New English Translation
A psalm of David.
101 I will sing about loyalty and justice.
To you, O Lord, I will sing praises.
2 I will walk[b] in the way of integrity.
When will you come to me?
I will conduct my business with integrity in the midst of my palace.[c]
3 I will not even consider doing what is dishonest.[d]
I hate doing evil;[e]
I will have no part of it.[f]
4 I will have nothing to do with a perverse person;[g]
I will not permit[h] evil.
5 I will destroy anyone who slanders his neighbor in secret.
I will not tolerate anyone who has a haughty demeanor and an arrogant attitude.[i]
6 I will favor the honest people of the land,[j]
and allow them to live with me.[k]
Those who walk in the way of integrity will attend me.[l]
7 Deceitful people will not live in my palace.[m]
Liars will not be welcome in my presence.[n]
8 Each morning I will destroy all the wicked people in the land,
and remove all evildoers from the city of the Lord.
The prayer of an oppressed man, as he grows faint and pours out his lament before the Lord.
102 O Lord, hear my prayer.
Pay attention to my cry for help.[p]
2 Do not ignore me in my time of trouble.[q]
Listen to me.[r]
When I call out to you, quickly answer me.
3 For my days go up in smoke,[s]
and my bones are charred as in a fireplace.[t]
4 My heart is parched[u] and withered like grass,
for I am unable[v] to eat food.[w]
5 Because of the anxiety that makes me groan,
my bones protrude from my skin.[x]
6 I am like an owl[y] in the wilderness;
I am like a screech owl[z] among the ruins.[aa]
7 I stay awake;[ab]
I am like a solitary bird on a roof.
8 All day long my enemies taunt me;
those who mock me use my name in their curses.[ac]
9 For I eat ashes as if they were bread,[ad]
and mix my drink with my tears,[ae]
10 because of your anger and raging fury.
Indeed,[af] you pick me up and throw me away.
11 My days are coming to an end,[ag]
and I am withered like grass.
12 But you, O Lord, rule forever,[ah]
and your reputation endures.[ai]
13 You will rise up and have compassion on Zion.[aj]
For it is time to have mercy on her,
for the appointed time has come.
14 Indeed,[ak] your servants take delight in her stones,
and feel compassion for[al] the dust of her ruins.[am]
15 The nations will respect the reputation of the Lord,[an]
and all the kings of the earth will respect[ao] his splendor,
16 when the Lord rebuilds Zion,
and reveals his splendor,
17 when he responds to the prayer of the destitute,[ap]
and does not reject[aq] their request.[ar]
18 The account of his intervention[as] will be recorded for future generations;
people yet to be born[at] will praise the Lord.
19 For he will look down from his sanctuary above;[au]
from heaven the Lord will look toward earth,[av]
20 in order to hear the painful cries of the prisoners,
and to set free those condemned to die,[aw]
21 so they may proclaim the name of the Lord in Zion,
and praise him[ax] in Jerusalem,
22 when the nations gather together,
and the kingdoms pay tribute to the Lord.[ay]
23 He has taken away my strength in the middle of life;[az]
he has cut short my days.
24 I say, “O my God, please do not take me away in the middle of my life.[ba]
You endure through all generations.[bb]
25 In earlier times you established the earth;
the skies are your handiwork.
26 They will perish,
but you will endure.[bc]
They will wear out like a garment;
like clothes you will remove them and they will disappear.[bd]
27 But you remain;[be]
your years do not come to an end.
28 The children of your servants will settle down here,
and their descendants[bf] will live securely in your presence.”[bg]
103 Praise the Lord, O my soul.
With all that is within me, praise[bi] his holy name.
2 Praise the Lord, O my soul.
Do not forget all his kind deeds.[bj]
3 He is the one who forgives all your sins,
who heals all your diseases,[bk]
4 who delivers[bl] your life from the Pit,[bm]
who crowns you with his loyal love and compassion,
5 who satisfies your life with good things,[bn]
so your youth is renewed like an eagle’s.[bo]
6 The Lord does what is fair,
and executes justice for all the oppressed.[bp]
7 The Lord revealed his faithful acts[bq] to Moses,
his deeds to the Israelites.
8 The Lord is compassionate and merciful;
he is patient[br] and demonstrates great loyal love.[bs]
9 He does not always accuse,
and does not stay angry.[bt]
10 He does not deal with us as our sins deserve;[bu]
he does not repay us as our misdeeds deserve.[bv]
11 For as the skies are high above the earth,
so his loyal love towers[bw] over his faithful followers.[bx]
12 As far as the eastern horizon[by] is from the west,[bz]
so he removes the guilt of our rebellious actions[ca] from us.
13 As a father has compassion on his children,[cb]
so the Lord has compassion on his faithful followers.[cc]
14 For he knows what we are made of;[cd]
he realizes[ce] we are made of clay.[cf]
15 A person’s life is like grass.[cg]
Like a flower in the field it flourishes,
16 but when the hot wind[ch] blows, it disappears,
and one can no longer even spot the place where it once grew.
17 But the Lord continually shows loyal love to his faithful followers,[ci]
and is faithful to their descendants,[cj]
18 to those who keep his covenant,
who are careful to obey his commands.[ck]
19 The Lord has established his throne in heaven;
his kingdom extends over everything.[cl]
20 Praise the Lord, you angels of his,
you powerful warriors who carry out his decrees
and obey his orders.[cm]
21 Praise the Lord, all you warriors of his,[cn]
you servants of his who carry out his desires.[co]
22 Praise the Lord, all that he has made,[cp]
in all the regions[cq] of his kingdom.
Praise the Lord, O my soul.
104 Praise the Lord, O my soul!
O Lord my God, you are magnificent.[cs]
You are robed in splendor and majesty.
2 He covers himself with light as if it were a garment.
He stretches out the skies like a tent curtain,
3 and lays the beams of the upper rooms of his palace on the rain clouds.[ct]
He makes the clouds his chariot,
and travels on the wings of the wind.[cu]
4 He makes the winds his messengers,
and the flaming fire his attendant.[cv]
5 He established the earth on its foundations;
it will never be moved.
6 The watery deep covered it[cw] like a garment;
the waters reached[cx] above the mountains.[cy]
7 Your shout made the waters retreat;
at the sound of your thunderous voice they hurried off—
8 as the mountains rose up,
and the valleys went down—
to the place you appointed for them.[cz]
9 You set up a boundary for them that they could not cross,
so that they would not cover the earth again.[da]
10 He turns springs into streams;[db]
they flow between the mountains.
11 They provide water for all the animals in the field;
the wild donkeys quench their thirst.
12 The birds of the sky live beside them;
they chirp among the bushes.[dc]
13 He waters the mountains from the upper rooms of his palace;[dd]
the earth is full of the fruit you cause to grow.[de]
14 He provides grass[df] for the cattle,
and crops for people to cultivate,[dg]
so they can produce food from the ground,[dh]
15 as well as wine that makes people glad,[di]
and olive oil to make their faces shine,[dj]
as well as bread that sustains them.[dk]
16 The trees of the Lord[dl] receive all the rain they need,[dm]
the cedars of Lebanon that he planted,
17 where the birds make nests,
near the evergreens in which the herons live.[dn]
18 The wild goats live in the high mountains;[do]
the rock badgers find safety in the cliffs.
19 He made the moon to mark the months,[dp]
and the sun sets according to a regular schedule.[dq]
20 You make it dark and night comes,[dr]
during which all the beasts of the forest prowl around.
21 The lions roar for prey,
seeking their food from God.[ds]
22 When the sun rises, they withdraw
and sleep[dt] in their dens.
23 People then go out to do their work,
and they labor until evening.[du]
24 How many living things you have made, O Lord![dv]
You have exhibited great skill in making all of them;[dw]
the earth is full of the living things you have made.
25 Over here is the deep, wide sea,[dx]
which teems with innumerable swimming creatures,[dy]
living things both small and large.
26 The ships travel there,
and over here swims the whale[dz] you made to play in it.
27 All your creatures[ea] wait for you
to provide them with food on a regular basis.[eb]
28 You give food to them and they receive it;
you open your hand and they are filled with food.[ec]
29 When you ignore them, they panic.[ed]
When you take away their life’s breath,
they die and return to dust.
30 When you send your life-giving breath, they are created,
and you replenish the surface of the ground.
31 May the splendor of the Lord endure.[ee]
May the Lord find pleasure in the living things he has made.[ef]
32 He looks down on the earth and it shakes;
he touches the mountains and they start to smolder.
33 I will sing to the Lord as long as I live;
I will sing praise to my God as long as I exist.[eg]
34 May my thoughts[eh] be pleasing to him.
I will rejoice in the Lord.
35 May sinners disappear[ei] from the earth,
and the wicked vanish.
Praise the Lord, O my soul.
Praise the Lord.
105 Give thanks to the Lord.
Call on his name.
Make known his accomplishments among the nations.
2 Sing to him.
Make music to him.
Tell about all his miraculous deeds.
3 Boast about his holy name.
Let the hearts of those who seek the Lord rejoice.
4 Seek the Lord and the strength he gives.
Seek his presence continually.
5 Recall the miraculous deeds he performed,
his mighty acts and the judgments he decreed,[ek]
6 O children[el] of Abraham,[em] God’s[en] servant,
you descendants[eo] of Jacob, God’s[ep] chosen ones.
7 He is the Lord our God;
he carries out judgment throughout the earth.[eq]
8 He always remembers his covenantal decree,
the promise he made[er] to a thousand generations—
9 the promise[es] he made to Abraham,
the promise he made by oath to Isaac.
10 He gave it to Jacob as a decree,
to Israel as a lasting promise,[et]
11 saying, “To you I will give the land of Canaan
as the portion of your inheritance.”
12 When they were few in number,
just a very few, and resident foreigners within it,
13 they wandered from nation to nation,
and from one kingdom to another.[eu]
14 He let no one oppress them;
he disciplined kings for their sake,
15 saying,[ev] “Don’t touch my chosen ones.[ew]
Don’t harm my prophets.”
16 He called down a famine upon the earth;
he cut off all the food supply.[ex]
17 He sent a man ahead of them[ey]—
Joseph was sold as a servant.
18 The shackles hurt his feet;[ez]
his neck was placed in an iron collar,[fa]
19 until the time when his prediction[fb] came true.
The Lord’s word[fc] proved him right.[fd]
20 The king authorized his release;[fe]
the ruler of nations set him free.
21 He put him in charge of his palace,[ff]
and made him manager of all his property,
22 giving him authority to imprison his officials[fg]
and to teach his advisers.[fh]
23 Israel moved to[fi] Egypt;
Jacob lived for a time[fj] in the land of Ham.
24 The Lord[fk] made his people very fruitful,
and made them[fl] more numerous than their[fm] enemies.
25 He caused the Egyptians[fn] to hate his people,
and to mistreat[fo] his servants.
26 He sent his servant Moses,
and Aaron, whom he had chosen.
27 They executed his miraculous signs among them,[fp]
and his amazing deeds in the land of Ham.
28 He made it dark;[fq]
Moses and Aaron did not disobey his orders.[fr]
29 He turned the Egyptians’ water into blood,
and killed their fish.
30 Their land was overrun by frogs,
which even got into the rooms of their kings.
31 He ordered flies to come;[fs]
gnats invaded their whole territory.
32 He sent hail along with the rain;[ft]
there was lightning in their land.[fu]
33 He destroyed their vines and fig trees,
and broke the trees throughout their territory.
34 He ordered locusts to come,[fv]
35 They ate all the vegetation in their land,
and devoured the crops of their fields.[fw]
36 He struck down all the firstborn in their land,
the firstfruits of their reproductive power.[fx]
37 He brought his people[fy] out enriched[fz] with silver and gold;
none of his tribes stumbled.
38 Egypt was happy when they left,
for they were afraid of them.[ga]
39 He spread out a cloud for a cover,[gb]
and provided a fire to light up the night.
40 They asked for food,[gc] and he sent quail;
he satisfied them with food from the sky.[gd]
41 He opened up a rock and water flowed out;
a river ran through dry regions.
42 Yes,[ge] he remembered the sacred promise[gf]
he made to Abraham his servant.
43 When he led his people out, they rejoiced;
his chosen ones shouted with joy.[gg]
44 He handed the territory of nations over to them,
and they took possession of what other peoples had produced,[gh]
45 so that they might keep his commands
and obey[gi] his laws.
Praise the Lord.
106 Praise the Lord.
Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures.[gk]
2 Who can adequately recount the Lord’s mighty acts,
or relate all his praiseworthy deeds?[gl]
3 How blessed are those who promote justice,
and do what is right all the time.
4 Remember me, O Lord, when you show favor to your people.
Pay attention to me, when you deliver,
5 so I may see the prosperity[gm] of your chosen ones,
rejoice along with your nation,[gn]
and boast along with the people who belong to you.[go]
6 We have sinned like[gp] our ancestors;[gq]
we have done wrong, we have done evil.
7 Our ancestors in Egypt failed to appreciate your miraculous deeds.
They failed to remember your many acts of loyal love,
and they rebelled at the sea, by the Red Sea.[gr]
8 Yet he delivered them for the sake of his reputation,[gs]
that he might reveal his power.
9 He shouted at[gt] the Red Sea and it dried up;
he led them through the deep water as if it were a desert.
10 He delivered them from the power[gu] of the one who hated them,
and rescued[gv] them from the power[gw] of the enemy.
11 The water covered their enemies;
not even one of them survived.[gx]
12 They believed his promises;[gy]
they sang praises to him.
13 They quickly forgot what he had done;[gz]
they did not wait for his instructions.[ha]
14 In the wilderness they had an insatiable craving[hb] for meat;[hc]
they challenged God[hd] in the wastelands.
15 He granted their request,
then struck them with a disease.[he]
16 In the camp they resented[hf] Moses,
and Aaron, the Lord’s holy priest.[hg]
17 The earth opened up and swallowed Dathan;
it engulfed[hh] the group led by Abiram.[hi]
18 Fire burned their group;
the flames scorched the wicked.[hj]
19 They made an image of a calf at Horeb,
and worshiped a metal idol.
20 They traded their majestic God[hk]
for the image of an ox that eats grass.
21 They rejected[hl] the God who delivered them,
the one who performed great deeds in Egypt,
22 amazing feats in the land of Ham,
mighty acts[hm] by the Red Sea.
23 He threatened[hn] to destroy them,
but[ho] Moses, his chosen one, interceded with him[hp]
and turned back his destructive anger.[hq]
24 They rejected the fruitful land;[hr]
they did not believe his promise.[hs]
25 They grumbled in their tents;[ht]
they did not obey[hu] the Lord.
26 So he made a solemn vow[hv]
that he would make them die[hw] in the wilderness,
27 make their descendants[hx] die[hy] among the nations,
and scatter them among foreign lands.[hz]
28 They worshiped[ia] Baal of Peor,
and ate sacrifices offered to the dead.[ib]
29 They made the Lord angry[ic] by their actions,
and a plague broke out among them.
30 Phinehas took a stand and intervened,[id]
and the plague subsided.
31 This was credited to Phinehas as a righteous act
for all generations to come.[ie]
32 They made him angry by the waters of Meribah,
and Moses suffered[if] because of them,
33 for they aroused[ig] his temper,[ih]
and he spoke rashly.[ii]
34 They did not destroy the nations,[ij]
as the Lord had commanded them to do.
35 They mixed in with the nations
and learned their ways.[ik]
36 They worshiped[il] their idols,
which became a snare to them.[im]
37 They sacrificed their sons and daughters to demons.[in]
38 They shed innocent blood—
the blood of their sons and daughters,
whom they sacrificed to the idols of Canaan.
The land was polluted by bloodshed.[io]
39 They were defiled by their deeds,
and unfaithful in their actions.[ip]
40 So the Lord was angry with his people[iq]
and despised the people who belonged to him.[ir]
41 He handed them over to[is] the nations,
and those who hated them ruled over them.
42 Their enemies oppressed them;
they were subject to their authority.[it]
43 Many times he delivered[iu] them,
but they had a rebellious attitude,[iv]
and degraded themselves[iw] by their sin.
44 Yet he took notice of their distress,
when he heard their cry for help.
45 He remembered his covenant with them,
and relented[ix] because of his great loyal love.
46 He caused all their conquerors[iy]
to have pity on them.
47 Deliver us, O Lord, our God.
Gather us from among the nations.
Then we will give thanks[iz] to your holy name,
and boast about your praiseworthy deeds.[ja]
48 The Lord God of Israel deserves praise,[jb]
in the future and forevermore.[jc]
Let all the people say, “We agree![jd] Praise the Lord!”[je]
Book 5 (Psalms 107-150)
107 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures.[jg]
2 Let those delivered by the Lord speak out,[jh]
those whom he delivered[ji] from the power[jj] of the enemy,
3 and gathered from foreign lands,[jk]
from east and west,
from north and south.
4 They wandered through the wilderness, in a wasteland;[jl]
they found no road to a city in which to live.
5 They were hungry and thirsty;
they fainted from exhaustion.[jm]
6 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
7 He led them on a level road,[jn]
that they might find a city in which to live.
8 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[jo]
9 For he has satisfied those who thirst,[jp]
and those who hunger he has filled with food.[jq]
10 They sat in utter darkness,[jr]
bound in painful iron chains,[js]
11 because they had rebelled against God’s commands,[jt]
and rejected the instructions of the Most High.[ju]
12 So he used suffering to humble them;[jv]
they stumbled and no one helped them up.
13 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
14 He brought them out of the utter darkness,[jw]
and tore off their shackles.
15 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[jx]
16 For he shattered the bronze gates,
and hacked through the iron bars.[jy]
17 They acted like fools in their rebellious ways,[jz]
and suffered because of their sins.
18 They lost their appetite for all food,[ka]
and they drew near the gates of death.
19 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
20 He sent them an assuring word[kb] and healed them;
he rescued them from the pits where they were trapped.[kc]
21 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[kd]
22 Let them present thank offerings,
and loudly proclaim what he has done.[ke]
23 [kf] Some traveled on[kg] the sea in ships,
and carried cargo over the vast waters.[kh]
24 They witnessed the acts of the Lord,
his amazing feats on the deep water.
25 He gave the order for a windstorm,[ki]
and it stirred up the waves of the sea.[kj]
26 They[kk] reached up to the sky,
then dropped into the depths.
The sailors’ strength[kl] left them[km] because the danger was so great.[kn]
27 They swayed[ko] and staggered like drunks,
and all their skill proved ineffective.[kp]
28 They cried out to the Lord in their distress;
he delivered them from their troubles.
29 He calmed the storm,[kq]
and the waves[kr] grew silent.
30 The sailors[ks] rejoiced because the waves[kt] grew quiet,
and he led them to the harbor[ku] they desired.
31 Let them give thanks to the Lord for his loyal love,
and for the amazing things he has done for people.[kv]
32 Let them exalt him in the assembly of the people.
Let them praise him in the place where the leaders preside.[kw]
33 He turned[kx] streams into a desert,
springs of water into arid land,
34 and a fruitful land into a barren place,[ky]
because of the sin of its inhabitants.
35 As for his people,[kz] he turned[la] a desert into a pool of water,
and a dry land into springs of water.
36 He allowed the hungry to settle there,
and they established a city in which to live.
37 They cultivated[lb] fields,
and planted vineyards,
which yielded a harvest of fruit.[lc]
38 He blessed[ld] them so that they became very numerous.
He would not allow their cattle to decrease in number.[le]
39 As for their enemies,[lf] they decreased in number and were beaten down,
because of painful distress[lg] and suffering.
40 He would pour[lh] contempt upon princes,
and he made them wander in a wasteland with no road.
41 Yet he protected[li] the needy from oppression,
and cared for his families like a flock of sheep.
42 When the godly see this, they rejoice,
and every sinner[lj] shuts his mouth.
43 Whoever is wise, let him take note of these things.
Let them consider the Lord’s acts of loyal love.
A song, a psalm of David.
108 I am determined,[ll] O God.
I will sing and praise you with my whole heart.[lm]
2 Awake, O stringed instrument and harp.
I will wake up at dawn.[ln]
3 I will give you thanks before the nations, O Lord.
I will sing praises to you before foreigners.[lo]
4 For your loyal love extends beyond the sky,[lp]
and your faithfulness reaches the clouds.
5 Rise up[lq] above the sky, O God.
May your splendor cover the whole earth.[lr]
6 Deliver by your power[ls] and answer me,
so that the ones you love may be safe.[lt]
7 God has spoken in his sanctuary:[lu]
“I will triumph! I will parcel out Shechem;
the Valley of Sukkoth I will measure off.[lv]
8 Gilead belongs to me,
as does Manasseh.[lw]
Ephraim is my helmet,[lx]
Judah my royal scepter.[ly]
9 Moab is my washbasin.[lz]
I will make Edom serve me.[ma]
I will shout in triumph over Philistia.”
10 Who will lead me into the fortified city?
Who will bring me to Edom?[mb]
11 Have you not rejected us, O God?
O God, you do not go into battle with our armies.
12 Give us help against the enemy,
for any help men might offer is futile.[mc]
13 By God’s power we will conquer;[md]
he will trample down[me] our enemies.
For the music director, a psalm of David.
109 O God whom I praise, do not ignore me.[mg]
2 For they say cruel and deceptive things to me;
they lie to me.[mh]
3 They surround me and say hateful things;[mi]
they attack me for no reason.
4 They repay my love with accusations,[mj]
but I continue to pray.[mk]
5 They repay me evil for good,[ml]
and hate for love.
6 [mm] Appoint an evil man to testify against him.[mn]
May an accuser stand[mo] at his right side.
7 When he is judged, he will be found[mp] guilty.[mq]
Then his prayer will be regarded as sinful.
8 May his days be few.[mr]
May another take his job.[ms]
9 May his children[mt] be fatherless,
and his wife a widow.
10 May his children[mu] roam around begging,
asking for handouts as they leave their ruined home.[mv]
11 May the creditor seize[mw] all he owns.
May strangers loot his property.[mx]
12 May no one show him kindness.[my]
May no one have compassion[mz] on his fatherless children.
13 May his descendants[na] be cut off.[nb]
May the memory of them be wiped out by the time the next generation arrives.[nc]
14 May his ancestors’[nd] sins be remembered by the Lord.
May his mother’s sin not be forgotten.[ne]
15 May the Lord be constantly aware of them,[nf]
and cut off the memory of his children[ng] from the earth.
16 For he never bothered to show kindness;[nh]
he harassed the oppressed and needy,
and killed the disheartened.[ni]
17 He loved to curse[nj] others, so those curses have come upon him.[nk]
He had no desire to bless anyone, so he has experienced no blessings.[nl]
18 He made cursing a way of life,[nm]
so curses poured into his stomach like water
and seeped into his bones like oil.[nn]
19 May a curse attach itself to him, like a garment one puts on,[no]
or a belt[np] one wears continually.
20 May the Lord repay my accusers in this way,[nq]
those who say evil things about[nr] me.[ns]
21 O Sovereign Lord,
intervene on my behalf for the sake of your reputation.[nt]
Because your loyal love is good, deliver me.
22 For I am oppressed and needy,
and my heart beats violently within me.[nu]
23 I am fading away like a shadow at the end of the day;[nv]
I am shaken off like a locust.
24 I am so starved my knees shake;[nw]
I have turned into skin and bones.[nx]
25 I am disdained by them.[ny]
When they see me, they shake their heads.[nz]
26 Help me, O Lord my God.
Because you are faithful to me, deliver me.[oa]
27 Then they will realize[ob] this is your work,[oc]
and that you, Lord, have accomplished it.
28 They curse, but you will bless.[od]
When they attack, they will be humiliated,[oe]
but your servant will rejoice.
29 My accusers will be covered[of] with shame,
and draped in humiliation as if it were a robe.
30 I will thank the Lord profusely.[og]
In the middle of a crowd[oh] I will praise him,
31 because he stands at the right hand of the needy,
to deliver him from those who threaten[oi] his life.
A psalm of David.
110 Here is the Lord’s proclamation[ok] to my lord:[ol]
“Sit down at my right hand[om] until I make your enemies your footstool.”[on]
2 The Lord[oo] extends[op] your dominion[oq] from Zion.
Rule in the midst of your enemies.
3 Your people willingly follow you[or] when you go into battle.[os]
On the holy hills[ot] at sunrise[ou] the dew of your youth[ov] belongs to you.[ow]
4 The Lord makes this promise on oath[ox] and will not revoke it:[oy]
“You are an eternal priest[oz] after the pattern of[pa] Melchizedek.”[pb]
5 O Lord,[pc] at your right hand
he strikes down[pd] kings in the day he unleashes his anger.[pe]
6 He executes judgment[pf] against[pg] the nations.
He fills the valleys with corpses;[ph]
he shatters their heads over the vast battlefield.[pi]
7 From the stream along the road he drinks;
then he lifts up his head.[pj]
111 Praise the Lord!
I will give thanks to the Lord with my whole heart,
in the assembly of the godly and the congregation.
2 The Lord’s deeds are great,
eagerly awaited[pl] by all who desire them.
3 His work is majestic and glorious,[pm]
and his faithfulness endures[pn] forever.
4 He does[po] amazing things that will be remembered;[pp]
the Lord is merciful and compassionate.
5 He gives[pq] food to his faithful followers;[pr]
he always remembers his covenant.[ps]
6 He announced that he would do mighty deeds for his people,
giving them a land that belonged to other nations.[pt]
7 His acts are characterized by[pu] faithfulness and justice;
all his precepts are reliable.[pv]
8 They are forever firm,
and should be faithfully and properly carried out.[pw]
9 He delivered his people;[px]
he ordained that his covenant be observed forever.[py]
His name is holy and awesome.
10 To obey the Lord is the fundamental principle for wise living;[pz]
all who carry out his precepts acquire good moral insight.[qa]
He will receive praise forever.[qb]
112 Praise the Lord!
How blessed is the one[qd] who obeys[qe] the Lord,
who takes great delight in keeping his commands.[qf]
2 His descendants[qg] will be powerful on the earth;
the godly[qh] will be blessed.
3 His house contains wealth and riches;
his integrity endures.[qi]
4 In the darkness a light[qj] shines for the godly,
for each one who is merciful, compassionate, and just.[qk]
5 It goes well for the one[ql] who generously lends money,
and conducts his business honestly.[qm]
6 For he will never be shaken;
others will always remember one who is just.[qn]
7 He does not fear bad news.
He[qo] is confident; he trusts in the Lord.
8 His resolve[qp] is firm; he will not succumb to fear
before he looks in triumph on his enemies.
9 He generously gives[qq] to the needy;
his integrity endures.[qr]
He will be vindicated and honored.[qs]
10 When the wicked[qt] see this, they will worry;
they will grind their teeth in frustration[qu] and melt away.
The desire of the wicked will perish.[qv]
113 Praise the Lord.
Praise, you servants of the Lord,
praise the name of the Lord.
2 May the Lord’s name be praised
now and forevermore.
3 From east to west[qx]
the Lord’s name is deserving of praise.
4 The Lord is exalted over all the nations;
his splendor reaches beyond the sky.[qy]
5 Who can compare to the Lord our God,
who sits on a high throne?[qz]
6 He bends down to look[ra]
at the sky and the earth.
7 He raises the poor from the dirt,
and lifts up the needy from the garbage pile,[rb]
8 that he might seat him with princes,
with the princes of his people.
9 He makes the barren woman of the family[rc]
a happy mother of children.[rd]
Praise the Lord.
114 When Israel left Egypt,
when the family of Jacob left a foreign nation behind,[rf]
2 Judah became his sanctuary,
Israel his kingdom.
3 The sea looked and fled;[rg]
the Jordan River[rh] turned back.[ri]
4 The mountains skipped like rams,
the hills like lambs.[rj]
5 Why do you flee, O sea?
Why do you turn back, O Jordan River?
6 Why do you skip like rams, O mountains,
like lambs, O hills?
7 Tremble, O earth, before the Lord—
before the God of Jacob,
8 who turned a rock into a pool of water,
a hard rock into springs of water.[rk]
115 Not to us, O Lord, not to us,
but to your name bring honor,[rm]
for the sake of your loyal love and faithfulness.[rn]
2 Why should the nations say,
“Where is their God?”
3 Our God is in heaven.
He does whatever he pleases.[ro]
4 Their[rp] idols are made of silver and gold—
they are man-made.[rq]
5 They have mouths, but cannot speak,
eyes, but cannot see,
6 ears, but cannot hear,
noses, but cannot smell,
7 hands, but cannot touch,
feet, but cannot walk.
They cannot even clear their throats.[rr]
8 Those who make them will end up[rs] like them,
as will everyone who trusts in them.
9 O Israel, trust in the Lord.
He is their deliverer[rt] and protector.[ru]
10 O family[rv] of Aaron, trust in the Lord.
He is their deliverer[rw] and protector.[rx]
11 You loyal followers of the Lord,[ry] trust in the Lord.
He is their deliverer[rz] and protector.[sa]
12 The Lord takes notice of us;[sb] he will bless[sc]—
he will bless the family[sd] of Israel,
he will bless the family of Aaron.
13 He will bless his loyal followers,[se]
both young and old.[sf]
14 May he increase your numbers,
yours and your children’s.[sg]
15 May you be blessed by the Lord,
the Creator[sh] of heaven and earth.
16 The heavens belong to the Lord,[si]
but the earth he has given to mankind.[sj]
17 The dead do not praise the Lord,
nor do any of those who descend into the silence of death.[sk]
18 But we will praise the Lord
now and forevermore.
Praise the Lord!
116 I love the Lord
because he heard my plea for mercy,[sm]
2 and listened to me.[sn]
As long as I live, I will call to him when I need help.[so]
3 The ropes of death tightened around me,[sp]
the snares[sq] of Sheol confronted me.
I was confronted[sr] with trouble and sorrow.
4 I called on the name of the Lord,
“Please, Lord, rescue my life!”
5 The Lord is merciful and fair;
our God is compassionate.
6 The Lord protects[ss] the untrained;[st]
I was in serious trouble[su] and he delivered me.
7 Rest once more, my soul,[sv]
for the Lord has vindicated you.[sw]
8 Yes,[sx] Lord,[sy] you rescued my life from death,
kept my eyes from tears
and my feet from stumbling.
9 I will serve[sz] the Lord
in the land[ta] of the living.
10 I had faith when I said,
“I am severely oppressed.”
11 I rashly declared,[tb]
“All men are liars.”
12 How can I repay the Lord
for all his acts of kindness to me?
13 I will celebrate my deliverance,[tc]
and call on the name of the Lord.
14 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord
before all his people.
15 The Lord values
the lives of his faithful followers.[td]
16 Yes, Lord! I am indeed your servant;
I am your servant, the son of your female servant.[te]
You saved me from death.[tf]
17 I will present a thank offering to you,
and call on the name of the Lord.
18 I will fulfill my vows to the Lord
before all his people,
19 in the courts of the Lord’s temple,
in your midst, O Jerusalem.
Praise the Lord!
118 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good,
and his loyal love endures.[tk]
2 Let Israel say,
“Yes, his loyal love endures.”
3 Let the family[tl] of Aaron say,
“Yes, his loyal love endures.”
4 Let the loyal followers of the Lord[tm] say,
“Yes, his loyal love endures.”
5 In my distress[tn] I cried out to the Lord.
The Lord answered me and put me in a wide open place.[to]
6 The Lord is on my side;[tp] I am not afraid.
What can people do to me?[tq]
7 The Lord is on my side[tr] as my helper.[ts]
I look in triumph on those who hate me.
8 It is better to take shelter[tt] in the Lord
than to trust in people.
9 It is better to take shelter in the Lord
than to trust in princes.
10 All the nations surrounded me.[tu]
Indeed, in the name of the Lord[tv] I pushed them away.[tw]
11 They surrounded me, yes, they surrounded me.
Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.
12 They surrounded me like bees.
But they disappeared as quickly[tx] as a fire among thorns.[ty]
Indeed, in the name of the Lord I pushed them away.
13 “You aggressively attacked me[tz] and tried to knock me down,[ua]
but the Lord helped me.
14 The Lord gives me strength and protects me;[ub]
he has become my deliverer.”[uc]
15 They celebrate deliverance in the tents of the godly.[ud]
The Lord’s right hand conquers.[ue]
16 The Lord’s right hand gives victory;[uf]
the Lord’s right hand conquers.
17 I will not die, but live,
and I will proclaim what the Lord has done.[ug]
18 The Lord severely[uh] punished me,
but he did not hand me over to death.
19 Open for me the gates of the just king’s temple.[ui]
I will enter through them and give thanks to the Lord.
20 This is the Lord’s gate—
the godly enter through it.
21 I will give you thanks, for you answered me,
and have become my deliverer.
22 The stone that the builders discarded[uj]
has become the cornerstone.[uk]
23 This is the Lord’s work.
We consider it amazing![ul]
24 This is the day the Lord has brought about.[um]
We will be happy and rejoice in it.
25 Please, Lord, deliver!
Please, Lord, grant us success![un]
26 May the one who comes in the name of the Lord[uo] be blessed.
We will pronounce blessings on you[up] in the Lord’s temple.[uq]
27 The Lord is God, and he has delivered us.[ur]
Tie the offering[us] with ropes
to the horns of the altar.[ut]
28 You are my[uu] God, and I will give you thanks.
You are my God and I will praise you.
29 Give thanks to the Lord, for he is good
and his loyal love endures.[uv]
119 How blessed are those whose actions are blameless,[ux]
who obey[uy] the law of the Lord.
2 How blessed are those who observe his rules,
and seek him with all their heart,
3 who, moreover, do no wrong,
but follow in his footsteps.[uz]
4 You demand that your precepts
be carefully kept.[va]
5 If only I were predisposed[vb]
to keep your statutes.
6 Then I would not be ashamed,
if[vc] I were focused on[vd] all your commands.
7 I will give you sincere thanks,[ve]
when I learn your just regulations.
8 I will keep your statutes.
Do not completely abandon me.[vf]
9 How can a young person[vg] maintain a pure life?[vh]
By guarding it according to your instructions.[vi]
10 With all my heart I seek you.
Do not allow me to stray from your commands.
11 In my heart I store up[vj] your words,[vk]
so I might not sin against you.
12 You deserve praise,[vl] O Lord.
Teach me your statutes.
13 With my lips I proclaim
all the regulations you have revealed.[vm]
14 I rejoice in the lifestyle prescribed by your rules[vn]
as if[vo] they were riches of all kinds.[vp]
15 I will meditate on[vq] your precepts
and focus on[vr] your behavior.[vs]
16 I find delight[vt] in your statutes;
I do not forget your instructions.[vu]
17 Be kind to your servant.
Then I will live[vv] and keep[vw] your instructions.[vx]
18 Open[vy] my eyes so I can truly see[vz]
the marvelous things in your law.
19 I am a resident foreigner in this land.[wa]
Do not hide your commands from me.
20 I desperately long to know[wb]
your regulations at all times.
21 You reprimand arrogant people.
Those who stray from your commands are doomed.[wc]
22 Spare me[wd] shame and humiliation,
for I observe your rules.
23 Though rulers plot and slander me,[we]
your servant meditates on your statutes.
24 Yes, I find delight in your rules;
they give me guidance.[wf]
25 I collapse in the dirt.[wg]
Revive me with your word.[wh]
26 I told you about my ways[wi] and you answered me.
Teach me your statutes.
27 Help me to understand what your precepts mean.[wj]
Then I can meditate[wk] on your marvelous teachings.[wl]
28 I collapse[wm] from grief.
Sustain me by your word.[wn]
29 Remove me from the path of deceit.[wo]
Graciously give me[wp] your law.
30 I choose the path of faithfulness;
I am committed to[wq] your regulations.
31 I hold fast[wr] to your rules.
O Lord, do not let me be ashamed.
32 I run along the path of your commands,
for you enable me to do so.[ws]
33 Teach me, O Lord, the lifestyle prescribed by your statutes,[wt]
so that I might observe it continually.[wu]
34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,
and keep it with all my heart.[wv]
35 Guide me[ww] in the path of your commands,
for I delight to walk in it.[wx]
36 Give me a desire for your rules,[wy]
rather than for wealth gained unjustly.[wz]
37 Turn my eyes away from what is worthless.[xa]
Revive me with your word.[xb]
38 Confirm to your servant your promise,[xc]
which you made to the one who honors you.[xd]
39 Take away the insults that I dread.[xe]
Indeed,[xf] your regulations are good.
40 Look, I long for your precepts.
Revive me with your deliverance.[xg]
41 May I experience your loyal love,[xh] O Lord,
and your deliverance,[xi] as you promised.[xj]
42 Then I will have a reply for the one who insults me,[xk]
for I trust in your word.
43 Do not completely deprive me of a truthful testimony,[xl]
for I await your justice.
44 Then I will keep[xm] your law continually
now and for all time.[xn]
45 I will be secure,[xo]
for I seek your precepts.
46 I will speak[xp] about your regulations before kings
and not be ashamed.
47 I will find delight in your commands,
which I love.
48 I will lift my hands to[xq] your commands,
which I love,
and I will meditate on your statutes.
49 Remember your word to your servant,
for you have given me hope.
50 This[xr] is what comforts me in my trouble,
for your promise revives me.[xs]
51 Arrogant people do nothing but scoff at me.[xt]
Yet I do not turn aside from your law.
52 I remember your ancient regulations,[xu]
O Lord, and console myself.[xv]
53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,
those who reject your law.
54 Your statutes have been my songs[xw]
in the house where I live.[xx]
55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,
and I will keep[xy] your law.
56 This[xz] has been my practice,
for I observe your precepts.
57 The Lord is my source of security.[ya]
I have determined[yb] to follow your instructions.[yc]
58 I seek your favor[yd] with all my heart.
Have mercy on me as you promised.[ye]
59 I consider my actions[yf]
and follow[yg] your rules.
60 I keep your commands eagerly
and without delay.[yh]
61 The ropes of the wicked tighten around[yi] me,
but I do not forget your law.
62 In the middle of the night I arise[yj] to thank you
for your just regulations.
63 I am a friend to all your loyal followers,[yk]
and to those who keep your precepts.
64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.
Teach me your statutes!
65 You are good[yl] to your servant,
O Lord, just as you promised.[ym]
66 Teach me proper discernment[yn] and understanding.
For I consider your commands to be reliable.[yo]
67 Before I was afflicted I used to stray off,[yp]
but now I keep your instructions.[yq]
68 You are good and you do good.
Teach me your statutes.
69 Arrogant people smear my reputation with lies,[yr]
but I observe your precepts with all my heart.
70 Their hearts are calloused,[ys]
but I find delight in your law.
71 It was good for me to suffer,
so that I might learn your statutes.
72 The law you have revealed is more important to me
than thousands of pieces of gold and silver.[yt]
73 Your hands made me and formed me.[yu]
Give me understanding so that I might learn[yv] your commands.
74 Your loyal followers will be glad when they see me,[yw]
for I find hope in your word.
75 I know, Lord, that your regulations[yx] are just.
You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me.[yy]
76 May your loyal love console me,
as you promised your servant.[yz]
77 May I experience your compassion,[za] so I might live.
For I find delight in your law.
78 May the arrogant be humiliated, for they have slandered me.[zb]
But I meditate on your precepts.
79 May your loyal followers[zc] turn to me,
those who know your rules.
80 May I be fully committed to your statutes,[zd]
so that I might not be ashamed.
81 I desperately long for[ze] your deliverance.
I find hope in your word.
82 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your promise to be fulfilled.[zf]
I say,[zg] “When will you comfort me?”
83 For[zh] I am like a wineskin[zi] dried up in smoke.[zj]
I do not forget your statutes.
84 How long must your servant endure this?[zk]
When will you judge those who pursue me?
85 The arrogant dig pits to trap me,[zl]
which violates your law.[zm]
86 All your commands are reliable.
I am pursued without reason.[zn] Help me!
87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,
but I do not reject your precepts.
88 Revive me with[zo] your loyal love,
that I might keep[zp] the rules you have revealed.[zq]
89 O Lord, your instructions endure;
they stand secure in heaven.[zr]
90 You demonstrate your faithfulness to all generations.[zs]
You established the earth and it stood firm.
91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,
for all things are your servants.
92 If I had not found encouragement in your law,[zt]
I would have died in my sorrow.[zu]
93 I will never forget your precepts,
for by them you have revived me.
94 I belong to you. Deliver me!
For I seek your precepts.
95 The wicked prepare to kill me,[zv]
yet I concentrate on your rules.
96 I realize that everything has its limits,
but your commands are beyond full comprehension.[zw]
97 O how I love your law!
All day long I meditate on it.
98 Your commandments[zx] make me wiser than my enemies,
for I am always aware of them.
99 I have more insight than all my teachers,
for I meditate on your rules.
100 I am more discerning than those older than I,
for I observe your precepts.
101 I stay away[zy] from every evil path,
so that I might keep your instructions.[zz]
102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,
for you teach me.
103 Your words are sweeter
in my mouth than honey![aaa]
104 Your precepts give me discernment.
Therefore I hate all deceitful actions.[aab]
105 Your word[aac] is a lamp to walk by,
and a light to illumine my path.[aad]
106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn
to keep your just regulations.
107 I am suffering terribly.
O Lord, revive me with your word.[aae]
108 O Lord, please accept the freewill offerings of my praise.[aaf]
Teach me your regulations.
109 My life is in continual danger,[aag]
but I do not forget your law.
110 The wicked lay a trap for me,
but I do not wander from your precepts.
111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,
for they give me joy.[aah]
112 I am determined to obey[aai] your statutes
at all times, to the very end.
113 I hate people with divided loyalties,[aaj]
but I love your law.
114 You are my hiding place and my shield.
I find hope in your word.
115 Turn away from me, you evil men,
so that I can observe[aak] the commands of my God.[aal]
- Psalm 101:1 sn Psalm 101. The psalmist, who appears to be a king, promises to promote justice in his land and vows to rid his royal court of evildoers.
- Psalm 101:2 tn Heb “take notice of.”
- Psalm 101:2 tn Heb “I will walk about in the integrity of my heart in the midst of my house.”
- Psalm 101:3 tn Heb “I will not set before my eyes a thing of worthlessness.”
- Psalm 101:3 tn Heb “the doing of swerving [deeds] I hate.” The Hebrew term סֵטִים (setim) is probably an alternate spelling of שֵׂטִים (setim), which appears in many medieval Hebrew mss. The form appears to be derived from a verbal root שׂוּט (sut, “to fall away; to swerve”; see Ps 40:4).
- Psalm 101:3 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doing of evil deeds] does not cling to me.”
- Psalm 101:4 tn Heb “a perverse heart will turn aside from me.” The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (ʿiqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted; crooked” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse (see Ps 18:26). It appears frequently in the Book of Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6).
- Psalm 101:4 tn Heb “know.” The king will not willingly allow perverse individuals to remain in his royal court.
- Psalm 101:5 tn Heb “[one who has] pride of eyes and wideness [i.e., arrogance] of heart, him I will not endure.”
- Psalm 101:6 tn Heb “my eyes [are] on the faithful of the land.”
- Psalm 101:6 tn The Hebrew text simply reads, “in order to live with me.”
- Psalm 101:6 tn Heb “one who walks in the way of integrity, he will minister to me.”
- Psalm 101:7 tn Heb “he will not live in the midst of my house, one who does deceit.”
- Psalm 101:7 tn Heb “one who speaks lies will not be established before my eyes.”
- Psalm 102:1 sn Psalm 102. The psalmist laments his oppressed state, but longs for a day when the Lord will restore Jerusalem and vindicate his suffering people.
- Psalm 102:1 tn Heb “and may my cry for help come to you.”
- Psalm 102:2 tn Heb “do not hide your face from me in the day of my trouble.” The idiom “to hide the face” can mean “to ignore” (see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9) or carry the stronger idea of “to reject” (see Pss 29:7; 30:7; 88:14).
- Psalm 102:2 tn Heb “turn toward me your ear.”
- Psalm 102:3 tn Heb “for my days come to an end in smoke.”
- Psalm 102:3 tn The Hebrew noun קֵד (qed, “fireplace”) occurs only here, in Isa 33:14 (where it refers to the fire itself), and perhaps in Lev 6:2.
- Psalm 102:4 tn Heb “struck, attacked.”
- Psalm 102:4 tn Heb “I forget.”
- Psalm 102:4 sn I am unable to eat food. During his time of mourning, the psalmist refrained from eating. In the following verse he describes metaphorically the physical effects of fasting.
- Psalm 102:5 tn Heb “from the sound of my groaning my bone[s] stick to my flesh.” The preposition at the beginning of the verse is causal; the phrase “sound of my groaning” is metonymic for the anxiety that causes the groaning. The point seems to be this: Anxiety (which causes the psalmist to groan) keeps him from eating (v. 4). This physical deprivation in turn makes him emaciated—he is turned to “skin and bones,” so to speak.
- Psalm 102:6 tn The Hebrew term קָאַת (qaʾat) refers to some type of bird (see Lev 11:18; Deut 14:17) that was typically found near ruins (see Zeph 2:14). Modern translations have frequently rendered this as some type of owl (NIV, REB “desert owl”; NRSV “owl”).
- Psalm 102:6 tn The Hebrew term כוֹס (khos) refers to a bird (see Lev 11:17; Deut 14:16), probably a type of owl (cf. NIV, REB “owl”; NRSV “little owl”).
- Psalm 102:6 sn By comparing himself to a screech owl among the ruins, the psalmist may be highlighting his loneliness (see v. 7), though he may also be comparing his cries for help to the owl’s screech.
- Psalm 102:7 tn This probably refers to the psalmist’s inability to sleep. Another option is to translate, “I keep watch,” in which case it might refer to watching for a response from the Lord (see vv. 1-2).
- Psalm 102:8 tn Heb “by me they swear.” When the psalmist’s enemies call judgment down on others, they hold the psalmist up as a prime example of what they desire their enemies to become.
- Psalm 102:9 sn Mourners would sometimes put ashes on their head or roll in ashes as a sign of mourning (see 2 Sam 13:19; Job 2:8; Isa 58:5).
- Psalm 102:9 tn Heb “weeping.”
- Psalm 102:10 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 102:11 tn Heb “my days [are] like an extended [or “lengthening”] shadow,” that is, like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness.
- Psalm 102:12 tn Heb “sit” (i.e., sit enthroned, see Ps 9:7). The imperfect verbal form highlights the generalization.
- Psalm 102:12 tn Heb “and your remembrance [is] for a generation and a generation.”
- Psalm 102:13 tn The imperfect verbal forms are understood as expressing the psalmist’s confidence in God’s intervention. Another option is to take them as expressing the psalmist’s request or wish, “You, rise up and have compassion!”
- Psalm 102:14 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 102:14 tn The Poel of חָנַן (khanan) occurs only here and in Prov 14:21, where it refers to having compassion on the poor.
- Psalm 102:14 tn Heb “her dust,” probably referring to the dust of the city’s rubble.
- Psalm 102:15 tn Heb “will fear the name of the Lord.” To “fear” God’s name means to have a healthy respect for his revealed reputation which in turn motivates one to obey God’s commands (see Ps 86:11).
- Psalm 102:15 tn The verb “will fear” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).
- Psalm 102:17 tn The Hebrew adjective עַרְעָר (ʿarar, “destitute”) occurs only here in the OT. It is derived from the verbal root ערר (“to strip oneself”).
- Psalm 102:17 tn Heb “despise.”
- Psalm 102:17 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 16-17 are functioning as future perfects, indicating future actions that will precede the future developments described in v. 15.
- Psalm 102:18 tn The Hebrew text has simply “this,” referring to the anticipated divine intervention on behalf of Zion (vv. 13, 16-17). The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 102:18 tn Or “created.”
- Psalm 102:19 tn Heb “from the height of his sanctuary.”
- Psalm 102:19 tn The perfect verbal forms in v. 19 are functioning as future perfects, indicating future actions that will precede the future developments described in v. 18.
- Psalm 102:20 tn Heb “the sons of death.” The phrase “sons of death” (see also Ps 79:11) is idiomatic for those condemned to die.
- Psalm 102:21 tn Heb “his praise.”
- Psalm 102:22 tn “and the kingdoms to serve the Lord.”
- Psalm 102:23 tn Heb “he has afflicted my strength in the way.” The term “way” refers here to the course of the psalmist’s life, which appears to be ending prematurely (vv. 23b-24).
- Psalm 102:24 tn Heb “do not lift me up in the middle of my days.”
- Psalm 102:24 tn Heb “in a generation of generations [are] your years.”
- Psalm 102:26 tn Heb “stand.”
- Psalm 102:26 tn The Hebrew verb חָלַף (khalaf) occurs twice in this line, once in the Hiphil (“you will remove them”) and once in the Qal (“they will disappear”). The repetition draws attention to the statement.
- Psalm 102:27 tn Heb “you [are] he,” or “you [are] the one.” The statement may echo the Lord’s affirmation “I am he” in Isa 41:4; 43:10, 13; 46:10; 48:12. In each of these passages the affirmation emphasizes the fact that the Lord transcends time limitations, the very point being made in Ps 102:27.
- Psalm 102:28 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
- Psalm 102:28 tn Heb “before you will be established.”
- Psalm 103:1 sn Psalm 103. The psalmist praises God for his mercy and willingness to forgive his people.
- Psalm 103:1 tn The verb “praise” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the preceding line).
- Psalm 103:2 tn Or “his benefits” (see 2 Chr 32:25, where the noun is also used of kind deeds performed by the Lord).
- Psalm 103:3 tn This relatively rare noun refers to deadly diseases (see Deut 29:22; Jer 14:18; 16:4; 2 Chr 21:19).
- Psalm 103:4 tn Or “redeems.”
- Psalm 103:4 tn The Hebrew term שַׁחַת (shakhat, “pit”) is often used as a title for Sheol (see Pss 16:10; 30:9; 49:9; 55:24 HT [55:23 ET]).
- Psalm 103:5 tc Heb “who satisfies with the good of your ornaments.” The text as it stands makes little, if any, sense. The translation assumes an emendation of עֶדְיֵךְ (ʿedyekh, “your ornaments”) to עֹדֵכִי (ʿodekhi, “your duration; your continuance”), that is, “your life” (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 18).
- Psalm 103:5 sn The expression your youth is renewed like an eagle’s may allude to the phenomenon of molting, whereby the eagle grows new feathers.
- Psalm 103:6 tn Heb “the Lord does fairness, and [acts of] justice for all the oppressed.”
- Psalm 103:7 tn Heb “made known his ways.” God’s “ways” in this context are his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 18:30; 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 138:5; 145:17).
- Psalm 103:8 tn Heb “slow to anger” (see Ps 86:15).
- Psalm 103:8 tn Heb “and great of loyal love” (see Ps 86:15).
- Psalm 103:9 tn The Hebrew verb נָטַר (natar) is usually taken to mean “to keep; to guard,” with “anger” being understood by ellipsis. The idiom “to guard anger” is then understood to mean “to remain angry” (see Lev 19:18; Jer 3:5, 12; Nah 1:2). However, it is possible that this is a homonymic root meaning “to be angry” (see HALOT 695 s.v. נטר).
- Psalm 103:10 tn Heb “not according to our sins does he do to us.”
- Psalm 103:10 tn Heb “and not according to our misdeeds does he repay us.”
- Psalm 103:11 tn For this sense of the verb גָבַר (gavar), see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 17, 19.
- Psalm 103:11 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
- Psalm 103:12 tn Heb “sunrise.”
- Psalm 103:12 tn Or “sunset.”
- Psalm 103:12 tn The Hebrew term פֶּשַׁע (peshaʿ, rebellious act”) is here used metonymically for the guilt such actions produce.
- Psalm 103:13 tn Or “sons,” but the Hebrew term sometimes refers to children in general.
- Psalm 103:13 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
- Psalm 103:14 tn Heb “our form.”
- Psalm 103:14 tn Heb “remembers.”
- Psalm 103:14 tn Heb “we [are] clay.”
- Psalm 103:15 tn Heb “[as for] mankind, like grass [are] his days.” The Hebrew noun אֱנוֹשׁ (ʾenosh) is used here generically of human beings. What is said is true of all mankind.
- Psalm 103:16 tn Heb “[the] wind.” The word “hot” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Psalm 103:17 tn Heb “but the loyal love of the Lord [is] from everlasting to everlasting over those who fear him.”
- Psalm 103:17 tn Heb “and his righteousness to sons of sons.”
- Psalm 103:18 tn Heb “to those who remember his precepts to do them.”
- Psalm 103:19 tn Heb “his kingdom rules over all.”
- Psalm 103:20 tn Heb “[you] mighty ones of strength, doers of his word, by listening to the voice of his word.”
- Psalm 103:21 tn Heb “all his hosts.”
- Psalm 103:21 tn Heb “his attendants, doers of his desire.”
- Psalm 103:22 tn Heb “all his works,” which includes mankind.
- Psalm 103:22 tn Heb “places.”
- Psalm 104:1 sn Psalm 104. The psalmist praises God as the ruler of the world who sustains all life.
- Psalm 104:1 tn Heb “very great.”
- Psalm 104:3 tn Heb “one who lays the beams on water [in] his upper rooms.” The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 44-45.
- Psalm 104:3 sn Verse 3 may depict the Lord riding a cherub, which is in turn propelled by the wind current. Another option is that the wind is personified as a cherub. See Ps 18:10 and the discussion of ancient Near Eastern parallels to the imagery in M. Weinfeld, “‘Rider of the Clouds’ and ‘Gatherer of the Clouds’,” JANESCU 5 (1973): 422-24.
- Psalm 104:4 tc Heb “and his attendants a flaming fire.” The lack of agreement between the singular “fire” and plural “attendants” has prompted various emendations. Some read “fire and flame.” The present translation assumes an emendation from מְשָׁרְתָיו (mesharetayv, “his attendants”) to מְשָׁרְתוֹ (meshareto, “his attendant”), a reading supported by one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q93.sn In Ugaritic mythology Yam’s messengers appear as flaming fire before the assembly of the gods. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 42.
- Psalm 104:6 tc Heb “you covered it.” The masculine suffix is problematic if the grammatically feminine noun “earth” is the antecedent. For this reason some emend the form from כִּסִּיתוֹ (kissito) to a feminine verb with feminine suffix, כִּסַּתָּה (kissattah, “[the watery deep] covered it [i.e., the earth]”), a reading assumed by the present translation.
- Psalm 104:6 tn Heb “stood.”
- Psalm 104:6 sn Verse 6 refers to the condition described in Gen 1:2 (note the use of the Hebrew term תְּהוֹם [tehom, “watery deep”] in both texts).
- Psalm 104:8 tn Heb “from your shout they fled, from the sound of your thunder they hurried off.”sn Verses 7-8 poetically depict Gen 1:9-10.
- Psalm 104:9 tn Heb “a boundary you set up, they will not cross, they will not return to cover the earth.”
- Psalm 104:10 tn Heb “[the] one who sends springs into streams.” Another option is to translate, “he sends streams [i.e., streams that originate from springs] into the valleys” (cf. NIV).
- Psalm 104:12 tn Heb “among the thick foliage they give a sound.”
- Psalm 104:13 tn Heb “from his upper rooms.”
- Psalm 104:13 tn Heb “from the fruit of your works the earth is full.” The translation assumes that “fruit” is literal here. If “fruit” is understood more abstractly as “product; result,” then one could translate, “the earth flourishes as a result of your deeds” (cf. NIV, NRSV, REB).
- Psalm 104:14 tn Heb “causes the grass to sprout up.”
- Psalm 104:14 tn Heb “for the service of man” (see Gen 2:5).
- Psalm 104:14 tn Heb “to cause food to come out from the earth.”
- Psalm 104:15 tn Heb “and wine [that] makes the heart of man happy.”
- Psalm 104:15 tn Heb “to make [the] face shine from oil.” The Hebrew verb צָהַל (tsahal, “to shine”) occurs only here in the OT. It appears to be an alternate form of צָהַר (tsahar), a derivative from צָהָרִים (tsaharim, “noon”).
- Psalm 104:15 tn Heb “and food [that] sustains the heart of man.”
- Psalm 104:16 sn The trees of the Lord are the cedars of Lebanon (see the next line), which are viewed as special because of their great size and grandeur. The Lebanon forest was viewed elsewhere in the OT as the “garden of God” (see Ezek 31:8).
- Psalm 104:16 tn Heb “are satisfied,” which means here that they receive abundant rain (see v. 13).
- Psalm 104:17 tn Heb “[the] heron [in the] evergreens [is] its home.”sn The cedars and evergreens of the Lebanon forest are frequently associated (see, for example, 2 Chr 2:8; Isa 14:8; 37:24; Ezek 31:8).
- Psalm 104:18 tn Heb “the high mountains [are] for the goats.”
- Psalm 104:19 tn Heb “he made [the] moon for appointed times.” The phrase “appointed times” probably refers to the months of the Hebrew lunar calendar.
- Psalm 104:19 tn Heb more metaphorically, “knows its setting.”
- Psalm 104:20 tn Heb “you make darkness, so that it might be night.”
- Psalm 104:21 sn The lions’ roaring is viewed as a request for food from God.
- Psalm 104:22 tn Heb “lie down.”
- Psalm 104:23 tn Heb “man goes out to his work, and to his labor until evening.”
- Psalm 104:24 tn Heb “How many [are] your works, O Lord.” In this case the Lord’s “works” are the creatures he has made, as the preceding and following contexts make clear.
- Psalm 104:24 tn Heb “all of them with wisdom you have made.”
- Psalm 104:25 tn Heb “this [is] the sea, great and broad of hands [i.e., “sides” or “shores”].”
- Psalm 104:25 tn Heb “where [there are] swimming things, and without number.”
- Psalm 104:26 tn Heb “[and] this Leviathan, [which] you formed to play in it.” Elsewhere Leviathan is a multiheaded sea monster that symbolizes forces hostile to God (see Ps 74:14; Isa 27:1), but here it appears to be an actual marine creature created by God, probably some type of whale.
- Psalm 104:27 tn Heb “All of them.” The pronoun “them” refers not just to the sea creatures mentioned in vv. 25-26, but to all living things (see v. 24). This has been specified in the translation as “all of your creatures” for clarity.
- Psalm 104:27 tn Heb “to give their food in its time.”
- Psalm 104:28 tn Heb “they are satisfied [with] good.”
- Psalm 104:29 tn Heb “you hide your face, they are terrified.”
- Psalm 104:31 tn Heb “be forever.”
- Psalm 104:31 tn Or “rejoice in his works.”
- Psalm 104:33 tn Heb “in my duration.”
- Psalm 104:34 tn That is, the psalmist’s thoughts as expressed in his songs of praise.
- Psalm 104:35 tn Or “be destroyed.”
- Psalm 105:1 sn Psalm 105. The psalmist summons Israel to praise God because he delivered his people from Egypt in fulfillment of his covenantal promises to Abraham. A parallel version of vv. 1-15 appears in 1 Chr 16:8-22.
- Psalm 105:5 tn Heb “and the judgments of his mouth.”
- Psalm 105:6 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
- Psalm 105:6 tc Some mss have “Israel,” which appears in the parallel version of this psalm in 1 Chr 16:13.
- Psalm 105:6 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 105:6 tn Heb “sons.”
- Psalm 105:6 tn Heb “his”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 105:7 tn Heb “in all the earth [are] his judgments.”
- Psalm 105:8 tn Heb “[the] word he commanded.” The text refers here to God’s unconditional covenantal promise to Abraham and the patriarchs, as vv. 10-12 make clear.
- Psalm 105:9 tn Heb “which.”
- Psalm 105:10 tn Or “eternal covenant.”
- Psalm 105:13 tn Heb “and from a kingdom to another nation.”
- Psalm 105:15 tn The word “saying” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
- Psalm 105:15 tn Heb “anointed.”
- Psalm 105:16 tn Heb “and every staff of food he broke.” The psalmist refers to the famine that occurred in Joseph’s time (see v. 17 and Gen 41:53-57).
- Psalm 105:17 tn After the reference to the famine in v. 16, v. 17 flashes back to events that preceded the famine (see Gen 37).
- Psalm 105:18 tn Heb “they afflicted his feet with shackles.”
- Psalm 105:18 tn Heb “his neck came [into] iron.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) with the suffix could mean simply “he” or “his life.” But the nuance “neck” makes good sense here (note the reference to his “feet” in the preceding line). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 38.
- Psalm 105:19 tn Heb “word,” probably referring to Joseph’s prediction about the fate of Pharaoh’s cupbearer and baker (see Gen 41:9-14).
- Psalm 105:19 tn This line may refer to Joseph’s prediction of the famine in response to Pharaoh’s dream. Joseph emphasized to Pharaoh that the interpretation of the dream came from God (see Gen 41:16, 25, 28, 32, 39).
- Psalm 105:19 tn Heb “refined him.”
- Psalm 105:20 tn Heb “[the] king sent and set him free.”
- Psalm 105:21 tn Heb “he made him master of his house.”
- Psalm 105:22 tn Heb “to bind his officials by his will.”
- Psalm 105:22 tn Heb “and his elders he taught wisdom.”
- Psalm 105:23 tn Heb “entered.”
- Psalm 105:23 tn Heb “lived as a resident foreigner.”
- Psalm 105:24 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the Lord) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 105:24 tn Heb “him,” referring to “his people.”
- Psalm 105:24 tn Heb “his,” referring to “his people.”
- Psalm 105:25 tn Heb “their heart.”
- Psalm 105:25 tn Or “to deal deceptively.” The Hitpael of נָכַל (nakhal) occurs only here and in Gen 37:18, where it is used of Joseph’s brothers “plotting” to kill him.
- Psalm 105:27 tn Apparently the pronoun refers to “his servants” (i.e., the Israelites, see v. 25).
- Psalm 105:28 tn Heb “he sent darkness and made it dark.”sn He made it dark. The psalmist begins with the ninth plague (see Exod 10:21-29).
- Psalm 105:28 tn Heb “they did not rebel against his words.” Apparently this refers to Moses and Aaron, who obediently carried out God’s orders.
- Psalm 105:31 tn Heb “he spoke and flies came.”
- Psalm 105:32 tn Heb “he gave their rains hail.”
- Psalm 105:32 tn Heb “fire of flames [was] in their land.”
- Psalm 105:34 tn Heb “he spoke and locusts came.”
- Psalm 105:35 tn Heb “the fruit of their ground.”
- Psalm 105:36 tn Heb “the beginning of all their strength,” that is, reproductive power (see Ps 78:51).sn Verses 28-36 recall the plagues in a different order than the one presented in Exodus: v. 28 (plague 9), v. 29 (plague 1), v. 30 (plague 2), v. 31a (plague 4), v. 31b (plague 3), vv. 32-33 (plague 7), vv. 34-35 (plague 8), v. 36 (plague 10). No reference is made in Ps 105 to plagues 5 and 6.
- Psalm 105:37 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Lord’s people) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 105:37 tn The word “enriched” is supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
- Psalm 105:38 tn Heb “for fear of them had fallen upon them.”
- Psalm 105:39 tn Or “curtain.”
- Psalm 105:40 tn Heb “he [i.e., his people] asked.” The singular form should probably be emended to a plural שָׁאֲלוּ (shaʾalu, “they asked”), the ו (vav) having fallen off by haplography (note the vav at the beginning of the following form).
- Psalm 105:40 tn Or “bread of heaven.” The reference is to manna (see Exod 16:4, 13-15).
- Psalm 105:42 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 105:42 tn Heb “his holy word.”
- Psalm 105:43 tn Heb “and he led his people out with joy, with a ringing cry, his chosen ones.”
- Psalm 105:44 tn Heb “and the [product of the] work of peoples they possessed.”
- Psalm 105:45 tn Heb “guard.”
- Psalm 106:1 sn Psalm 106. The psalmist recalls Israel’s long history of rebellion against God, despite his mighty saving deeds on their behalf.
- Psalm 106:1 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”
- Psalm 106:2 tn Heb “[or] cause to be heard all his praise.”
- Psalm 106:5 tn Heb “good.”
- Psalm 106:5 tn Heb “in order that [I may] rejoice with the rejoicing of your nation.”
- Psalm 106:5 tn Heb “with your inheritance.”
- Psalm 106:6 tn Heb “with.”
- Psalm 106:6 tn Heb “fathers” (also in v. 7).
- Psalm 106:7 tn Heb “Reed Sea” (also in vv. 9, 22). “Reed Sea” (or “Sea of Reeds”) is a more accurate rendering of the Hebrew expression יָם סוּף (yam suf), traditionally translated “Red Sea.” See the note on the term “Red Sea” in Exod 13:18.sn They rebelled. The psalmist recalls the people’s complaint recorded in Exod 14:12.
- Psalm 106:8 tn Heb “his name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
- Psalm 106:9 tn Or “rebuked.”
- Psalm 106:10 tn Heb “hand.”
- Psalm 106:10 tn Or “redeemed.”
- Psalm 106:10 tn Heb “hand.”
- Psalm 106:11 tn Heb “remained.”
- Psalm 106:12 tn Heb “his words.”
- Psalm 106:13 tn Heb “his works.”
- Psalm 106:13 tn Heb “his counsel.”
- Psalm 106:14 sn They had an insatiable craving. This is described in Num 11:4-35.
- Psalm 106:14 tn Heb “they craved [with] a craving.”
- Psalm 106:14 tn Heb “they tested God.”
- Psalm 106:15 tn Heb “and he sent leanness into their being.”sn Disease. See Num 11:33-34, where this plague is described.
- Psalm 106:16 tn Or “envied.”
- Psalm 106:16 tn Heb “the holy one of the Lord.”
- Psalm 106:17 tn Or “covered.”
- Psalm 106:17 tn Or “the assembly of Abiram.”
- Psalm 106:18 sn Verses 16-18 describe the events of Num 16:1-40.
- Psalm 106:20 tn Heb “their glory.” According to an ancient Hebrew scribal tradition, the text originally read “his glory” or “my glory.” In Jer 2:11 the Lord states that his people (Israel) exchanged “their glory” (a reference to the Lord) for worthless idols.
- Psalm 106:21 tn Heb “forgot.”
- Psalm 106:22 tn Or “awe-inspiring acts.”
- Psalm 106:23 tn Heb “and he said.”
- Psalm 106:23 tn Heb “if not,” that is, “[and would have] if [Moses] had not.”
- Psalm 106:23 tn Heb “stood in the gap before him.”
- Psalm 106:23 tn Heb “to turn back his anger from destroying.”sn Verses 19-23 describe the events of Exod 32:1-35.
- Psalm 106:24 tn Heb “a land of delight” (see also Jer 3:19; Zech 7:14).
- Psalm 106:24 tn Heb “his word.”
- Psalm 106:25 sn They grumbled in their tents. See Deut 1:27.
- Psalm 106:25 tn Heb “did not listen to the voice of.”
- Psalm 106:26 tn Heb “and he lifted his hand to [or “concerning”] them.” The idiom “to lift a hand” here refers to swearing an oath. One would sometimes solemnly lift one’s hand when making such a vow (see Ezek 20:5-6, 15).
- Psalm 106:26 tn Heb “to cause them to fall.”
- Psalm 106:27 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
- Psalm 106:27 tn Heb “and to cause their offspring to fall.” Some emend the verb to “scatter” to form tighter parallelism with the following line (cf. NRSV “disperse”).
- Psalm 106:27 tn Heb “among the lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Psalm 106:28 tn Heb “joined themselves to.”sn They worshiped Baal of Peor. See Num 25:3, 5. Baal of Peor was a local manifestation of the Canaanite deity Baal located at Peor.
- Psalm 106:28 tn Here “the dead” may refer to deceased ancestors (see Deut 26:14). Another option is to understand the term as a derogatory reference to the various deities which the Israelites worshiped at Peor along with Baal (see Num 25:2 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 49).
- Psalm 106:29 tn Heb “They made angry [him].” The pronominal suffix is omitted here, but does appear in a few medieval Hebrew mss. Perhaps it was accidentally left off, an original וַיַּכְעִיסוּהוּ (vayyakhʿisuhu) being misread as וַיַּכְעִיסוּ (vayyakhʿisu). In the translation the referent of the pronominal suffix (the Lord) has been specified for clarity to avoid confusion with Baal of Peor (mentioned in the previous verse).
- Psalm 106:30 sn The intervention of Phinehas is recounted in Num 25:7-8.
- Psalm 106:31 tn Heb “and it was reckoned to him for righteousness, to a generation and a generation forever.” The verb חָשַׁב (khashav, “to reckon”) is collocated with צְדָקָה (tsedaqah, “righteousness”) only in Ps 106:31 and Gen 15:6, where God credits Abram’s faith as righteousness.
- Psalm 106:32 tn Heb “there was harm to Moses.”
- Psalm 106:33 tn The Hebrew text vocalizes the form as הִמְרוּ (himru), a Hiphil from מָרָה (marah, “to behave rebelliously”), but the verb fits better with the object (“his spirit”) if it is revocalized as הֵמֵרוּ (hemeru), a Hiphil from מָרַר (marar, “to be bitter”). The Israelites “embittered” Moses’ “spirit” in the sense that they aroused his temper with their complaints.
- Psalm 106:33 tn Heb “his spirit.”
- Psalm 106:33 tn The Hebrew text adds “with his lips,” but this has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.sn Verses 32-33 allude to the events of Num 20:1-13.
- Psalm 106:34 tn That is, the nations of Canaan.
- Psalm 106:35 tn Heb “their deeds.”
- Psalm 106:36 tn Or “served.”
- Psalm 106:36 sn Became a snare. See Exod 23:33; Judg 2:3.
- Psalm 106:37 tn The Hebrew term שֵׁדִים (shedim, “demons”) occurs only here and in Deut 32:17. Some type of lesser deity is probably in view.
- Psalm 106:38 sn Num 35:33-34 explains that bloodshed defiles a land.
- Psalm 106:39 tn Heb “and they committed adultery in their actions.” This means that they were unfaithful to the Lord (see Ps 73:27).
- Psalm 106:40 tn Heb “the anger of the Lord burned against his people.”
- Psalm 106:40 tn Heb “his inheritance.”
- Psalm 106:41 tn Heb “gave them into the hand of.”
- Psalm 106:42 tn Heb “they were subdued under their hand.”
- Psalm 106:43 tn The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“he would deliver”).
- Psalm 106:43 tn Heb “but they rebelled in their counsel.” The prefixed verbal form is either preterite or imperfect, in which case it is customary, describing repeated action in past time (“they would have a rebellious attitude”).
- Psalm 106:43 tn Heb “they sank down.” The Hebrew verb מָכַךְ (makhakh, “to lower; to sink”) occurs only here in the Qal.
- Psalm 106:45 tn The Niphal of נָחַם (nakham) refers here to God relenting from a punishment already underway.
- Psalm 106:46 tn Or “captors.”
- Psalm 106:47 tn Heb “to give thanks.” The infinitive construct indicates result after the imperative.
- Psalm 106:47 tn Heb “to boast in your praise.”
- Psalm 106:48 tn Heb “[be] blessed.” See Pss 18:46; 28:6; 31:21.
- Psalm 106:48 tn Heb “from everlasting to everlasting.”
- Psalm 106:48 tn Heb “surely” (אָמֵן,ʾamen), traditionally transliterated “amen.”
- Psalm 106:48 sn The final verse (v. 48) is a conclusion to this fourth “book” (or major editorial division) of the Psalter. Similar statements appear at or near the end of each of the first, second and third “books” of the Psalter (see Pss 41:13; 72:18-19; 89:52, respectively).
- Psalm 107:1 sn Psalm 107. The psalmist praises God for his kindness to his exiled people.
- Psalm 107:1 tn Heb “for forever [is] his loyal love.”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Or “let the redeemed of the Lord say [so].”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Or “redeemed.”
- Psalm 107:2 tn Heb “hand.”
- Psalm 107:3 tn Heb “from lands.” The word “foreign” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Psalm 107:4 tc The MT divides the verse so the line ends “on a wasteland of a road.” The LXX divides the line before “road” as in the translation.
- Psalm 107:5 tn Heb “and their soul in them fainted.”
- Psalm 107:7 sn A level road. See Jer 31:9.
- Psalm 107:8 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.”
- Psalm 107:9 tn Heb “[the] longing throat.” The noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh), which frequently refers to one’s very being or soul, here probably refers to one’s parched “throat” (note the parallelism with נֶפֶשׁ רְעֵבָה, nefesh reʿevah, “hungry throat”).
- Psalm 107:9 tn Heb “and [the] hungry throat he has filled [with] good.”
- Psalm 107:10 tn Heb “those who sat in darkness and deep darkness.” Synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of “darkness” experienced by the exiles. The Hebrew term צַלְמָוֶת (tsalmavet, “deep darkness”) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun, meaning “shadow of death” (צֵל + מָוֶת [tsel + mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. צַלְמָוֶת; cf. NASB). Other authorities prefer to vocalize the form צַלְמוּת (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root צלם) meaning “darkness.” An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. In Ps 107:10 the word refers metonymically to a dungeon, which in turn metaphorically depicts the place of Israel’s exile (see vv. 2-3).
- Psalm 107:10 tn Heb “those bound in suffering and iron.” “Suffering and iron” is a hendiadys (like English “good and angry”), where both words contribute to one idea. In this case the first word characterizes the second; the iron (chains) contribute to the prisoners’ pain and suffering.
- Psalm 107:11 tn Heb “the words of God.”
- Psalm 107:11 sn The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן ʿelyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Pss 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 21:7; 47:2.
- Psalm 107:12 tn Heb “and he subdued with suffering their heart.”
- Psalm 107:14 tn Heb “darkness and deep darkness.” See the note on the word “darkness” in v. 10.
- Psalm 107:15 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:16 sn The language of v. 16 recalls Isa 45:2.
- Psalm 107:17 tn Heb “fools [they were] because of the way of their rebellion.”
- Psalm 107:18 tn Heb “all food their appetite loathed.”
- Psalm 107:20 tn Heb “he sent his word.” This probably refers to an oracle of assurance which announced his intention to intervene (see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 59).
- Psalm 107:20 tn Heb “he rescued from their traps.” The Hebrew word שְׁחִית (shekhit, “trap”) occurs only here and in Lam 4:20, where it refers to a trap or pit in which one is captured. Because of the rarity of the term and the absence of an object with the verb “rescued,” some prefer to emend the text of Ps 107:20, reading מִשַּׁחַת חַיָּתָם (mishakhat khayyatam, “[he rescued] their lives from the pit”). Note also NIV “from the grave,” which interprets the “pit” as Sheol or the grave.
- Psalm 107:21 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:22 tn Heb “and let them proclaim his works with a ringing cry.”
- Psalm 107:23 sn Verses 23-30, which depict the Lord rescuing sailors from a storm at sea, do not seem to describe the exiles’ situation, unless the word picture is metaphorical. Perhaps the psalmist here broadens his scope and offers an example of God’s kindness to the needy beyond the covenant community.
- Psalm 107:23 tn Heb “those going down [into].”
- Psalm 107:23 tn Heb “doers of work on the mighty waters.”
- Psalm 107:25 tn Heb “he spoke and caused to stand a stormy wind.”
- Psalm 107:25 tn Heb “and it stirred up its [i.e., the sea’s, see v. 23] waves.”
- Psalm 107:26 tn That is, the waves (see v. 25).
- Psalm 107:26 tn Heb “their being”; traditionally “their soul” (referring to that of the sailors). This is sometimes translated “courage” (cf. NIV, NRSV).
- Psalm 107:26 tn Or “melted.”
- Psalm 107:26 tn Heb “from danger.”
- Psalm 107:27 tn Only here does the Hebrew verb חָגַג (khagag; normally meaning “to celebrate”) carry the nuance “to sway.”
- Psalm 107:27 tn The Hitpael of בָּלַע (balaʿ) occurs only here in the OT. Traditionally the form is derived from the verbal root בלע (“to swallow”), but HALOT 135 s.v. III בלע understands a homonym here with the meaning “to be confused.”
- Psalm 107:29 tn Heb “he raised [the] storm to calm.”
- Psalm 107:29 tn Heb “their waves.” The antecedent of the third masculine plural pronominal suffix is not readily apparent, unless it refers back to “waters” in v. 23.
- Psalm 107:30 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the sailors) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 107:30 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the waves) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 107:30 tn The Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT.
- Psalm 107:31 tn Heb “and [for] his amazing deeds for the sons of man.” See v. 8.
- Psalm 107:32 tn Heb “in the seat of the elders.”
- Psalm 107:33 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. (The use of prefixed forms with vav [ו] consecutive in vv. 36-37 favor this.) The psalmist may return to the theme of God’s intervention for the exiles (see vv. 4-22, especially vv. 4-9). However, many regard vv. 33-41 as a hymnic description which generalizes about God’s activities among men. In this case it would be preferable to use the English present tense throughout (cf. NEB, NRSV).
- Psalm 107:34 tn Heb “a salty land.”
- Psalm 107:35 tn The words “As for his people” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. The psalmist contrasts God’s judgment on his enemies with his blessing of his people. See the note on the word “enemies” in v. 39 for further discussion.
- Psalm 107:35 tn The verbal form appears to be a preterite, which is most naturally taken as narrational. See the note on the word “turned” in v. 33.
- Psalm 107:37 tn Heb “sowed seed in.”
- Psalm 107:37 tn Heb “fruit [as] produce.”
- Psalm 107:38 tn “Bless” here carries the nuance “endue with sexual potency, make fertile.” See Gen 1:28, where the statement “he blessed them” directly precedes the command “be fruitful and populate the earth” (see also 1:22). The verb “bless” carries this same nuance in Gen 17:16 (where God’s blessing of Sarai imparts to her the capacity to bear a child); 48:16 (where God’s blessing of Joseph’s sons is closely associated with their having numerous descendants); and Deut 7:13 (where God’s blessing is associated with fertility in general, including numerous descendants). See also Gen 49:25 (where Jacob uses the noun derivative in referring to “blessings of the breast and womb,” an obvious reference to fertility) and Gen 27:27 (where the verb is used of a field to which God has given the capacity to produce vegetation).
- Psalm 107:38 tn The verbal form in this line appears to be an imperfect, which may be taken as customary (drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame) or as generalizing (in which case one should use the English present tense, understanding a move from narrative to present reality).
- Psalm 107:39 tn The words “As for their enemies” are not included in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity. Without such clarification, one might think that v. 39 refers to those just mentioned in v. 38 as objects of divine blessing, which would contradict the point just emphasized by the psalmist. The structure of vv. 33-42 is paneled (A-B-A-B). In vv. 33-34 the psalmist describes God’s judgment upon his enemies (perhaps those who had enslaved his people). In vv. 35-38 he contrasts this judgment with the divine blessing poured out on God’s people. (See the note on the word “people” in v. 35.) In vv. 39-40 he contrasts this blessing with the judgment experienced by enemies, before returning in vv. 41-42 to the blessing experienced by God’s people.
- Psalm 107:39 tn Heb “from the oppression of calamity.”
- Psalm 107:40 tn The active participle is understood as past durative here, drawing attention to typical action in a past time frame. However, it could be taken as generalizing (in which case one should translate using the English present tense), in which case the psalmist moves from narrative to present reality. Perhaps the participial form appears because the statement is lifted from Job 12:21.
- Psalm 107:41 tn Heb “set on high.”
- Psalm 107:42 tn Heb “all evil,” which stands metonymically for those who do evil.
- Psalm 108:1 sn Psalm 108. With some minor variations, this psalm is a composite of Ps 57:7-11 (see vv. 1-5) and Ps 60:5-12 (see vv. 6-13).
- Psalm 108:1 tn Or perhaps “confident”; Heb “my heart is steadfast.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and/or emotions.
- Psalm 108:1 tn Heb “also my glory,” but this makes little sense in the context. Some view the term כָּבוֹד (kavod, “glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kevedi, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 30:12; 57:9; as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 3:93. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
- Psalm 108:2 tn BDB 1007 s.v. שַׁחַר takes “dawn” as an adverbial accusative, though others understand it as a personified direct object. “Dawn” is used metaphorically for the time of deliverance and vindication the psalmist anticipates. When salvation “dawns,” the psalmist will “wake up” in praise.
- Psalm 108:3 tn Or “the peoples.”
- Psalm 108:4 tn Heb “for great upon the sky [or “heavens”] [is] your loyal love.”
- Psalm 108:5 tn Or “be exalted.”
- Psalm 108:5 tn Heb “over all the earth [be] your splendor.” Though no verb appears, the tone of the statement is a prayer or wish. (Note the imperative form in the preceding line.)
- Psalm 108:6 tn Heb “right hand.”
- Psalm 108:6 tn Or “may be rescued.” The lines are actually reversed in the Hebrew text: “So that the ones you love may be rescued, deliver by your power and answer me.”
- Psalm 108:7 tn Heb “in his holy place.”
- Psalm 108:7 sn Shechem stands for the territory west of the Jordan River; the Valley of Sukkoth represents the region east of the Jordan.
- Psalm 108:8 tn Gilead was located east of the Jordan River. Half of the tribe of Manasseh lived east of the Jordan in the region of Bashan.
- Psalm 108:8 tn Heb “the protection of my head.”sn Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, was one of two major tribes located west of the Jordan River. By comparing Ephraim to a helmet, the Lord suggests that the Ephraimites played a primary role in the defense of his land.
- Psalm 108:8 sn Judah, like Ephraim, was the other major tribe west of the Jordan River. The Davidic king, symbolized here by the royal scepter, came from this tribe.
- Psalm 108:9 sn The metaphor of the washbasin, used to rinse one’s hands and feet, suggests that Moab, in contrast to Israel’s elevated position (vv. 7-8), would be reduced to the status of a servant.
- Psalm 108:9 tn Heb “over Edom I will throw my sandal.” The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. Some interpret this as idiomatic for “taking possession of.” Others translate עַל (ʿal) as “to” and understand this as referring to a master throwing his dirty sandal to a servant so that the latter might dust it off.
- Psalm 108:10 sn The psalmist speaks again and acknowledges his need for help in battle. He hopes God will volunteer, based on the affirmation of sovereignty over Edom in v. 9, but he is also aware that God has seemingly rejected the nation of Israel (v. 11).
- Psalm 108:12 tn Heb “and futile [is] the deliverance of man.”
- Psalm 108:13 tn Heb “in God we will accomplish strength.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 60:12; 118:16).
- Psalm 108:13 sn On the expression trample down our enemies see Ps 44:5.
- Psalm 109:1 sn Psalm 109. Appealing to God’s justice, the psalmist asks God to vindicate him and to bring severe judgment down upon his enemies.
- Psalm 109:1 tn Heb “do not be deaf.”
- Psalm 109:2 tn Heb “for a mouth of evil and a mouth of deceit against me they open, they speak with me [with] a tongue of falsehood.”
- Psalm 109:3 tn Heb “and [with] words of hatred they surround me.”
- Psalm 109:4 tn Heb “in place of my love they oppose me.”
- Psalm 109:4 tn Heb “and I, prayer.”
- Psalm 109:5 tn Heb “and they set upon me evil in place of good.”
- Psalm 109:6 sn In vv. 6-19 the psalmist calls on God to judge his enemies severely. Some attribute this curse-list to the psalmist’s enemies rather than the psalmist. In this case one should paraphrase v. 6: “They say about me, ‘Appoint an evil man, etc.’” Those supporting this line of interpretation point out that vv. 2-5 and 20 refer to the enemies’ attack on the psalmist being a verbal one. Furthermore in vv. 1-5, 20 the psalmist speaks of his enemies in the plural, while vv. 6-19 refer to an individual. This use of the singular in vv. 6-19 could be readily explained if this is the psalmist’s enemies’ curse on him. However, it is much more natural to understand vv. 6-19 as the psalmist’s prayer against his enemies. There is no introductory quotation formula in v. 6 to indicate that the psalmist is quoting anyone, and the statement “may the Lord repay my accusers in this way” in v. 20 most naturally appears to be a fitting conclusion to the prayer in vv. 6-19. But what about the use of the singular in vv. 6-19? Often in the psalms the psalmist will describe his enemies as a group, but then speak of them as an individual as well, as if viewing his adversaries collectively as one powerful foe. See, for example, Ps 7, where the psalmist uses both the plural (vv. 1, 6) and the singular (vv. 2, 4-5) in referring to enemies. Perhaps by using the singular in such cases, the psalmist wants to single out each enemy for individual attention, or perhaps he has one especially hostile enemy in mind who epitomizes the opposition of the whole group. This may well be the case in Ps 109. Perhaps we should understand the singular throughout vv. 6-19 in the sense of “each and every one.” For a lengthy and well-reasoned defense of the opposite view—that vv. 6-19 are a quotation of what the enemies said about the psalmist—see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 72-73.
- Psalm 109:6 tn Heb “appoint against him an evil [man].”
- Psalm 109:6 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive here (note the imperative in the preceding line).
- Psalm 109:7 tn The prefixed verbal form could be taken as a jussive, but the use of the imperfect form in the following line suggests that v. 7 anticipates the outcome of the accusation envisioned in v. 6.
- Psalm 109:7 tn Heb “he will go out [as] a criminal” (that is, guilty).
- Psalm 109:8 tn The prefixed verbal forms (except those with vav [ו] consecutive) in vv. 8-20 are taken as jussives of prayer. Note the distinct jussive forms used in vv. 12-13, 15, 19.
- Psalm 109:8 tn The Hebrew noun פְּקֻדָּה (pequddah) can mean “charge” or “office,” though BDB 824 s.v. suggests that here it refers to his possessions.
- Psalm 109:9 tn Or “sons.”
- Psalm 109:10 tn Or “sons.”
- Psalm 109:10 tn Heb “and roaming, may his children roam and beg, and seek from their ruins.” Some, following the LXX, emend the term וְדָרְשׁוּ (vedareshu, “and seek”) to יְגֹרְשׁוּ (yegoreshu; a Pual jussive, “may they be driven away” [see Job 30:5; cf. NIV, NRSV]), but דָּרַשׁ (darash) nicely parallels שִׁאֵלוּ (shiʾelu, “and beg”) in the preceding line.
- Psalm 109:11 tn Heb “lay snares for” (see Ps 38:12).
- Psalm 109:11 tn Heb “the product of his labor.”
- Psalm 109:12 tn Heb “may there not be for him one who extends loyal love.”
- Psalm 109:12 tn Perhaps this refers to being generous (see Ps 37:21).
- Psalm 109:13 tn Or “offspring.”
- Psalm 109:13 sn On the expression cut off see Ps 37:28.
- Psalm 109:13 tn Heb “in another generation may their name be wiped out.”
- Psalm 109:14 tn Or “fathers’ sins.”
- Psalm 109:14 tn Heb “not be wiped out.”sn According to ancient Israelite theology and its doctrine of corporate solidarity and responsibility, children could be and often were punished for the sins of their parents. For a discussion of this issue see J. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup). (Kaminsky, however, does not deal with Ps 109.)
- Psalm 109:15 tn Heb “may they [that is, the sins mentioned in v. 14] be before the Lord continually.”
- Psalm 109:15 tn Heb “their memory.” The plural pronominal suffix probably refers back to the children mentioned in v. 13, and for clarity this has been specified in the translation.
- Psalm 109:16 tn Heb “he did not remember to do loyal love.”
- Psalm 109:16 tn Heb “and he chased an oppressed and needy man, and one timid of heart to put [him] to death.”
- Psalm 109:17 sn A curse in OT times consists of a formal appeal to God to bring judgment down upon another. Curses were sometimes justified (such as the one spoken by the psalmist here in vv. 6-19), but when they were not, the one pronouncing the curse was in danger of bringing the anticipated judgment down upon himself.
- Psalm 109:17 tn Heb “and he loved a curse and it came [upon] him.” A reference to the evil man experiencing a curse seems premature here, for the psalmist is asking God to bring judgment on his enemies. For this reason some (cf. NIV, NRSV) prefer to repoint the vav (ו) on “it came” as conjunctive and translate the verb as a jussive of prayer (“may it come upon him!”). The prefixed form with vav consecutive in the next line is emended in the same way and translated, “may it be far from him.” However, the psalmist may be indicating that the evil man’s lifestyle has already begun to yield its destructive fruit.
- Psalm 109:17 tn Heb “and he did not delight in a blessing and it is far from him.”
- Psalm 109:18 tn Heb “he put on a curse as [if it were] his garment.”
- Psalm 109:18 tn Heb “and it came like water into his inner being, and like oil into his bones.” This may refer to this individual’s appetite for cursing. For him cursing was as refreshing as drinking water or massaging oneself with oil. Another option is that the destructive effects of a curse are in view. In this case a destructive curse invades his very being, like water or oil. Some who interpret the verse this way prefer to repoint the verb from the preterite form וַתָּבֹא (vattavoʾ, “and it came”) to a jussive form וְתָבֹא (vetavoʾ, “and may it come!”).
- Psalm 109:19 tn Heb “may it be for him like a garment one puts on.”
- Psalm 109:19 tn The Hebrew noun מֵזַח (mezakh, “belt; waistband”) occurs only here in the OT. The form apparently occurs in Isa 23:10 as well, but an emendation is necessary there.
- Psalm 109:20 tn Heb “[may] this [be] the repayment to my accusers from the Lord.”
- Psalm 109:20 tn Or “against.”
- Psalm 109:20 tn The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
- Psalm 109:21 tn Heb “but you, Lord, Master, deal with me for the sake of your name” or “on account of your name.” Here “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation. The Psalmist’s appeal is for God to act consistently with, and therefore maintain, his reputation (as a deliverer of the righteous and one who punishes evildoers). Note that “for your name’s sake” is paralleled by “because your loyal love is good.” The point is that the Psalmist is making an appeal not based on his own personal whim or vendetta but is calling for judicial penalties (or the fulfillment of prior prophetic indictment).
- Psalm 109:22 tc The verb in the Hebrew text (חָלַל, khalal) appears to be a Qal form from the root חלל meaning “pierced; wounded.” However, the Qal of this root is otherwise unattested. The translation assumes an emendation to יָחִיל (yakhil), a Qal imperfect from חוּל (khul, “tremble”) or to חֹלַל (kholal), a Polal perfect from חוּל (khul). See Ps 55:4, which reads לִבִּי יָחִיל בְּקִרְבִּי (libbi yakhil beqirbbi, “my heart trembles [i.e., “beats violently”] within me”).
- Psalm 109:23 tn Heb “like a shadow when it is extended I go.” He is like a late afternoon shadow made by the descending sun that will soon be swallowed up by complete darkness. See Ps 102:11.
- Psalm 109:24 tn Heb “my knees stagger from fasting.”
- Psalm 109:24 tn Heb “and my flesh is lean away from fatness [i.e., “lean so as not to be fat”].”
- Psalm 109:25 tn Heb “as for me, I am a reproach to them.”
- Psalm 109:25 sn They shake their heads. Apparently shaking the head was a taunting gesture. See also Job 16:4; Ps 22:7; Lam 2:15.
- Psalm 109:26 tn Heb “deliver me according to your faithfulness.”
- Psalm 109:27 tn After the preceding imperative, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
- Psalm 109:27 tn Heb “that your hand [is] this.”
- Psalm 109:28 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect as a prayer/request (“may you bless”).
- Psalm 109:28 tn The verbal sequence is perfect + prefixed form with vav (ו) consecutive. Since the psalmist seems to be anticipating the demise of his enemies, he may be using these forms rhetorically to describe the enemies’ defeat as if it were already accomplished. Some emend the text to קָמוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ (qamu yevoshu, “may those who attack me be humiliated”). See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 75.
- Psalm 109:29 tn Heb “clothed.” Another option is to translate the prefixed verbal forms in this line and the next as jussives (“may my accusers be covered with shame”).
- Psalm 109:30 tn Heb “I will thank the Lord very much with my mouth.”
- Psalm 109:30 tn Heb “many.”
- Psalm 109:31 tn Heb “judge.”
- Psalm 110:1 sn Psalm 110. In this royal psalm the psalmist announces God’s oracle to the Davidic king. The first part of the oracle appears in v. 1, the second in v. 4. In vv. 2-3 the psalmist addresses the king, while in vv. 5-7 he appears to address God.
- Psalm 110:1 tn The word נְאֻם (neʾum) is used frequently in the OT of a formal divine announcement through a prophet.
- Psalm 110:1 sn My lord. In the psalm’s original context the speaker is an unidentified prophetic voice in the royal court, likely addressing David, the head of the dynasty. In the course of time the psalm is applied to each successive king in the dynasty, and is likely understood as such by David (see 2 Sam 7:11-14, 19). Since the Psalm as a whole is attributed to David, it is appropriate to speak of any of its parts as coming from him, whether he composed them, reported them, or commissioned them. Ultimately these words come to apply to the ideal Davidic king, specifically Jesus Christ, the Son of David. Thus, in the irony of the incarnation, the lord who receives the promise is the Lord who made the promise. This creates some complexity in typographic convention, as NET chooses to use lower case here in the Psalm (“my lord”) due to its original context, even though we now know it to be ultimately fulfilled by our Lord. The Greek translation introduces more difficulty because it uses κύριος (kurios, “lord”) for both the Lord’s name, יהוה (YHWH, probably pronounced “Yahweh”) and the title אֲדוֹנַי (ʾadonay, “Lord”) (the word here is not the title, but simply “lord” [אָדוֺן, ʾadon] with the suffix “my”). This complexity and irony are the grounds for the riddle posed by Jesus in the gospels (Matt 22:43-45; Mark 12:36-37; Luke 20:42-44), which the Pharisees could not solve because they were not expecting the Davidic lord to be the Lord. Peter incorporates the answer “that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified both Lord and Christ” into his sermon at Pentecost (Acts 2:34-35).
- Psalm 110:1 sn To sit at the “right hand” of the king was an honor (see 1 Kgs 2:19). The Lord’s invitation to the Davidic king to sit down at his right hand reflects the king’s position as the Lord’s vice-regent. In Ugaritic myth (CTA 4 v. 108-10) the artisan god Kothar-wa-Khasis is described as sitting at the right hand of the storm god Baal. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 61-62.
- Psalm 110:1 sn When the Lord made his covenant with David, he promised to subdue the king’s enemies (see 2 Sam 7:9-11; Ps 89:22-23).
- Psalm 110:2 tn Since the Lord is mentioned in the third person (note the use of the first person in v. 1), it is likely that these are the psalmist’s words to the king, not a continuation of the oracle per se.
- Psalm 110:2 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though it could be taken as future.
- Psalm 110:2 tn Heb “your strong scepter,” symbolic of the king’s royal authority and dominion.
- Psalm 110:3 tn Heb “your people, free will offerings.” Perhaps the people, in their willingness to volunteer, are compared metaphorically to freewill offerings. Following the LXX, some revocalize the text and read “with you is nobility.”
- Psalm 110:3 tn Heb “in the day of your power.”
- Psalm 110:3 tc Heb “in splendor of holiness.” The plural construct form הַדְרֵי (hadre, from הָדַר, hadar, “splendor”) occurs only here; it may indicate degree or perhaps refer by metonymy to garments (see Pss 29:2 and 96:9, where the phrase הַדְרַת קֹדֶשׁ [hadrat qodesh] refers to “holy attire”). If one retains the reading of the MT, this phrase should probably be taken with the preceding line. However, because of the subsequent references to “dawn” and to “dew,” it is better to emend the text to הַרְרֵי קֹדֶשׁ (harere qodesh, “mountains of holiness”), a reading found in many medieval Hebrew mss and in some other ancient witnesses (see Joel 2:2; Ps 133:3, as well as L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 80). The “mountains of holiness” are probably the hills surrounding Zion (see Pss 87:1; 125:2; 133:3).
- Psalm 110:3 tn Heb “from the womb of dawn.” The Hebrew noun רֶחֶם (rekhem, “womb”) is probably used here metonymically for “birth.” The form מִשְׁחָר (mishkhar) occurs only here and should be emended to שַׁחַר (shakhar, “dawn”) with the מ (mem) being understood as a duplication of the mem ending the preceding word. The phrase “womb [i.e., “birth”] of dawn” refers to sunrise.
- Psalm 110:3 sn The point of the metaphor is not entirely clear. The dew may symbolize the king’s youthful vitality or, more likely (note the parallelism), may refer to his army of strong, youthful warriors.
- Psalm 110:3 tn Heb “to you [is].”
- Psalm 110:4 tn Or “swears, vows.”
- Psalm 110:4 tn Or “will not change his mind.” The negated Niphal imperfect of נָחַם (nakham) is a way of marking an announcement as an irrevocable decree. See 1 Sam 15:29; Ezek 24:14, as well as R. B. Chisholm, “Does God ‘Change His Mind’?” BSac 152 (1995): 387-99.
- Psalm 110:4 sn You are an eternal priest. The Davidic king exercised a non-Levitical priestly role. The king superintended Judah’s cultic ritual, had authority over the Levites, and sometimes led in formal worship. David himself instructed the Levites to bring the ark of the covenant to Jerusalem (1 Chr 15:11-15), joined the procession, offered sacrifices, wore a priestly ephod, and blessed the people (2 Sam 6:12-19). At the dedication of the temple Solomon led the ceremony, offering sacrifices and praying on behalf of the people (1 Kgs 8).
- Psalm 110:4 tn The phrase עַל־דִּבְרָתִי (ʿal divrati) is a variant of עַל־דִּבְרָת (ʿal divrat; the final י [yod] being an archaic genitive ending), which in turn is a variant of עַל דָּבַר (ʿal davar). Both phrases can mean “concerning” or “because of,” but neither of these nuances fits the use of עַל־דִּבְרָתִי in Ps 110:4. Here the phrase probably carries the sense “according to the manner of.” See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 81.
- Psalm 110:4 sn The Davidic king’s priestly role is analogous to that of Melchizedek, who was both “king of Salem” (i.e., Jerusalem) and a “priest of God Most High” in the time of Abraham (Gen 14:18-20). Like Melchizedek, the Davidic king was a royal priest, distinct from the Aaronic line (see Heb 7). The analogy focuses on the king’s priestly role; the language need not imply that Melchizedek himself was “an eternal priest.”
- Psalm 110:5 tn The MT reads אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay, “Lord”), which in this form to God. Many medieval Hebrew mss read יְהוָה (Yehwah, “Lord”) here. The present translation assumes that the psalmist here addresses the Lord as he celebrates what the king is able to accomplish while positioned at God’s “right hand.” According to this view the king is the subject of the third person verb forms in vv. 5b-7. (2) Another option is to understand the king as the addressee (as in vv. 2-3). In this case “the Lord” is the subject of the third person verbs throughout vv. 5-7 and is depicted as a warrior in a very anthropomorphic manner. In this case the Lord is pictured as being at the psalmist’s right hand (just the opposite of v. 1). See Pss 16:8; 121:5. (3) A third option is to revocalize אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay, “Lord” a reference to God) as אֲדֹנִי (ʾadoni, “my lord”; see v. 1). In this case one may translate, “My lord, at his [God’s] right hand, strikes down.” In this case the king is the subject of the third person verbs in vv. 5b-7.
- Psalm 110:5 tn The perfect verbal forms in vv. 5-6 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing. Another option is to take them as rhetorical. In this case the psalmist describes anticipated events as if they had already taken place.
- Psalm 110:5 tn Heb “in the day of his anger.”
- Psalm 110:6 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 6-7 are understood here as descriptive-dramatic or as generalizing, though they could be taken as future.
- Psalm 110:6 tn Or “among.”
- Psalm 110:6 tn Heb “he fills [with] corpses,” but one expects a double accusative here. The translation assumes an emendation to גְוִיּוֹת גֵאָיוֹת(בִּ) מִלֵּא or מִלֵּא גֵאָיוֹת גְּוִיוֹת (for a similar construction see Ezek 32:5). In the former case גֵאָיוֹת (geʾayot) has accidentally dropped from the text due to homoioteleuton; in the latter case it has dropped out due to homoioarcton.
- Psalm 110:6 tn Heb “he strikes [the verb is מָחַץ (makhats), translated “strikes down” in v. 5] head[s] over a great land.” The Hebrew term רַבָּה (rabbah, “great”) is here used of distance or spatial measurement (see 1 Sam 26:13).
- Psalm 110:7 tn Here the expression “lifts up the head” refers to the renewed physical strength and emotional vigor (see Ps 3:3) provided by the refreshing water. For another example of a victorious warrior being energized by water in the aftermath of battle, see Judg 15:18-19 (see also 1 Sam 30:11-12, where the setting is different, however).
- Psalm 111:1 sn Psalm 111. The psalmist praises God for his marvelous deeds, especially the way in which he provides for and delivers his people. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
- Psalm 111:2 tn Heb “sought out.”
- Psalm 111:3 tn For other uses of the Hebrew phrase וְהָדָרהוֹד (hod vehadar, “majesty and splendor”) see 1 Chr 16:27; Job 40:10; Pss 21:5; 96:6; 104:1.
- Psalm 111:3 tn Or “stands.”
- Psalm 111:4 tn Or “did,” if this refers primarily to the events of the exodus and conquest period (see vv. 6, 9).
- Psalm 111:4 tn Heb “a memorial he had made for his amazing deeds.”
- Psalm 111:5 tn Or “gave,” if the events of the exodus and conquest period (see v. 6, 9) are primarily in view.
- Psalm 111:5 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
- Psalm 111:5 tn Or “he remembers his covenant forever” (see Ps 105:8).
- Psalm 111:6 tn Heb “the strength of his deeds he proclaimed to his people, to give to them an inheritance of nations.”
- Psalm 111:7 tn Heb “the deeds of his hands [are].”
- Psalm 111:7 tn That is, fair and for man’s good.
- Psalm 111:8 tn Heb “done in faithfulness and uprightness.” The passive participle probably has the force of a gerund. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 89.
- Psalm 111:9 tn Heb “redemption he sent for his people.”
- Psalm 111:9 tn Heb “he commanded forever his covenant.”
- Psalm 111:10 tn Heb “the beginning of wisdom [is] the fear of the Lord.”
- Psalm 111:10 tn Heb “good sense [is] to all who do them.” The third masculine plural pronominal suffix must refer back to the “precepts” mentioned in v. 7. In the translation the referent has been specified for clarity. The phrase שֵׂכֶל טוֹב (sekhel tov) also occurs in Prov 3:4; 13:15 and 2 Chr 30:22.
- Psalm 111:10 tn Heb “his praise stands forever.”
- Psalm 112:1 sn Psalm 112. This wisdom psalm lists some of the benefits of living a godly life. The psalm is an acrostic. After the introductory call to praise, every poetic line (twenty-two in all) begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet.
- Psalm 112:1 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The individual is representative of a larger group, called the “godly” in vv. 3-4. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” The generic masculine pronoun is used in the following verses.
- Psalm 112:1 tn Heb “fears.”
- Psalm 112:1 tn Heb “in his commands he delights very much.” The words “in keeping” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Taking delight in the law is metonymic here for obeying God’s moral will. See Ps 1:2.
- Psalm 112:2 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
- Psalm 112:2 tn Heb “His seed will be mighty on the earth, the generation of the godly.” The Hebrew term דוֹר (dor, “generation”) could be taken as parallel to “offspring” and translated “posterity,” but the singular more likely refers to the godly as a class. See BDB 189-90 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.
- Psalm 112:3 tn Heb “stands forever.”
- Psalm 112:4 tn In this context “light” symbolizes divine blessing in its various forms (see v. 2), including material prosperity and stability.
- Psalm 112:4 tn Heb “merciful and compassionate and just.” The Hebrew text has three singular adjectives, which are probably substantival and in apposition to the “godly” (which is plural, however). By switching to the singular, the psalmist focuses on each individual member of the group known as the “godly.” Note how vv. 5-9, like vv. 1-2a, use the singular to describe the representative godly individual who typifies the whole group.
- Psalm 112:5 tn Heb “man.”
- Psalm 112:5 tn Heb “he sustains his matters with justice.”
- Psalm 112:6 tn Heb “for an eternal memorial a just [one] will be.”
- Psalm 112:7 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition and emotions (see Ps 108:1).
- Psalm 112:8 tn Heb “his heart,” viewed here as the seat of the volition.
- Psalm 112:9 tn Heb “he scatters, he gives.”
- Psalm 112:9 tn Heb “stands forever.”
- Psalm 112:9 tn Heb “his horn will be lifted up in honor.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17).
- Psalm 112:10 tn The Hebrew text uses the singular; the representative wicked individual is in view as typifying the group (note the use of the plural form in v. 10).
- Psalm 112:10 tn Heb “his teeth he will gnash.” In Pss 35:16 and 37:12 this action is associated with a vicious attack.
- Psalm 112:10 tn This could mean that the desires of the wicked will go unfulfilled. Another possibility is that “desire” refers by metonymy to the object desired and acquired. In this case the point is that the wicked will lose what they desired so badly and acquired by evil means (see Ps 10:3).
- Psalm 113:1 sn Psalm 113. The psalmist praises God as the sovereign king of the world who reaches down to help the needy.
- Psalm 113:3 tn Heb “from the rising of the sun to its setting.” The extent is not temporal (“from sunrise to sunset”) but spatial (“from the place where the sun rises [the east] to the place where it sets [the west].” In the phenomenological language of OT cosmology, the sun was described as rising in the east and setting in the west.
- Psalm 113:4 tn Heb “above the sky [is] his splendor.”
- Psalm 113:5 tn Heb “the one who makes high to sit.”
- Psalm 113:6 tn Heb “the one who makes low to see.”
- Psalm 113:7 sn The language of v. 7 is almost identical to that of 1 Sam 2:8.
- Psalm 113:9 tn Heb “of the house.”
- Psalm 113:9 tn Heb “sons.”
- Psalm 114:1 sn Psalm 114. The psalmist recalls the events of the exodus and conquest and celebrates God’s kingship over his covenant people.
- Psalm 114:1 tn Heb “the house of Jacob from a nation speaking a foreign language.”
- Psalm 114:3 sn The psalmist recalls the crossing of the Red Sea (Exod 14:21).
- Psalm 114:3 tn Heb “the Jordan” (also in v. 5). The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 114:3 sn The psalmist recalls the crossing of the Jordan River (Josh 3:13, 16).
- Psalm 114:4 sn The mountains skipped like rams, the hills like lambs. This may recall the theophany at Sinai when the mountain shook before God’s presence (Exod 19:18).
- Psalm 114:8 sn In v. 8 the psalmist recalls the event(s) recorded in Exod 17:6 and/or Num 20:11 (see also Deut 8:15 and Ps 78:15-16, 20).
- Psalm 115:1 sn Psalm 115. The psalmist affirms that Israel’s God is superior to pagan idols and urges Israel to place their confidence in him.
- Psalm 115:1 tn Or “give glory.”
- Psalm 115:1 sn The psalmist asks the Lord to demonstrate his loyal love and faithfulness, not simply so Israel may benefit, but primarily so that the Lord will receive honor among the nations, who will recognize, contrary to their present view (see v. 2), that Israel’s God is committed to his people.
- Psalm 115:3 sn He does whatever he pleases. Such sovereignty is characteristic of kings (see Eccl 8:3).
- Psalm 115:4 tn The referent of the pronominal suffix is “the nations” (v. 2).
- Psalm 115:4 tn Heb “the work of the hands of man.”
- Psalm 115:7 tn Heb “they cannot mutter in their throats.” Verse 5a refers to speaking, v. 7c to inarticulate sounds made in the throat (see M. Dahood, Psalms [AB], 3:140-41).
- Psalm 115:8 tn Heb “will be.” Another option is to take the prefixed verbal form as a prayer, “may those who make them end up like them.” sn Because the idols are lifeless, they cannot help their worshipers in times of crisis. Consequently the worshipers end up as dead as the gods in which they trust.
- Psalm 115:9 tn Or “[source of] help.”
- Psalm 115:9 tn Heb “and their shield.”
- Psalm 115:10 tn Heb “house.”
- Psalm 115:10 tn Or “[source of] help.”
- Psalm 115:10 tn Heb “and their shield.”
- Psalm 115:11 tn Heb “[you] fearers of the Lord.” See Ps 15:4.
- Psalm 115:11 tn Or “[source of] help.”
- Psalm 115:11 tn Heb “and their shield.”
- Psalm 115:12 tn Or “remembers us.”
- Psalm 115:12 tn Another option is to translate the prefixed form of the verb “bless” in vv. 12-13 as a jussive, “may he bless” (see v. 14).
- Psalm 115:12 tn Heb “house.”
- Psalm 115:13 tn Heb “the fearers of the Lord.”
- Psalm 115:13 tn Heb “the small along with the great.” The translation assumes that “small” and “great” here refer to age (see 2 Chr 15:13). Another option is to translate “both the insignificant and the prominent” (see Job 3:19; cf. NEB “high and low alike”).
- Psalm 115:14 tn Heb “may he add to you, to you and your sons.” The prefixed verbal form is jussive, indicating this is a prayer.
- Psalm 115:15 tn Or “maker.”
- Psalm 115:16 tn Heb “the heavens [are] heavens to the Lord.”
- Psalm 115:16 tn Heb “to the sons of man.”
- Psalm 115:17 tn Heb “silence,” a metonymy here for death (see Ps 94:17).
- Psalm 116:1 sn Psalm 116. The psalmist thanks the Lord for delivering him from a life threatening crisis and promises to tell the entire covenant community what God has done for him.
- Psalm 116:1 tn Heb “I love because the Lord heard my voice, my pleas.” It is possible that “the Lord” originally appeared directly after “I love” and was later accidentally misplaced. The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a preterite. The psalmist recalls that God heard his cry for help (note the perfect in v. 2a and the narrative in vv. 3-4).
- Psalm 116:2 tn Heb “because he turned his ear to me.”
- Psalm 116:2 tn Heb “and in my days I will cry out.”
- Psalm 116:3 tn Heb “surrounded me.”
- Psalm 116:3 tn The Hebrew noun מֵצַר (metsar, “straits; distress”) occurs only here, Ps 118:5 and Lam 1:3. If retained, it refers to Sheol as a place where one is confined or severely restricted (cf. BDB 865 s.v. מֵצַר, “the straits of Sheol”; NIV “the anguish of the grave”; NRSV “the pangs of Sheol”). However, HALOT 624 s.v. מֵצַר suggests an emendation to מְצָדֵי (metsade, “snares of”), a rare noun attested in Job 19:6 and Eccl 7:26. This proposal, which is reflected in the translation, produces better parallelism with “ropes” in the preceding line.
- Psalm 116:3 tn The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a preterite. The psalmist recalls the crisis from which the Lord delivered him.
- Psalm 116:6 tn Heb “guards.” The active participle indicates this is a characteristic of the Lord.
- Psalm 116:6 tn Or “the [morally] naive,” that is, the one who is young and still in the process of learning right from wrong and distinguishing wisdom from folly. See Ps 19:7.
- Psalm 116:6 tn Heb “I was low.”
- Psalm 116:7 tn Heb “return, my soul, to your place of rest.”
- Psalm 116:7 tn The Hebrew idiom גָּמַל עַל (gamal ʿal) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense (cf. Ps 13:5).
- Psalm 116:8 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 116:8 tn “Lord” is supplied here in the translation for clarification.
- Psalm 116:9 tn Heb “walk before” (see Ps 56:13). On the meaning of the Hebrew idiom, see the notes at 2 Kgs 20:3/Isa 38:3.
- Psalm 116:9 tn Heb “lands, regions.”
- Psalm 116:11 tn Heb “I said in my haste.”
- Psalm 116:13 tn Heb “a cup of deliverance I will lift up.” Perhaps this alludes to a drink offering the psalmist will present as he thanks the Lord for his deliverance. See v. 17.
- Psalm 116:15 tn Heb “precious in the eyes of the Lord [is] the death of his godly ones.” The point is not that God delights in or finds satisfaction in the death of his followers! The psalmist, who has been delivered from death, affirms that the life-threatening experiences of God’s followers get God’s attention, just as a precious or rare object would attract someone’s eye. See Ps 72:14 for a similar expression of this belief.
- Psalm 116:16 tn Heb “I am your servant, the son of your female servant.” The phrase “son of a female servant” (see also Ps 86:16) is used of a son born to a secondary wife or concubine (Exod 23:12). In some cases the child’s father is the master of the house (see Gen 21:10, 13; Judg 9:18). It may used metaphorically and idiomatically to emphasize the psalmist’s humility before the Lord and his status as the Lord’s servant. Or it may be a reference to the psalmist’s own mother who also was a servant of the Lord.
- Psalm 116:16 tn Heb “you have loosed my bonds.” In this context the imagery refers to deliverance from death (see v. 3).
- Psalm 117:1 sn Psalm 117. The psalmist tells the nations to praise the Lord for his loyal love and faithfulness.
- Psalm 117:1 tn Or “peoples” (see Ps 108:3).
- Psalm 117:2 tn For this sense of the Hebrew verb גָּבַר (gavar), see Ps 103:11 and L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 17, 19.
- Psalm 118:1 sn Psalm 118. The psalmist thanks God for his deliverance and urges others to join him in praise.
- Psalm 118:1 tn Or “is forever.”
- Psalm 118:3 tn Heb “house.”
- Psalm 118:4 tn Heb “fearers of the Lord.” See Ps 15:4.
- Psalm 118:5 tn Heb “from the distress.” The noun מֵצַר (metsar, “straits; distress”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:3. In Ps 116:3 מֵצַר should probably be emended to מְצָדֵי (metsade, “snares of”).
- Psalm 118:5 tn Heb “the Lord answered me in a wide open place.”
- Psalm 118:6 tn Heb “for me.”
- Psalm 118:6 tn The rhetorical question assumes the answer, “Nothing!” The imperfect is used in a modal sense here, indicating capability or potential. See Ps 56:11.
- Psalm 118:7 tn Heb “for me.”
- Psalm 118:7 tn Heb “among my helpers.” The preposition may indicate identity here, while the plural may be one of majesty or respect.
- Psalm 118:8 tn “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear, and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
- Psalm 118:10 sn The reference to an attack by the nations suggests the psalmist may have been a military leader.
- Psalm 118:10 tn In this context the phrase “in the name of the Lord” means “by the Lord’s power.”
- Psalm 118:10 tn Traditionally the verb has been derived from מוּל (mul, “to circumcise”) and translated “[I] cut [them] off” (see BDB 557-58 s.v. II מוּל). However, it is likely that this is a homonym meaning “to fend off” (see HALOT 556 s.v. II מול) or “to push away.” In this context, where the psalmist is reporting his past experience, the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite. The phrase also occurs in vv. 11, 12.
- Psalm 118:12 tn Heb “were extinguished.”
- Psalm 118:12 tn The point seems to be that the hostility of the nations (v. 10) is short-lived, like a fire that quickly devours thorns and then burns out. Some, attempting to create a better parallel with the preceding line, emend דֹּעֲכוּ (doʿakhu, “they were extinguished”) to בָּעֲרוּ (baʿaru, “they burned”). In that case the statement emphasizes their hostility.
- Psalm 118:13 tn Heb “pushing, you pushed me.” The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea. The psalmist appears to address the nations as if they were an individual enemy. Some find this problematic and emend the verb form (which is a Qal perfect second masculine singular with a first person singular suffix) to נִדְחֵיתִי (nidkheti), a Niphal perfect first common singular, “I was pushed.”
- Psalm 118:13 tn Heb “to fall,” i.e., “that [I] might fall.”
- Psalm 118:14 tn Heb “my strength and protection [is] the Lord.” The Hebrew term זִמְרָת (zimrat) is traditionally understood as meaning “song” (“my strength and song [is] the Lord”) in which case one might translate, “for the Lord gives me strength and joy” (i.e., a reason to sing). However, many recent commentators have argued that the noun זִמְרָת is here a homonym, meaning “protection” or “strength.” See HALOT 274 s.v.; cf. NEB “The Lord is my refuge and defence”; NRSV “my strength and my might.”
- Psalm 118:14 tn Or “salvation.”
- Psalm 118:15 tn Heb “the sound of a ringing shout and deliverance [is] in the tents of the godly.”
- Psalm 118:15 tn Heb “does valiantly.” The statement refers here to military success (see Num 24:18; 1 Sam 14:48; Pss 60:12; 108:13).
- Psalm 118:16 tn Heb “exalts.”
- Psalm 118:17 tn Heb “the works of the Lord.”
- Psalm 118:18 tn The infinitive absolute emphasizes the following verbal idea.
- Psalm 118:19 tn Heb “the gates of justice.” The gates of the Lord’s temple are referred to here, as v. 20 makes clear. They are called “gates of justice” because they are the entrance to the just king’s palace. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Psalm 118:22 tn Or “rejected.”
- Psalm 118:22 tn Heb “the head of the corner.”sn The metaphor of the stone…the builders discarded describes the way in which God’s deliverance reversed the psalmist’s circumstances. When he was in distress, he was like a stone which was discarded by builders as useless, but now that he has been vindicated by God, all can see that he is of special importance to God, like the cornerstone of the building.
- Psalm 118:23 tn Heb “it is amazing in our eyes.” The use of the plural pronoun here and in vv. 24-27 suggests that the psalmist may be speaking for the entire nation. However, it is more likely that vv. 22-27 are the people’s response to the psalmist’s thanksgiving song (see especially v. 26). They rejoice with him because his deliverance on the battlefield (see vv. 10-12) had national repercussions.
- Psalm 118:24 tn Heb “this is the day the Lord has made.” Though sometimes applied in a general way, this statement in its context refers to the day of deliverance which the psalmist and people celebrate.
- Psalm 118:25 sn A petition for deliverance and success seems odd in a psalm thanking God for deliverance, but it is not unique (see Ps 9:19-20). The people ask God to continue to intervene for them as he has for the psalmist.
- Psalm 118:26 sn The people refer here to the psalmist, who enters the Lord’s temple to thank him publicly (see vv. 19-21), as the one who comes in the name of the Lord.
- Psalm 118:26 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine plural, but the final mem (ם) is probably dittographic (note the mem [מ] at the beginning of the following form) or enclitic, in which case the suffix may be taken as second masculine singular, referring to the psalmist.
- Psalm 118:26 tn Heb “from the house of the Lord.”
- Psalm 118:27 tn Heb “and he has given us light.” This may be an elliptical expression, with “his face” being implied as the object (see Num 6:25; Pss 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19). In this case, “his face has given us light” = “he has smiled on us,” or “he has shown us his favor.” Another option (the one reflected in the translation) is that “light” here symbolizes divine blessing in the form of deliverance. “Light” is often used as a metaphor for deliverance and the life/blessings it brings. See Pss 37:6; 97:11; 112:4; Isa 49:6; 51:4; Mic 7:8. Some prefer to repoint the preterite form וַיָּאֶר (vayyaʾer, “he made light”) as a jussive וְיָאֵר (veyaʾer; “may he make light [for us]”).
- Psalm 118:27 tn The Hebrew noun חַג (khag) normally means “festival,” but here it apparently refers metonymically to an offering made at the festival. BDB 291 s.v. חַג 2 interprets the word in this way here, citing as comparable the use of later Hebrew חֲגִיגָה, which can refer to both a festival and a festival offering (see Jastrow 424 s.v. חֲגִיגָה).
- Psalm 118:27 tn The second half of v. 27 has been translated and interpreted in a variety of ways. For a survey of major views, see L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 122.
- Psalm 118:28 sn You are my God. The psalmist speaks again (see v. 21), responding to the words of the worshipers (vv. 22-27).
- Psalm 118:29 tn Or “is forever.”
- Psalm 119:1 tn The psalmist celebrates God’s law and the guidance it provides his people. He expresses his desire to know God’s law thoroughly so that he might experience the blessings that come to those who obey it. This lengthy psalm exhibits an elaborate acrostic pattern. The psalm is divided into twenty-two sections (corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet), each of which is comprised of eight verses. Each of the verses in the first section (vv. 1-8) begins with the letter alef (א), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This pattern continues throughout the psalm as each new section highlights a successive letter of the alphabet. Each verse in section two (vv. 9-16) begins with the second letter of the alphabet, each verse in section three (vv. 17-24) with the third letter, etc. This rigid pattern creates a sense of order and completeness and may have facilitated memorization.
- Psalm 119:1 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness of those who are blameless of way.”
- Psalm 119:1 tn Heb “walk in.”
- Psalm 119:3 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”
- Psalm 119:4 tn Heb “you, you commanded your precepts, to keep, very much.”
- Psalm 119:5 tn Heb “if only my ways were established.”
- Psalm 119:6 tn Or “when.”
- Psalm 119:6 tn Heb “I gaze at.”
- Psalm 119:7 tn Heb “I will give you thanks with an upright heart.”
- Psalm 119:8 tn Heb “do not abandon me to excess.” For other uses of the phrase עַד מְאֹד (ʿad meʾod, “to excess”), see Ps 38:6, 8.
- Psalm 119:9 tn Heb “young man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender specific “young man” has been translated with the more neutral “young person.”
- Psalm 119:9 tn Heb “purify his path.”
- Psalm 119:9 tn Heb “by keeping according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”
- Psalm 119:11 tn Or “hide.”
- Psalm 119:11 tn Heb “your word.” Some medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”
- Psalm 119:12 tn Heb “[are] blessed.”
- Psalm 119:13 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
- Psalm 119:14 tn Heb “in the way of your rules.”
- Psalm 119:14 tn Heb “as upon,” meaning “as if” (see 2 Chr 32:19).
- Psalm 119:14 tn Heb “all wealth.” The phrase refers to all kinds of wealth and riches. See Prov 1:13; 6:31; 24:4; Ezek 27:12, 18.
- Psalm 119:15 tn The cohortative verbal forms in this verse express the psalmist’s resolve.
- Psalm 119:15 tn Heb “gaze [at].”
- Psalm 119:15 tn Heb “ways” (referring figuratively to God’s behavior here).
- Psalm 119:16 tn The imperfects in this verse emphasize the attitude the psalmist maintains toward God’s law. Another option is to translate with the future tense, “I will find delight…I will not forget.”
- Psalm 119:16 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural here.
- Psalm 119:17 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a cohortative indicating purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:17 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the imperative that begins the verse.
- Psalm 119:17 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions read the plural here.
- Psalm 119:18 tn Heb “uncover.” The verb form גַּל (gal) is an apocopated Piel imperative from גָּלָה (galah, see GKC 214 §75.cc).
- Psalm 119:18 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:19 sn Heb This metaphor probably derives from Lev 25:23, which uses the terms גֵּר (ger, “resident foreigner”) and תּוֹשָׁב; (toshav, “resident/temporary settler”). Lev 25:23 emphasizes that Israel would be a guest on God’s land. They were attached to the Lord’s household; they did not own the land. Cf. also Ps 39:12 and Gen 23:4.
- Psalm 119:20 tn Heb “my soul languishes for longing for.”
- Psalm 119:21 tn Heb “accursed.” The traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text takes “accursed” with the previous line (“arrogant, accursed ones”), but it is preferable to take it with the second line as the predicate of the statement.
- Psalm 119:22 tn Heb “roll away from upon me.” Some derive the imperatival form גַּל (gal) from גָּלָה (galah, “uncover,” as in v. 18), but here the form is from גָּלַל (galal, “roll”; see Josh 5:9, where חֶרְפָּה [kherpah, “shame; reproach”] also appears as object of the verb). Some, following the lead of a Dead Sea scroll (11QPsa), emend the form to גֹּל (gol).
- Psalm 119:23 tn Heb “though rulers sit, about me they talk together.” (For another example of the Niphal of דָּבַר (davar) used with a suffixed form of the preposition ב (bet), see Ezek 33:30.)
- Psalm 119:24 tn Heb “men of my counsel.” That is, God’s rules are like advisers to the psalmist, for they teach him how to live in a godly manner that refutes the accusations of his enemies.
- Psalm 119:25 tn Heb “my soul clings to the dirt.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).
- Psalm 119:25 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”
- Psalm 119:26 tn Heb “my ways I proclaimed.”
- Psalm 119:27 tn Heb “the way of your precepts make me understand.”
- Psalm 119:27 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:27 tn Heb “your amazing things,” which refers here to the teachings of the law (see v. 18).
- Psalm 119:28 tn Some translate “my soul weeps,” taking the verb דָלַף (dalaf) from a root meaning “to drip; to drop” (BDB 196 s.v. דֶּלַף). On the basis of cognate evidence from Arabic and Akkadian, HALOT 223 s.v. II דלף proposes a homonymic root here, meaning “be sleepless.” Following L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 127, 135) the translation assumes that the verb is cognate with Ugaritic dlp, “to collapse; to crumple” in CTA 2 iv. 17, 26. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 44, 144.
- Psalm 119:28 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”
- Psalm 119:29 tn The “path of deceit” refers to a lifestyle characterized by deceit and disloyalty to God. It stands in contrast to the “way of faithfulness” in v. 30.
- Psalm 119:29 tn Heb “be gracious to me.” The verb is used metonymically here for “graciously giving” the law. (See Gen 33:5, where Jacob uses this verb in describing how God had graciously given him children.)
- Psalm 119:30 tn BDB 1000-1001 s.v. I שָׁוָה derives the verb from the first homonym listed, meaning “to agree with; to be like; to resemble.” It here means (in the Piel stem) “to be accounted suitable,” which in turn would mean by metonymy “to accept; to be committed to.” Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonym meaning “to place; to set,” but in this case an elliptical prepositional phrase must be understood, “I place your regulations [before me]” (see Ps 16:8).
- Psalm 119:31 tn Or “cling to.”
- Psalm 119:32 tn Heb “for you make wide my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and understanding. The Lord gives the psalmist the desire and moral understanding that are foundational to the willing obedience depicted metaphorically in the preceding line. In Isa 60:5 the expression “your heart will be wide” means “your heart will swell with pride,” but here the nuance appears to be different.
- Psalm 119:33 tn Heb “the way of your statutes.”
- Psalm 119:33 tn Heb “and I will keep it to the end.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative. The Hebrew term עֵקֶב (ʿeqev) is understood to mean “end” here. Another option is to take עֵקֶב as meaning “reward” here (see Ps 19:11) and to translate, “so that I might observe it and be rewarded.”
- Psalm 119:34 tn The two prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the introductory imperative.
- Psalm 119:35 tn Or “make me walk.”
- Psalm 119:35 tn Heb “for in it I delight.”
- Psalm 119:36 tn Heb “turn my heart to your rules.”
- Psalm 119:36 tn Heb “and not unjust gain.”
- Psalm 119:37 tn Heb “Make my eyes pass by from looking at what is worthless.”
- Psalm 119:37 tn Heb “by your word.”
- Psalm 119:38 tn Heb “word.”
- Psalm 119:38 tn Heb “which [is] for your fear,” that is, the promise made to those who exhibit fear of God.
- Psalm 119:39 tn Heb “my reproach that I fear.”
- Psalm 119:39 tn Or “for.”
- Psalm 119:40 tn Or “righteousness.”
- Psalm 119:41 tn Heb “and may your loyal love come to me.”
- Psalm 119:41 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions).
- Psalm 119:41 tn Heb “according to your word.”
- Psalm 119:42 tn Heb “and I will answer [the] one who insults me a word.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the jussive (see v. 41).
- Psalm 119:43 tn Heb “do not snatch from my mouth a word of truth to excess.” The psalmist wants to be able to give a reliable testimony about the Lord’s loyal love (vv. 41-42), but if God does not intervene, the psalmist will be deprived of doing so, for the evidence of such love (i.e., deliverance) will be lacking.
- Psalm 119:44 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the negated jussive (see v. 43).
- Psalm 119:44 tn Or “forever and ever.”
- Psalm 119:45 tn Heb “and I will walk about in a wide place.” The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive gives a further consequence of the anticipated positive divine response (see vv. 43-44). Another option is to take the cohortative as expressing the psalmist’s request. In this case one could translate, “and please give me security.”
- Psalm 119:46 tn The series of four cohortatives with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive in vv. 46-48 list further consequences of the anticipated positive divine response to the request made in v. 43.
- Psalm 119:48 tn Lifting the hands is often associated with prayer (Pss 28:2; 63:4; Lam 2:19). (1) Because praying to God’s law borders on the extreme, some prefer to emend the text to “I lift up my hands to you,” eliminating “your commands, which I love” as dittographic. In this view these words were accidentally repeated from the previous verse. (2) However, it is possible that the psalmist closely associates the law with God himself because he views the law as the expression of the divine will. (3) Another option is that “lifting the hands” does not refer to prayer here, but to the psalmist’s desire to receive and appropriate the law. (4) Still others understand this to be an action praising God’s commands (so NCV; cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).
- Psalm 119:50 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.
- Psalm 119:50 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.
- Psalm 119:51 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”
- Psalm 119:52 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”
- Psalm 119:52 tn Or “find comfort.”
- Psalm 119:54 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”
- Psalm 119:54 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident foreigner (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).
- Psalm 119:55 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.
- Psalm 119:56 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”
- Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “my portion [is] the Lord.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel (see Ps 16:5).
- Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “I said.”
- Psalm 119:57 tn Heb “to keep your words” (see v. 9).
- Psalm 119:58 tn Heb “I appease your face.”
- Psalm 119:58 tn Heb “according to your word.”
- Psalm 119:59 tn Heb “my ways.”
- Psalm 119:59 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”
- Psalm 119:60 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”
- Psalm 119:61 tn Heb “surround.”
- Psalm 119:62 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.
- Psalm 119:63 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”
- Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “do good.”
- Psalm 119:65 tn Heb “according to your word.”
- Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.
- Psalm 119:66 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”
- Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”
- Psalm 119:67 tn Heb “your word.”
- Psalm 119:69 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”
- Psalm 119:70 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”
- Psalm 119:72 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”
- Psalm 119:73 tn Heb “made me and established me.” The two verbs also appear together in Deut 32:6, where God, compared to a father, is said to have “made and established” Israel.
- Psalm 119:73 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:74 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”
- Psalm 119:75 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.
- Psalm 119:75 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”
- Psalm 119:76 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”
- Psalm 119:77 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”
- Psalm 119:78 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”
- Psalm 119:79 tn Heb “those who fear you.”
- Psalm 119:80 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”
- Psalm 119:81 tn Heb “my soul pines for.” See Ps 84:2.
- Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your word.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See Ps 69:3.
- Psalm 119:82 tn Heb “saying.”
- Psalm 119:83 tn Or “even though.”
- Psalm 119:83 tn The Hebrew word נֹאד (noʾd, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20).
- Psalm 119:83 tn Heb “in the smoke.”
- Psalm 119:84 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”
- Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “for me.”
- Psalm 119:85 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”
- Psalm 119:86 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.
- Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “according to.”
- Psalm 119:88 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:88 tn Heb “of your mouth.”
- Psalm 119:89 tn Heb “Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven,” or “Forever, O Lord, [is] your word; it stands firm in heaven.” The translation assumes that “your word” refers here to the body of divine instructions contained in the law (note the frequent references to the law in vv. 92-96). See vv. 9, 16-17, 57, 101, 105, 130, 139 and 160-61. The reference in v. 86 to God’s law being faithful favors this interpretation. Another option is that “your word” refers to God’s assuring word of promise, mentioned in vv. 25, 28, 42, 65, 74, 81, 107, 114, 147 and 169. In this case one might translate, “O Lord, your promise is reliable, it stands firm in heaven.”
- Psalm 119:90 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”
- Psalm 119:92 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”
- Psalm 119:92 tn Or “my suffering.”
- Psalm 119:95 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”
- Psalm 119:96 tn Heb “to every perfection I have seen an end, your command is very wide.” God’s law is beyond full comprehension, which is why the psalmist continually studies it (vv. 95, 97).
- Psalm 119:98 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The Lord’s “command” refers here to the law (see Ps 19:8).
- Psalm 119:101 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”
- Psalm 119:101 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural.
- Psalm 119:103 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew mss, as well as several other ancient witnesses, read the plural “your words,” which can then be understood as the subject of the plural verb “they are smooth.”
- Psalm 119:104 tn Heb “every false path.”
- Psalm 119:105 tn Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural (“words”).
- Psalm 119:105 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”
- Psalm 119:107 tn Heb “according to your word.”
- Psalm 119:108 tn Heb “of my mouth.”
- Psalm 119:109 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”
- Psalm 119:111 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”
- Psalm 119:112 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”
- Psalm 119:113 tn Heb “divided ones.” The word occurs only here; it appears to be derived from a verbal root, attested in Arabic, meaning “to split” (see HALOT 762 s.v. *סֵעֵף). Since the psalmist is emphasizing his unswerving allegiance to God and his law, the term probably refers to those who lack such loyalty. The translation is similar to that suggested by L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 131.
- Psalm 119:115 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.
- Psalm 119:115 tn The psalmist has already declared that he observes God’s commands despite persecution, so here the idea must be “so that I might observe the commands of my God unhindered by threats.”