 M lat Ju Ir Hipp Eus. However, a number of mss mark the text with an asterisk or obelisk, indicating the scribe’s assessment of the verses as inauthentic. At the same time, these verses generally fit Luke’s style. Arguments can be given on both sides about whether scribes would tend to include or omit such comments about Jesus’ humanity and an angel’s help. But even if the verses are not literarily authentic, they are probably historically authentic. This is due to the fact that this text was well known in several different locales from a very early period. Since there are no synoptic parallels to this account and since there is no obvious reason for adding these words here, it is very likely that such verses recount a part of the actual suffering of our Lord. Nevertheless, because of the serious doubts as to these verses’ authenticity, they have been put in brackets. For an important discussion of this problem, see B. D. Ehrman and M. A. Plunkett, “The Angel and the Agony: The Textual Problem of Luke 22:43-44, ” CBQ 45 (1983): 401-16.sn Angelic aid is noted elsewhere in the gospels: Matt 4:11 = Mark 1:13.
  114. Luke 22:45 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  115. Luke 22:45 tn Grk “from grief.” The word “exhausted” is not in the Greek text, but is implied; the disciples have fallen asleep from mental and emotional exhaustion resulting from their distress (see L&N 25.273; cf. TEV, NIV, NLT).
  116. Luke 22:46 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus finding them asleep.
  117. Luke 22:46 sn Jesus calls the disciples again to prayerful watchfulness with the words “Get up and pray” (see 22:40). The time is full of danger (22:53).
  118. Luke 22:47 tn Grk “While he was still speaking, behold, a crowd, and the one called Judas…was leading them.” The abrupt appearance of the crowd on the scene is indicated in the translation by “suddenly” and “appeared.”
  119. Luke 22:47 tn Grk “drew near.”
  120. Luke 22:47 tc Many mss (D Θ ƒ13 700 pm as well as several versional mss) add here, “for this is the sign he gave to them: Whoever I kiss is [the one].” This addition is almost certainly not original, since most of the significant mss lack it. It may be a copyist’s attempt to clarify the text, or the accidental inclusion of a marginal gloss.
  121. Luke 22:48 sn Jesus’ comment about betraying the Son of Man with a kiss shows the hypocrisy and blindness of an attempt to cover up sin. On “misused kisses” in the Bible, see Gen 27:26-27; 2 Sam 15:5; Prov 7:13; 27:6; 2 Sam 20:9.
  122. Luke 22:49 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  123. Luke 22:49 tn The direct question using “if” in Greek is not unusual (BDF §440.3).
  124. Luke 22:49 snShould we use our swords?” The disciples’ effort to defend Jesus recalls Luke 22:35-38. One individual did not wait for the answer.
  125. Luke 22:50 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  126. Luke 22:50 sn One of them. The unnamed disciple is Peter according to John 18:10 (cf. also Matt 26:51; Mark 14:47).
  127. Luke 22:50 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.
  128. Luke 22:51 tn Grk “But answering, Jesus said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.
  129. Luke 22:51 tn Grk “his”; the referent (the slave of the high priest mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  130. Luke 22:51 sn When Jesus healed the man’s ear he showed grace even to those who hated him, following his own teaching (Luke 6:27-36).
  131. Luke 22:52 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  132. Luke 22:52 tn This title, literally “official of the temple” (στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ, stratēgos tou hierou), referred to the commander of the Jewish soldiers who guarded and maintained order in the Jerusalem temple. Here, since the term is plural, it has been translated “officers of the temple guard” rather than “commanders of the temple guard,” since the idea of a number of commanders might be confusing to the modern English reader.
  133. Luke 22:52 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist, guerrilla” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (10:30).
  134. Luke 22:53 tn Grk “in the temple.”
  135. Luke 22:53 tn Grk “lay hands on me.”
  136. Luke 22:53 tn Or “your time.”
  137. Luke 22:53 tn Or “authority,” “domain.”
  138. Luke 22:54 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  139. Luke 22:54 tn Or “seized” (L&N 37.109).
  140. Luke 22:54 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  141. Luke 22:54 sn Putting all the gospel accounts together, there is a brief encounter with Annas (brought him into the high priest’s house, here and John 18:13, where Annas is named); the meeting led by Caiaphas (Matt 26:57-68 = Mark 14:53-65); and then a Sanhedrin meeting (Matt 27:1; Mark 15:1; Luke 22:66-71). These latter two meetings might be connected and apparently went into the morning.
  142. Luke 22:56 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskē), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.
  143. Luke 22:57 tn Grk “he denied it, saying.” The referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.
  144. Luke 22:57 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.
  145. Luke 22:57 sn The expression “I do not know him” had an idiomatic use in Jewish ban formulas in the synagogue and could mean, “I have nothing to do with him.”
  146. Luke 22:58 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  147. Luke 22:58 sn In Mark 14:69, the same slave girl made the charge. So apparently Peter was being identified by a variety of people.
  148. Luke 22:58 tn Here and in v. 60 “Man” is used as a neutral form of address to a stranger.
  149. Luke 22:59 tn Grk “insisted, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated here.
  150. Luke 22:59 sn According to Mark 14:70 it was Peter’s accent that gave him away as a Galilean.
  151. Luke 22:60 tn Grk “And immediately.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  152. Luke 22:60 tn A real rooster crowing is probably in view here (rather than the Roman trumpet call known as gallicinium), in part due to the fact that Mark 14:72 mentions the rooster crowing twice. See the discussion at Matt 26:74.
  153. Luke 22:61 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  154. Luke 22:61 tn “The word of the Lord” is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rhēma tou kuriou; here and in Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logos tou kuriou; Acts 8:25; 13:44, 48, 49; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8; 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said. Because of its technical nature the expression has been retained in the translation in preference to a smoother rendering like “remembered what the Lord had said” (cf. TEV, NLT).
  155. Luke 22:62 sn When Peter went out and wept bitterly it shows he really did not want to fail here and was deeply grieved that he had.
  156. Luke 22:63 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  157. Luke 22:63 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  158. Luke 22:64 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  159. Luke 22:64 tn The verb ἐπηρώτων (epērōtōn) has been translated as an iterative imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated here.
  160. Luke 22:64 tn Grk “Who is the one who hit you?”sn Who hit you? This is a variation of one of three ancient games that involved blindfolds.
  161. Luke 22:65 tn Or “insulting.” Luke uses a strong word here; it means “to revile, to defame, to blaspheme” (L&N 33.400).
  162. Luke 22:66 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  163. Luke 22:66 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  164. Luke 22:66 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  165. Luke 22:66 sn Their council is probably a reference to the Jewish Sanhedrin, the council of seventy leaders.
  166. Luke 22:67 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.
  167. Luke 22:67 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  168. Luke 22:67 tn This is a third class condition in the Greek text. Jesus had this experience already in 20:1-8.
  169. Luke 22:67 tn The negation in the Greek text is the strongest possible (οὐ μή, ou mē).
  170. Luke 22:68 tn This is also a third class condition in the Greek text.
  171. Luke 22:68 tn The negation in the Greek text is the strongest possible (οὐ μή, ou mē).
  172. Luke 22:69 sn From now on. Jesus’ authority was taken up from this moment on. Ironically he is now the ultimate judge, who is himself being judged.
  173. Luke 22:69 sn Seated at the right hand is an allusion to Ps 110:1 (“Sit at my right hand…”) and is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.
  174. Luke 22:69 sn The expression the right hand of the power of God is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
  175. Luke 22:70 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ pronouncement.
  176. Luke 22:70 sn The members of the council understood the force of the claim and asked Jesus about another title, Son of God.
  177. Luke 22:70 tn Grk “He said to them.”
  178. Luke 22:70 sn Jesus’ reply, “You say that I am,” was not a denial, but a way of giving a qualified positive response: “You have said it, but I do not quite mean what you think.”
  179. Luke 22:71 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  180. Luke 22:71 sn We have heard it ourselves. The Sanhedrin regarded the answer as convicting Jesus. They saw it as blasphemous to claim such intimacy and shared authority with God, a claim so serious and convicting that no further testimony was needed.
  181. Luke 22:71 tn Grk “from his own mouth” (an idiom).
  182. Luke 23:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  183. Luke 23:1 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  184. Luke 23:1 sn Pilate was the Roman prefect (procurator) in charge of collecting taxes and keeping the peace. His immediate superior was the Roman governor (proconsul) of Syria, although the exact nature of this administrative relationship is unknown. Pilate’s relations with the Jews had been rocky (v. 12). Here he is especially sensitive to them.
  185. Luke 23:2 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  186. Luke 23:2 sn They began to accuse him. There were three charges: (1) disturbing Jewish peace; (2) fomenting rebellion through advocating not paying taxes (a lie—20:20-26); and (3) claiming to be a political threat to Rome, by claiming to be a king, an allusion to Jesus’ messianic claims. The second and third charges were a direct challenge to Roman authority. Pilate would be forced to do something about them.
  187. Luke 23:2 tn On the use of the term διαστρέφω (diastrephō) here, see L&N 31.71 and 88.264.sn Subverting our nation was a summary charge, as Jesus “subverted” the nation by making false claims of a political nature, as the next two detailed charges show.
  188. Luke 23:2 tn Grk “and forbidding.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated to suggest to the English reader that this and the following charge are specifics, while the previous charge was a summary one. See the note on the word “misleading” earlier in this verse.
  189. Luke 23:2 tn This was a “poll tax.” L&N 57.182 states this was “a payment made by the people of one nation to another, with the implication that this is a symbol of submission and dependence—‘tribute tax.’”
  190. Luke 23:2 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
  191. Luke 23:2 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  192. Luke 23:3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the charges brought in the previous verse.
  193. Luke 23:3 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  194. Luke 23:3 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested only in the third charge, because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.
  195. Luke 23:3 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 22:70.
  196. Luke 23:4 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  197. Luke 23:4 tn Grk “find no cause.” sn Pilate’s statement “I find no reason for an accusation” is the first of several remarks in Luke 23 that Jesus is innocent or of efforts to release him (vv. 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22).
  198. Luke 23:5 tn Or “were adamant.” For “persisted in saying,” see L&N 68.71.
  199. Luke 23:5 sn He incites the people. The Jewish leadership claimed that Jesus was a political threat and had to be stopped. By reiterating this charge of stirring up rebellion, they pressured Pilate to act, or be accused of overlooking political threats to Rome.
  200. Luke 23:5 tn Grk “beginning from Galilee until here.”
  201. Luke 23:7 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  202. Luke 23:7 sn Learning that Jesus was from Galilee and therefore part of Herod’s jurisdiction, Pilate decided to rid himself of the problem by sending him to Herod.
  203. Luke 23:7 sn Herod was Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. See the note on Herod in 3:1.
  204. Luke 23:7 sn Herod would probably have come to Jerusalem for the feast, although his father was only half Jewish (Josephus, Ant. 14.15.2 [14.403]). Josephus does mention Herod’s presence in Jerusalem during a feast (Ant. 18.5.3 [18.122]).
  205. Luke 23:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  206. Luke 23:8 tn Grk “to see some sign performed by him.” Here the passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.
  207. Luke 23:8 sn Herod, hoping to see him perform some miraculous sign, seems to have treated Jesus as a curiosity (cf. 9:7-9).
  208. Luke 23:9 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the previous statements in the narrative about Herod’s desire to see Jesus.
  209. Luke 23:9 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  210. Luke 23:9 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  211. Luke 23:10 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  212. Luke 23:10 sn Luke portrays the Jewish leadership as driving events toward the cross by vehemently accusing Jesus.
  213. Luke 23:11 tn This is a continuation of the previous Greek sentence, but because of its length and complexity, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying “then” to indicate the sequence of events.
  214. Luke 23:11 sn This mockery involved putting elegant royal clothes on Jesus, either white or purple (the colors of royalty). This was no doubt a mockery of Jesus’ claim to be a king.
  215. Luke 23:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Herod) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  216. Luke 23:12 sn Herod and Pilate became friends with each other. It may be that Pilate’s change of heart was related to the death of his superior, Sejanus, who had a reputation for being anti-Jewish. To please his superior, Pilate may have ruled the Jews with insensitivity. Concerning Sejanus, see Philo, Embassy 24 (160-61) and Flaccus 1 (1).
  217. Luke 23:12 tn Grk “at enmity with each other.”
  218. Luke 23:13 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  219. Luke 23:13 tn Grk “and the,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  220. Luke 23:14 tn This term also appears in v. 2.
  221. Luke 23:14 tn Grk “behold, I” A transitional use of ἰδού (idou) has not been translated here.
  222. Luke 23:14 tn Grk “nothing did I find in this man by way of cause.” The reference to “nothing” is emphatic.
  223. Luke 23:15 sn With the statement “he has done nothing,” Pilate makes another claim that Jesus is innocent of any crime worthy of death.
  224. Luke 23:15 tn Grk “nothing deserving death has been done by him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style.
  225. Luke 23:16 tn Or “scourged” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). This refers to a whipping Pilate ordered in an attempt to convince Jesus not to disturb the peace. It has been translated “flogged” to distinguish it from the more severe verberatio.
  226. Luke 23:16 tc Many of the best mss, as well as some others (P75 A B K L T 070 1241 sa), lack 23:17 “(Now he was obligated to release one individual for them at the feast.)” This verse appears to be a parenthetical note explaining the custom of releasing someone on amnesty at the feast. It appears in two different locations with variations in wording, which makes it look like a scribal addition. It is included in א (D following v. 19) W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat. The verse appears to be an explanatory gloss taken from Matt 27:15 and Mark 15:6, not original in Luke. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
  227. Luke 23:18 tn Grk “together, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.
  228. Luke 23:18 tn Grk “this one.” The reference to Jesus as “this man” is pejorative in this context.
  229. Luke 23:19 tn Grk “who” (a continuation of the previous sentence).
  230. Luke 23:19 sn Ironically, what Jesus was alleged to have done, started an insurrection, this man really did.
  231. Luke 23:19 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  232. Luke 23:20 sn The account pictures a battle of wills—the people versus Pilate. Pilate is consistently portrayed in Luke’s account as wanting to release Jesus because he believed him to be innocent.
  233. Luke 23:21 tn Grk “shouting, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated here.
  234. Luke 23:21 tn This double present imperative is emphatic.sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.
  235. Luke 23:22 tn Grk “no cause of death I found in him.”
  236. Luke 23:22 sn The refrain of innocence comes once again. Pilate tried to bring some sense of justice, believing Jesus had committed no crime deserving death.
  237. Luke 23:22 tn Or “scourge” (BDAG 749 s.v. παιδεύω 2.b.γ). See the note on “flogged” in v. 16.
  238. Luke 23:23 tn Though a different Greek term is used here (BDAG 373 s.v. ἐπίκειμαι), this remark is like 23:5.
  239. Luke 23:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the crowd’s cries prevailing.
  240. Luke 23:24 sn Finally Pilate gave in. He decided crucifying one Galilean teacher was better than facing a riot. Justice lost out in the process, because he did not follow his own verdict.
  241. Luke 23:24 tn Although some translations render ἐπέκρινεν (epekrinen) here as “passed sentence” or “gave his verdict,” the point in context is not that Pilate sentenced Jesus to death here, but that finally, although convinced of Jesus’ innocence, he gave in to the crowd’s incessant demand to crucify an innocent man.
  242. Luke 23:25 tn Or “delivered up.”
  243. Luke 23:25 sn He handed Jesus over to their will. Here is where Luke places the major blame for Jesus’ death. It lies with the Jewish nation, especially the leadership, though in Acts 4:24-27 he will bring in the opposition of Herod, Pilate, and all people.
  244. Luke 23:26 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  245. Luke 23:26 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help. Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.
  246. Luke 23:26 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).
  247. Luke 23:26 tn Grk “they placed the cross on him to carry behind Jesus.”
  248. Luke 23:27 sn The background of these women is disputed. Are they “official” mourners of Jesus’ death, appointed by custom to mourn death? If so, the mourning here would be more pro forma. However, the text seems to treat the mourning as sincere, so their tears and lamenting would have been genuine.
  249. Luke 23:27 tn Or “who were beating their breasts,” implying a ritualized form of mourning employed in Jewish funerals. See the note on the term “women” earlier in this verse.
  250. Luke 23:28 sn The title Daughters of Jerusalem portrays these women mourning as representatives of the nation.
  251. Luke 23:28 sn Do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves. Judgment now comes on the nation (see Luke 19:41-44) for this judgment of Jesus. Ironically, they mourn the wrong person—they should be mourning for themselves.
  252. Luke 23:29 tn Grk “For behold.”
  253. Luke 23:29 tn Grk “Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the breasts that have not nursed!”sn Normally barrenness is a sign of judgment, because birth would be seen as a sign of blessing. The reversal of imagery indicates that something was badly wrong.
  254. Luke 23:30 sn The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8).
  255. Luke 23:30 sn An allusion to Hos 10:8 (cf. Rev 6:16).
  256. Luke 23:31 tn Grk “if they do such things.” The plural subject here is indefinite, so the active voice has been translated as a passive (see ExSyn 402).
  257. Luke 23:31 sn The figure of the green wood and the dry has been variously understood. Most likely the picture compares the judgment on Jesus as the green (living) wood to the worse judgment that will surely come for the dry (dead) wood of the nation.
  258. Luke 23:32 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in P75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 ƒ1,13 33 M) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely autographic.sn Jesus is numbered among the criminals (see Isa 53:12 and Luke 22:37).
  259. Luke 23:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.
  260. Luke 23:33 sn The place that is calledThe Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
  261. Luke 23:33 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.
  262. Luke 23:34 tc Many significant mss (P75 א1 B D* W Θ 070 579 1241 sys sa) lack v. 34a. It is included in א*,2 (A) C D2 L Ψ 0250 ƒ1,(13) 33 M lat syc,p,h. It also fits a major Lukan theme of forgiving the enemies (6:27-36), and it has a parallel in Stephen’s response in Acts 7:60. The lack of parallels in the other Gospels argues also for inclusion here. On the other hand, the fact of the parallel in Acts 7:60 may well have prompted early scribes to insert the saying in Luke’s Gospel alone. Further, there is the great difficulty of explaining why early and diverse witnesses lack the saying. A decision is difficult, but even those who regard the verse as inauthentic literarily often consider it to be authentic historically. For this reason it has been placed in single brackets in the translation.
  263. Luke 23:34 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  264. Luke 23:34 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.
  265. Luke 23:34 sn An allusion to Ps 22:18, which identifies Jesus as the suffering innocent one.
  266. Luke 23:35 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).
  267. Luke 23:35 sn The irony in the statement Let him save himself is that salvation did come, but later, not while on the cross.
  268. Luke 23:35 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.
  269. Luke 23:35 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  270. Luke 23:36 sn Sour wine was cheap wine, called in Latin posca, and referred to a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion, who had some on hand, now used it to taunt Jesus further.
  271. Luke 23:37 tn This is also a first class condition in the Greek text.
  272. Luke 23:38 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
  273. Luke 23:39 tc Most mss (A C3 W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M lat) read εἰ σὺ εἶ (ei su ei, “If you are”) here, while οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ (ouchi su ei, “Are you not”) is found in overall better and earlier witnesses (P75 א B C* L 070 1241 it). The “if” clause reading creates a parallel with the earlier taunts (vv. 35, 37), and thus is most likely a motivated reading. sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.
  274. Luke 23:39 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  275. Luke 23:40 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
  276. Luke 23:40 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke—“You should fear God and not speak!”
  277. Luke 23:40 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
  278. Luke 23:41 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.
  279. Luke 23:42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  280. Luke 23:42 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.
  281. Luke 23:42 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some mss make the reference to Jesus’ coming clearer. “Into your kingdom”—with εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν (eis tēn basileian), read by P75 B L—is a reference to his entering into God’s presence at the right hand. “In your kingdom”—with ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ (en tē basileia), read by א A C*,2 W Θ Ψ 070 ƒ1,13 33 M lat sy—looks at his return. It could be argued that the reading with εἰς is more in keeping with Luke’s theology elsewhere, but the contrast with Jesus’ reply, “Today,” slightly favors the reading “in your kingdom.” Codex Bezae (D), in place of this short interchange between the criminal and Jesus, reads “Then he turned to the Lord and said to him, ‘Remember me in the day of your coming.’ Then the Lord said in reply to [him], ‘Take courage; today you will be with me in paradise.’” This reading emphasizes the future aspect of the coming of Christ; it has virtually no support in any other mss.
  282. Luke 23:43 tn Grk “he.”
  283. Luke 23:43 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  284. Luke 23:43 sn Jesus gives more than the criminal asked for, because the blessing will come today, not in the future. He will be among the righteous. See the note on today in 2:11.
  285. Luke 23:43 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.
  286. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “And it was.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  287. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”
  288. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”
  289. Luke 23:45 tc The wording “the sun’s light failed” is a translation of τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος/ ἐκλείποντος (tou hēliou eklipontos/ ekleipontos), a reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (among them P75 א B C*vid L 070 579 2542) as well as several ancient versions. The majority of mss (A C3 [D] W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat sy) have the flatter, less dramatic term, “the sun was darkened” (ἐσκοτίσθη, eskotisthe), a reading that avoids the problem of implying an eclipse (see sn below). This alternative thus looks secondary because it is a more common word and less likely to be misunderstood as referring to a solar eclipse. That it appears in later witnesses rather than the earliest ones adds confirmatory testimony to its inauthentic character.sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15. Some students of the NT see in Luke’s statement the sun’s light failed (eklipontos) an obvious blunder in his otherwise meticulous historical accuracy. The reason for claiming such an error on the author’s part is due to an understanding of the verb as indicating a solar eclipse when such would be an astronomical impossibility during a full moon. There are generally two ways to resolve this difficulty: (a) adopt a different reading (“the sun was darkened”) that smoothes over the problem (discussed in the tc problem above), or (b) understand the verb eklipontos in a general way (such as “the sun’s light failed”) rather than as a technical term, “the sun was eclipsed.” The problem with the first solution is that it is too convenient, for the Christian scribes who, over the centuries, copied Luke’s Gospel would have thought the same thing. That is, they too would have sensed a problem in the wording and felt that some earlier scribe had incorrectly written down what Luke penned. The fact that the reading “was darkened” shows up in the later and generally inferior witnesses does not bolster one’s confidence that this is the right solution. But second solution, if taken to its logical conclusion, proves too much for it would nullify the argument against the first solution: If the term did not refer to an eclipse, then why would scribes feel compelled to change it to a more general term? The solution to the problem is that ekleipo did in fact sometimes refer to an eclipse, but it did not always do so. (BDAG 306 s.v. ἐκλείπω notes that the verb is used in Hellenistic Greek “Of the sun cease to shine.” In MM it is argued that “it seems more than doubtful that in Lk 2345 any reference is intended to an eclipse. To find such a reference is to involve the Evangelist in a needless blunder, as an eclipse is impossible at full moon, and to run counter to his general usage of the verb = ‘fail’…” [p. 195]. They enlist Luke 16:9; 22:32; and Heb 1:12 for the general meaning “fail,” and further cite several contemporaneous examples from papyri of this meaning [195-96]) Thus, the very fact that the verb can refer to an eclipse would be a sufficient basis for later scribes altering the text out of pious motives; conversely, the very fact that the verb does not always refer to an eclipse and, in fact, does not normally do so, is enough of a basis to exonerate Luke of wholly uncharacteristic carelessness.
  290. Luke 23:45 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
  291. Luke 23:46 sn A quotation from Ps 31:5. It is a psalm of trust. The righteous, innocent sufferer trusts in God. Luke does not have the cry of pain from Ps 22:1 (cf. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34), but notes Jesus’ trust instead.
  292. Luke 23:47 sn See the note on the word centurion in 7:2.
  293. Luke 23:47 tn Or “righteous.” It is hard to know whether “innocent” or “righteous” is intended, as the Greek term used can mean either, and both make good sense in this context. Luke has been emphasizing Jesus as innocent, so that is slightly more likely here. Of course, one idea entails the other. sn Here is a fourth figure who said that Jesus was innocent in this chapter (Pilate, Herod, a criminal, and now a centurion).
  294. Luke 23:48 sn Some apparently regretted what had taken place. Beating their breasts was a sign of lamentation.
  295. Luke 23:49 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  296. Luke 23:49 tn Technically the participle ὁρῶσαι (horōsai) modifies only γυναῖκες (gunaikes) since both are feminine plural nominative, although many modern translations refer this as well to the group of those who knew Jesus mentioned in the first part of the verse. These events had a wide array of witnesses.
  297. Luke 23:50 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  298. Luke 23:50 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.
  299. Luke 23:51 tn Grk “This one.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
  300. Luke 23:51 tc Several mss (א C D L Δ Ψ 070 ƒ1,13 [579] 892 1424 2542 al) read the present participle συγκατατιθέμενος (sunkatatithemenos) instead of the perfect participle συγκατατεθειμένος (sunkatatetheimenos). The present participle could be taken to mean that Joseph had decided that the execution was now a mistake. The perfect means that he did not agree with it from the start. The perfect participle, however, has better support externally (P75 A B W Θ 33 M), and is thus the preferred reading.sn The parenthetical note at the beginning of v. 51 indicates that Joseph of Arimathea had not consented to the action of the Sanhedrin in condemning Jesus to death. Since Mark 14:64 indicates that all the council members condemned Jesus as deserving death, it is likely that Joseph was not present at the trial.
  301. Luke 23:51 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
  302. Luke 23:51 tn Or “Judean city”; Grk “from Arimathea, a city of the Jews.” Here the expression “of the Jews” (᾿Ιουδαίων, Ioudaiōn) is used in an adjectival sense to specify a location (cf. BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαῖος 2.c) and so has been translated “Judean.”
  303. Luke 23:51 tn Or “waiting for.”sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
  304. Luke 23:51 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  305. Luke 23:52 sn Joseph went to Pilate and asked for the body because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial. This was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43).
  306. Luke 23:53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  307. Luke 23:53 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
  308. Luke 23:53 tn In the Greek text this pronoun (αὐτόν, auton) is masculine, while the previous one (αὐτό, auto) is neuter, referring to the body.
  309. Luke 23:53 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.26).
  310. Luke 23:53 tc Codex Bezae (D), with some support from 070, one Itala ms, and the Sahidic version, adds the words, “And after he [Jesus] was laid [in the tomb], he [Joseph of Arimathea] put a stone over the tomb which scarcely twenty men could roll.” Although this addition is certainly not part of the original text of Luke, it does show how interested the early scribes were in the details of the burial and may even reflect a very primitive tradition. Matt 27:60 and Mark 15:46 record the positioning of a large stone at the door of the tomb.tn Or “laid to rest.”
  311. Luke 23:54 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.
  312. Luke 23:54 tn Normally, “dawning,” but as the Jewish Sabbath begins at 6 p.m., “beginning” is more appropriate.
  313. Luke 23:55 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  314. Luke 23:55 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  315. Luke 23:56 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  316. Luke 23:56 tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. The Jews did not practice embalming, so these preparations were used to cover the stench of decay and slow decomposition. The women planned to return and anoint the body. But that would have to wait until after the Sabbath.
  317. Luke 23:56 tn Or “ointments.” This was another type of perfumed oil.
  318. Luke 23:56 sn According to the commandment. These women are portrayed as pious, faithful to the law in observing the Sabbath.
  319. Luke 24:1 sn The first day of the week is the day after the Sabbath.
  320. Luke 24:1 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the women mentioned in 23:55) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  321. Luke 24:1 tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. See also the note on “aromatic spices” in 23:56.
  322. Luke 24:2 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  323. Luke 24:2 sn Luke tells the story of the empty tomb with little drama. He simply notes that when they arrived the stone had been rolled away in a position where the tomb could be entered. This large stone was often placed in a channel so that it could be easily moved by rolling it aside. The other possibility is that it was merely placed over the opening in a position from which it had now been moved.
  324. Luke 24:3 tc The translation follows the much better attested longer reading here, “body of the Lord Jesus” (found in {P75 א A B C L W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 565 700 M}), rather than simply “the body” (found in D it) or “the body of Jesus” (found in 579 1241). Further, although this is the only time that “Lord Jesus” occurs in Luke, it seems to be Luke’s normal designation for the Lord after his resurrection (note the many references to Christ in this manner in Acts, e.g., 1:21; 4:33; 7:59; 8:16; 11:17; 15:11; 16:31; 19:5; 20:21; 28:31). Although such a longer reading as this would normally be suspect, in this case some scribes, accustomed to Luke’s more abbreviated style, did not take the resurrection into account.sn What they found was not what they expected—an empty tomb.
  325. Luke 24:4 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  326. Luke 24:4 tn Or “bewildered.” The term refers to a high state of confusion and anxiety.
  327. Luke 24:4 tn Grk “behold.”
  328. Luke 24:4 sn The brilliantly shining clothing (dazzling attire) points to the fact that these are angels (see 24:23).
  329. Luke 24:5 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  330. Luke 24:5 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the women) has been specified in the translation for clarity (the same has been done in v. 8).
  331. Luke 24:5 tn Or “They were extremely afraid.”
  332. Luke 24:5 sn Bowed their faces to the ground. Such respect for angels is common: Dan 7:28; 10:9, 15.
  333. Luke 24:5 sn By referring to Jesus as the living, the angels make it clear that he is alive. There should be no surprise.
  334. Luke 24:6 tc The phrase “He is not here, but has been raised” is omitted by a few mss (D it), but it has wide ms support and differs slightly from the similar statement in Matt 28:6 and Mark 16:6. Although NA28 places the phrase at the beginning of v. 6, as do most modern English translations, it is omitted from the RSV and placed at the end of v. 5 in the NRSV.tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, ēgerthē). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God, and such activity by God is a consistent Lukan theological emphasis: Luke 20:37; 24:34; Acts 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:40; 13:30, 37. A passive construction is also used to refer to Jesus’ exaltation: Luke 24:51; Acts 1:11, 22.
  335. Luke 24:6 sn While he was still in Galilee looks back to the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. So the point is that this was announced long ago, and should come as no surprise.
  336. Luke 24:7 tn Grk “saying that,” but this would be redundant in English. Although the translation represents this sentence as indirect discourse, the Greek could equally be taken as direct discourse: “Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee: ‘the Son of Man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise again.’”
  337. Luke 24:7 tn See Luke 9:22, 44; 13:33.
  338. Luke 24:7 tn Because in the historical context the individuals who were primarily responsible for the death of Jesus (the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem in Luke’s view [see Luke 9:22]) would have been men, the translation “sinful men” for ἀνθρώπων ἁμαρτωλῶν (anthrōpōn hamartōlōn) is retained here.
  339. Luke 24:7 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.
  340. Luke 24:7 tn Here the infinitive ἀναστῆναι (anastēnai) is active rather than passive.
  341. Luke 24:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  342. Luke 24:8 sn On his words see Luke 9:22.
  343. Luke 24:9 sn Judas is now absent and “the twelve” have now become “the eleven.” Other disciples are also gathered with the remaining eleven.
  344. Luke 24:10 sn Mary Magdalene is always noted first in the appearance lists in the gospels. It is unusual that the first appearance would involve women as in this culture their role as witnesses would not be well accepted. It is a sign of the veracity of the account, because if an ancient were to create such a story he would never have it start with women.
  345. Luke 24:10 sn On Joanna see Luke 8:1-3.
  346. Luke 24:11 sn The term pure nonsense can describe idle talk or a tale. The point is important, since the disciples reacted with disbelief that a resurrection was possible. Sometimes it is thought the ancients were gullible enough to believe anything. But these disciples needed convincing about the resurrection.
  347. Luke 24:12 sn While the others dismissed the report of the women, Peter got up and ran to the tomb, for he had learned to believe in what the Lord had said.
  348. Luke 24:12 sn In most instances the entrance to such tombs was less than 3 ft (1 m) high, so that an adult would have to bend down and practically crawl inside.
  349. Luke 24:12 tn In the NT this term is used only for strips of cloth used to wrap a body for burial (LN 6.154; BDAG 693 s.v. ὀθόνιον).
  350. Luke 24:12 tn Or “went away, wondering to himself.” The prepositional phrase πρὸς ἑαυτόν (pros heauton) can be understood with the preceding verb ἀπῆλθεν (apēlthen) or with the following participle θαυμάζων (thaumazōn), but it more likely belongs with the former (cf. John 20:10, where the phrase can only refer to the verb).
  351. Luke 24:12 sn Peter’s wondering was not a lack of faith, but struggling in an attempt to understand what could have happened.
  352. Luke 24:12 tc Some Western mss (D it) lack 24:12. The verse has been called a Western noninterpolation, meaning that it reflects a shorter authentic reading in D and other Western witnesses. Many regard all such shorter readings as original (the verse is omitted in the RSV), but the ms evidence for omission is far too slight for the verse to be rejected as secondary. It is included in P75 and the rest of the ms tradition.
  353. Luke 24:13 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  354. Luke 24:13 tn These are disciples as they know about the empty tomb and do not know what to make of it all.
  355. Luke 24:13 tn Grk “sixty stades” or about 11 kilometers. A stade (στάδιον, stadion) was a unit of distance about 607 feet (185 meters) long.
  356. Luke 24:14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  357. Luke 24:15 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  358. Luke 24:15 tn This term suggests emotional dialogue and can thus be translated “debated.”
  359. Luke 24:15 tn The phrase “these things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  360. Luke 24:16 sn The two disciples will not be allowed to recognize Jesus until v. 31.
  361. Luke 24:16 tn This is an epexegetical (i.e., explanatory) infinitive in Greek.
  362. Luke 24:16 sn This parenthetical remark by the author is necessary so the reader will understand the account.
  363. Luke 24:17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  364. Luke 24:17 tn Grk “words,” but the term λόγος (logos) can refer to “matters” rather than only “words” (BDAG 600 s.v. 1.a.ε).
  365. Luke 24:17 tn “Discussing so intently” translates the reciprocal idea conveyed by πρὸς ἀλλήλους (pros allēlous). The term ἀντιβάλλω (antiballō), used only here in the NT, has the nuance of “arguing” or “debating” a point (the English idiom “to exchange words” also comes close).
  366. Luke 24:18 tn Grk “answering him, said.” This is redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  367. Luke 24:18 sn There is irony and almost a sense of mocking disbelief as the question “Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who doesn’t know the things that have happened there in these days?” comes to Jesus, but, of course, the readers know what the travelers do not.
  368. Luke 24:18 tn Grk “in it” (referring to the city of Jerusalem).
  369. Luke 24:19 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  370. Luke 24:19 tn This translates the Greek term ἀνήρ (anēr).
  371. Luke 24:19 sn The role of Jesus as prophet is a function Luke frequently mentions: 4:25-27; 9:35; 13:31-35.
  372. Luke 24:20 sn Handed him over is another summary of the passion like Luke 9:22.
  373. Luke 24:20 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.
  374. Luke 24:21 tn The imperfect verb looks back to the view that they held during Jesus’ past ministry.
  375. Luke 24:21 sn Their messianic hope concerning Jesus is expressed by the phrase who was going to redeem Israel.
  376. Luke 24:22 sn The account in 24:1-12 is repeated here, and it is clear that the other disciples were not convinced by the women, but could not explain the events either.
  377. Luke 24:22 tn In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  378. Luke 24:23 sn The men in dazzling attire mentioned in v. 4 are identified as angels here.
  379. Luke 24:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  380. Luke 24:24 tn Here the pronoun αὐτόν (auton), referring to Jesus, is in an emphatic position. The one thing they lacked was solid evidence that he was alive.
  381. Luke 24:25 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ inability to believe in Jesus’ resurrection.
  382. Luke 24:25 tn Grk “O,” an interjection used both in address and emotion (BDAG 1101 s.v. 1).
  383. Luke 24:25 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to complete the interjection.
  384. Luke 24:25 sn The rebuke is for failure to believe the promise of scripture, a theme that will appear in vv. 43-47 as well.
  385. Luke 24:25 tn On the syntax of this infinitival construction, see BDAG 364-65 s.v. ἐπί 6.b.
  386. Luke 24:26 tn This Greek particle (οὐχί, ouchi) expects a positive reply.
  387. Luke 24:26 sn The statement Wasn’t it necessary is a reference to the design of God’s plan (see Luke 24:7). Suffering must precede glory (see Luke 17:25).
  388. Luke 24:26 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  389. Luke 24:27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  390. Luke 24:27 sn The reference to Moses and all the prophets is a way to say the promise of Messiah runs throughout OT scripture from first to last.
  391. Luke 24:27 tn Or “regarding,” “concerning.” “Written” is implied by the mention of the scriptures in context; “said” could also be used here, referring to the original utterances, but by now these things had been committed to writing.
  392. Luke 24:28 sn He acted as though he wanted to go farther. This is written in a way that gives the impression Jesus knew they would ask him to stay.
  393. Luke 24:29 tn Grk “urged him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, “saying”) has not been translated because it is redundant in contemporary English.
  394. Luke 24:29 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the disciples’ request.
  395. Luke 24:30 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  396. Luke 24:30 tn Grk “had reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  397. Luke 24:30 tn The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text here or in the following clause, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  398. Luke 24:31 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “At this point” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. “Then,” which is normally used to indicate this, would be redundant with the following clause.
  399. Luke 24:31 sn They recognized him. Other than this cryptic remark, it is not told how the two disciples were now able to recognize Jesus.
  400. Luke 24:31 tn This pronoun is somewhat emphatic.
  401. Luke 24:31 tn This translates a καί (kai, “and”) that has clear sequential force.
  402. Luke 24:32 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  403. Luke 24:32 tn This question uses a Greek particle (οὐχί, ouchi) that expects a positive reply.
  404. Luke 24:32 tn This is a collective singular use of the term καρδία (kardia), so each of their hearts were burning, a reference itself to the intense emotion of their response.
  405. Luke 24:32 tc ‡ Most mss have the phrase ἐν ἡμῖν (en hēmin, “within us”) after οὐχὶ ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν καιομένη ἦν (ouchi hē kardia hēmōn kaiomenē ēn, “Didn’t our hearts burn”). The phrase “within us” is lacking in some early mss (P75 B D c e sys,c). These early witnesses could have overlooked the words, since there are several occurrences of ἡμῖν in the context. But it seems likely that other scribes wanted to clarify the abrupt expression “Didn’t our hearts burn,” even as the translation has done here. NA28 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.sn Even though it is most likely not original (see tc note above), the phrase within us has been included in the translation for clarity.
  406. Luke 24:32 tn Grk “opening” (cf. Acts 17:3).
  407. Luke 24:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the Lord’s appearance to them.
  408. Luke 24:33 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  409. Luke 24:34 tn Here the word “and” has been supplied to make it clear that the disciples who had been to Emmaus found the eleven plus the others gathered and saying this.
  410. Luke 24:34 sn The Lord…has appeared to Simon. Jesus had made another appearance besides the one on the road. The excitement was rising. Simon refers to Simon Peter.
  411. Luke 24:35 sn Now with the recounting of what had happened on the road two sets of witnesses corroborate the women’s report.
  412. Luke 24:35 tn Grk “how he was made known to them”; or “how he was recognized by them.” Here the passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style.
  413. Luke 24:36 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  414. Luke 24:36 tc The words “and said to them, ‘Peace be with you’” are lacking in some Western mss (D it). But the clause is otherwise well attested, being found in P75 and the rest of the ms tradition, and should be considered an original part of Luke.
  415. Luke 24:37 sn The disciples were still not comfortable at this point thinking that this could be Jesus raised from the dead. Instead they thought they saw a spirit.
  416. Luke 24:37 tc This is not a reference to “a phantom” as read by the Western ms D. For πνεῦμα (pneuma) having the force of “ghost,” or “an independent noncorporeal being, in contrast to a being that can be perceived by the physical senses,” see BDAG 833-34 s.v. πνεῦμα 4.
  417. Luke 24:38 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  418. Luke 24:38 tn Or “disturbed,” “troubled.”
  419. Luke 24:38 tn The expression here is an idiom; see BDAG 58 s.v. ἀναβαίνω 2. Here καρδία (kardia) is a collective singular; the expression has been translated as plural in English.sn Jesus calls the disciples to faith with a gentle rebuke about doubts and a gracious invitation to see for themselves the evidence of his resurrection.
  420. Luke 24:39 tn Grk “that it is I myself.”
  421. Luke 24:39 tn See tc note on “ghost” in v. 37.
  422. Luke 24:40 tc Some Western mss (D it) lack 24:40. However, it is present in all other mss, including P75, and should thus be regarded as an original part of Luke’s Gospel.
  423. Luke 24:41 sn They still could not believe it. Is this a continued statement of unbelief? Or is it a rhetorical expression of their amazement? They are being moved to faith, so a rhetorical force is more likely here.
  424. Luke 24:41 sn Amazement is the common response to unusual activity: 1:63; 2:18; 4:22; 7:9; 8:25; 9:43; 11:14; 20:26.
  425. Luke 24:41 sn Do you have anything here to eat? Eating would remove the idea that a phantom was present. Angelic spirits refused a meal in Judg 13:16 and Tob 12:19, but accepted it in Gen 18:8; 19:3 and Tob 6:6. (Tobit, a book of the OT Apocrypha, reflects views during the intertestamental period.)
  426. Luke 24:42 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ request for food.
  427. Luke 24:44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  428. Luke 24:44 sn Everything written about me. The divine plan, events, and scripture itself are seen here as being one.
  429. Luke 24:44 sn For a similar threefold division of the OT scriptures, see the prologue to Sirach, lines 8-10, and from Qumran, the epilogue to 4QMMT, line 10.
  430. Luke 24:45 sn Luke does not mention specific texts here, but it is likely that many of the scriptures he mentioned elsewhere in Luke-Acts would have been among those he had in mind.
  431. Luke 24:46 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
  432. Luke 24:46 tn Three Greek infinitives are the key to this summary: (1) to suffer, (2) to rise, and (3) to be preached. The Christ (Messiah) would be slain, would be raised, and a message about repentance would go out into all the world as a result. All of this was recorded in the scripture. The remark shows the continuity between Jesus’ ministry, the scripture, and what disciples would be doing as they declared the Lord risen.
  433. Luke 24:47 sn This repentance has its roots in declarations of the Old Testament. It is the Hebrew concept of a turning of direction.
  434. Luke 24:47 tn Or “preached,” “announced.”
  435. Luke 24:47 sn To all nations. The same Greek term (τὰ ἔθνη, ta ethnē) may be translated “the Gentiles” or “the nations.” The hope of God in Christ was for all the nations from the beginning.
  436. Luke 24:47 sn Beginning from Jerusalem. See Acts 2, which is where it all starts.
  437. Luke 24:48 sn You are witnesses. This becomes a key concept of testimony in Acts. See Acts 1:8.
  438. Luke 24:49 tn Grk “sending on you.”
  439. Luke 24:49 tn Grk “the promise of my Father,” with τοῦ πατρός (tou patros) translated as a subjective genitive. This is a reference to the Holy Spirit and looks back to how one could see Messiah had come with the promise of old (Luke 3:15-18). The promise is rooted in Jer 31:31 and Ezek 36:26.
  440. Luke 24:49 sn The city refers to Jerusalem.
  441. Luke 24:49 sn Until you have been clothed with power refers to the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. What the Spirit supplies is enablement. See Luke 12:11-12; 21:12-15. The difference the Spirit makes can be seen in Peter (compare Luke 22:54-62 with Acts 2:14-41).
  442. Luke 24:50 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  443. Luke 24:50 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  444. Luke 24:50 sn Bethany was village on the Mount of Olives about 2 mi (3 km) from Jerusalem; see John 11:1, 18.
  445. Luke 24:51 tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  446. Luke 24:51 tn Grk “while he blessed them.”
  447. Luke 24:51 tn Grk “he departed from them.”
  448. Luke 24:51 tc The reference to the ascension (“and was taken up into heaven”) is lacking in א* D it sys, but it is found in P75 and the rest of the ms tradition. The authenticity of the statement here seems to be presupposed in Acts 1:2, for otherwise it is difficult to account for Luke’s reference to the ascension there. For a helpful discussion, see TCGNT 162-63.tn For the translation of ἀνεφέρετο (anephereto) as “was taken up” see BDAG 75 s.v. ἀναφέρω 1.sn There is great debate whether this event equals Acts 1:9-11 so that Luke has telescoped something here that he describes in more detail later. The text can be read in this way because the temporal marker in v. 50 is vague.
  449. Luke 24:52 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the result of Jesus’ ascension and the concluding summary of Luke’s Gospel.
  450. Luke 24:52 tc The reference to worship is lacking in the Western ms D, its last major omission in this Gospel.
  451. Luke 24:52 sn Joy is another key theme for Luke: 1:14; 2:10; 8:13; 10:17; 15:7, 10; 24:41.
  452. Luke 24:53 tn Grk “in the temple.”sn Luke’s gospel story proper ends where it began, in the temple courts (Luke 1:4-22). The conclusion is open-ended, because the story continues in Acts with what happened from Jerusalem onwards, once the promise of the Father (v. 49) came.
  453. Luke 24:53 tc The Western text (D it) has αἰνοῦντες (ainountes, “praising”) here, while the Alexandrian mss (P75 א B C* L) have εὐλογοῦντες (eulogountes, “blessing”). Most mss, especially the later Byzantine mss, evidently combine these two readings with αἰνοῦντες καὶ εὐλογοῦντες (A C2 W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M lat). It is more difficult to decide between the two earlier readings. Internal arguments can go either way, but what seems decisive in this instance are the superior witnesses for εὐλογοῦντες.
  454. Luke 24:53 tc The majority of Greek mss, some of which are significant witnesses (A B C2 Θ Ψ ƒ13 M lat), add “Amen” to note the Gospel’s end. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, since significant witnesses lack the word (P75 א C* D L W 1 33 it co), it is evidently not original.

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