New English Translation
Regulations for Israel’s Appointed Times
23 The Lord spoke to Moses: 2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘These are the Lord’s appointed times which you must proclaim as holy assemblies—my appointed times.[a]
The Weekly Sabbath
3 “‘Six days work may be done, but on the seventh day there must be a Sabbath of complete rest,[b] a holy assembly. You must not do any work; it is a Sabbath to the Lord in all the places where you live.
The Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread
4 “‘These are the Lord’s appointed times, holy assemblies, which you must proclaim at their appointed time. 5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, at twilight,[c] is a Passover offering to the Lord. 6 Then on the fifteenth day of the same month[d] will be the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the Lord; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. 7 On the first day there will be a holy assembly for you; you must not do any regular work.[e] 8 You must present a gift to the Lord for seven days, and the seventh day is a holy assembly; you must not do any regular work.’”
The Presentation of Firstfruits
9 The Lord spoke to Moses: 10 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When you enter the land that I am about to give to you and you gather in its harvest,[f] then you must bring the sheaf of the first portion of your harvest[g] to the priest, 11 and he must wave the sheaf before the Lord to be accepted for your benefit[h]—on the day after the Sabbath the priest is to wave it.[i] 12 On the day you wave the sheaf you must also offer[j] a flawless yearling lamb[k] for a burnt offering to the Lord, 13 along with its grain offering, two-tenths of an ephah of[l] choice wheat flour[m] mixed with olive oil, as a gift to the Lord, a soothing aroma,[n] and its drink offering, one-fourth of a hin of wine.[o] 14 You must not eat bread, roasted grain, or fresh grain until this very day,[p] until you bring the offering to your God. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations[q] in all the places where you live.
The Feast of Weeks
15 “‘You must count for yourselves seven weeks from the day after the Sabbath, from the day you bring the wave offering sheaf; they must be complete weeks.[r] 16 You must count fifty days—until the day after the seventh Sabbath—and then[s] you must present a new grain offering to the Lord. 17 From the places where you live you must bring two loaves of[t] bread for a wave offering; they must be made from two-tenths of an ephah of fine wheat flour, baked with yeast,[u] as firstfruits to the Lord. 18 Along with the loaves of bread,[v] you must also present seven flawless yearling lambs,[w] one young bull,[x] and two rams.[y] They are to be a burnt offering to the Lord along with their grain offering[z] and drink offerings, a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord.[aa] 19 You must also offer[ab] one male goat[ac] for a sin offering and two yearling lambs for a peace-offering sacrifice, 20 and the priest is to wave them—the two lambs[ad]—along with the bread of the firstfruits, as a wave offering before the Lord; they will be holy to the Lord for the priest.
21 “‘On this very day you must proclaim an assembly; it is to be a holy assembly for you.[ae] You must not do any regular work. This is a perpetual statute in all the places where you live throughout your generations.[af] 22 When you gather in the harvest[ag] of your land, you must not completely harvest the corner of your field,[ah] and you must not gather up the gleanings of your harvest. You must leave them for the poor and the resident foreigner.[ai] I am the Lord your God.’”[aj]
The Feast of Horn Blasts
23 The Lord spoke to Moses: 24 “Tell the Israelites, ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you must have a complete rest, a memorial announced by loud horn blasts,[ak] a holy assembly. 25 You must not do any regular work, but[al] you must present a gift to the Lord.’”
The Day of Atonement
26 The Lord spoke to Moses: 27 “The[am] tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement.[an] It is to be a holy assembly for you, and you must humble yourselves[ao] and present a gift to the Lord. 28 You must not do any work on this particular day,[ap] because it is a day of atonement to make atonement for yourselves[aq] before the Lord your God. 29 Indeed,[ar] any person who does not behave with humility on this particular day will be cut off from his people.[as] 30 As for any person[at] who does any work on this particular day, I will exterminate[au] that person from the midst of his people[av]— 31 you must not do any work! This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations[aw] in all the places where you live. 32 It is a Sabbath of complete rest for you, and you must humble yourselves on the ninth day of the month in the evening, from evening until evening you must observe your Sabbath.”[ax]
The Feast of Temporary Shelters
33 The Lord spoke to Moses: 34 “Tell the Israelites, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the Feast of Shelters[ay] for seven days to the Lord. 35 On the first day is a holy assembly; you must do no regular work.[az] 36 For seven days you must present a gift to the Lord. On the eighth day there is to be a holy assembly for you, and you must present a gift to the Lord. It is a solemn assembly day;[ba] you must not do any regular work.
37 “‘These are the appointed times of the Lord that you must proclaim as holy assemblies to present a gift to the Lord—burnt offering, grain offering, sacrifice, and drink offerings,[bb] each day according to its regulation,[bc] 38 besides[bd] the Sabbaths of the Lord and all your gifts, votive offerings, and freewill offerings which you must give to the Lord.
39 “‘On[be] the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you gather in the produce of the land, you must celebrate a pilgrim festival of the Lord for seven days. On the first day is a complete rest and on the eighth day is complete rest. 40 On the first day you must take for yourselves branches from majestic trees[bf]—palm branches, branches of leafy trees, and willows of the brook—and you must rejoice before the Lord your God for seven days. 41 You must celebrate it as a pilgrim festival to the Lord for seven days in the year. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations;[bg] you must celebrate it in the seventh month. 42 You must live in temporary shelters[bh] for seven days; every native citizen in Israel must live in shelters, 43 so that your future generations may know that I made the Israelites live in shelters when I brought them out from the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.’”
44 So Moses spoke to the Israelites about the appointed times of the Lord.[bi]
Regulations for the Lampstand and the Table of Bread
24 The Lord spoke to Moses: 2 “Command the Israelites to bring[bj] to you pure oil of beaten olives for the light, to make a lamp burn continually.[bk] 3 Outside the special curtain[bl] of the congregation in the Meeting Tent, Aaron[bm] must arrange it from evening until morning before the Lord continually. This is a perpetual statute throughout your generations.[bn] 4 On the ceremonially pure lampstand[bo] he must arrange the lamps before the Lord continually.
5 “You must take choice wheat flour[bp] and bake twelve loaves;[bq] there must be two-tenths of an ephah of flour in[br] each loaf, 6 and you must set them in two rows, six in a row,[bs] on the ceremonially pure table before the Lord. 7 You must put pure frankincense[bt] on each row,[bu] and it will become a memorial portion[bv] for the bread, a gift[bw] to the Lord. 8 Each Sabbath day[bx] Aaron[by] must arrange it before the Lord continually; this portion[bz] is from the Israelites as a perpetual covenant. 9 It will belong to Aaron and his sons, and they must eat it in a holy place because it is most holy to him, a perpetually-allotted portion[ca] from the gifts of the Lord.”
A Case of Blaspheming the Name
10 Now[cb] an Israelite woman’s son whose father was an Egyptian went out among the Israelites, and the Israelite woman’s son and an Israelite man[cc] had a fight in the camp. 11 The Israelite woman’s son misused the Name and cursed,[cd] so they brought him to Moses. (Now his mother’s name was Shelomith, daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan.) 12 So they placed him in custody until they were able[ce] to make a clear legal decision for themselves based on words from the mouth of the Lord.[cf]
13 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 14 “Bring the one who cursed outside the camp, and all who heard him are to lay their hands on his head, and the whole congregation is to stone him to death.[cg] 15 Moreover,[ch] you are to tell the Israelites, ‘If any man curses his God[ci] he will bear responsibility for his sin, 16 and one who misuses[cj] the name of the Lord must surely be put to death. The whole congregation must surely stone him, whether he is a resident foreigner or a native citizen; when he misuses the Name he must be put to death.
17 “‘If a man beats any person to death,[ck] he must be put to death. 18 One who beats an animal to death[cl] must make restitution for it, life for life.[cm] 19 If a man inflicts an injury on[cn] his fellow citizen,[co] just as he has done it must be done to him— 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth—just as he inflicts an injury on another person[cp] that same injury[cq] must be inflicted on him. 21 One who beats an animal to death[cr] must make restitution for it, but[cs] one who beats a person to death must be put to death. 22 There will be one regulation[ct] for you, whether a resident foreigner[cu] or a native citizen, for I am the Lord your God.’”
23 Then Moses spoke to the Israelites and they brought the one who cursed outside the camp and stoned him with stones. So the Israelites did just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
Regulations for the Sabbatical Year
25 The Lord spoke to Moses at Mount Sinai: 2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When you enter the land that I am giving you, the land must observe a Sabbath[cv] to the Lord. 3 Six years you may sow your field, and six years you may prune your vineyard and gather the produce,[cw] 4 but in the seventh year the land must have a Sabbath of complete rest[cx]—a Sabbath to the Lord. You must not sow your field or[cy] prune your vineyard. 5 You must not gather in the aftergrowth of your harvest and you must not pick the grapes of your unpruned vines;[cz] the land must have a year of complete rest. 6 You may have the Sabbath produce[da] of the land to eat—you, your male servant, your female servant, your hired worker, the resident foreigner who stays with you,[db] 7 your cattle, and the wild animals that are in your land—all its produce will be for you[dc] to eat.
Regulations for the Jubilee Year of Release
8 “‘You must count off[dd] seven weeks of years, seven times seven years,[de] and the days of the seven weeks of years will amount to forty-nine years.[df] 9 You must sound loud horn blasts[dg]—in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, on the Day of Atonement—you must sound the horn in your entire land. 10 So you must consecrate the fiftieth year,[dh] and you must proclaim a release[di] in the land for all its inhabitants. That year will be your Jubilee;[dj] each one of you must return[dk] to his property and each one of you must return to his clan. 11 That fiftieth year will be your Jubilee; you must not sow the land, harvest its aftergrowth, or pick the grapes of its unpruned vines.[dl] 12 Because that year is a Jubilee, it will be holy to you—you may eat its produce[dm] from the field.
Release of Landed Property
13 “‘In this Year of Jubilee you must each return[dn] to your property. 14 If you make a sale[do] to your fellow citizen[dp] or buy[dq] from your fellow citizen, no one is to wrong his brother.[dr] 15 You may buy it from your fellow citizen according to the number of years since[ds] the last Jubilee; he may sell it to you according to the years of produce that are left.[dt] 16 The more years there are,[du] the more you may make its purchase price, and the fewer years there are,[dv] the less you must make its purchase price, because he is only selling to you a number of years of[dw] produce. 17 No one is to oppress his fellow citizen,[dx] but you must fear your God, because I am the Lord your God. 18 You must obey my statutes and my regulations; you must be sure to keep them[dy] so that you may live securely in the land.[dz]
19 “‘The land will give its fruit and you may eat until you are satisfied,[ea] and you may live securely in the land. 20 If you say, “What will we eat in the seventh year if we do not sow and gather our produce?” 21 I will command my blessing for you in the sixth year so that it may yield[eb] the produce[ec] for three years, 22 and you may sow the eighth year and eat from that sixth year’s produce[ed]—old produce. Until you bring in the ninth year’s produce,[ee] you may eat old produce. 23 The land must not be sold without reclaim[ef] because the land belongs to me, for you are foreign residents, temporary settlers, with me.[eg] 24 In all your landed property[eh] you must provide for the right of redemption of the land.[ei]
25 “‘If your brother becomes impoverished and sells some of his property, his near redeemer is to come to you and redeem what his brother sold.[ej] 26 If a man has no redeemer, but he prospers[ek] and gains enough for its redemption,[el] 27 he is to calculate the value of the years it was sold,[em] refund the balance[en] to the man to whom he had sold it, and return to his property. 28 If he has not prospered enough to refund[eo] a balance to him, then what he sold[ep] will belong to[eq] the one who bought it until the Jubilee year, but it must revert[er] in the Jubilee and the original owner[es] may return to his property.
Release of Houses
29 “‘If a man sells a residential house in a walled city,[et] its right of redemption must extend[eu] until one full year from its sale;[ev] its right of redemption must extend to a full calendar year.[ew] 30 If it is not redeemed before the full calendar year is ended,[ex] the house in the walled city[ey] will belong without reclaim[ez] to the one who bought it throughout his generations; it will not revert in the Jubilee. 31 The houses of villages, however,[fa] which have no wall surrounding them[fb] must be considered as the field[fc] of the land; they will have the right of redemption and must revert in the Jubilee. 32 As for[fd] the cities of the Levites, the houses in the cities which they possess,[fe] the Levites must have a perpetual right of redemption. 33 Whatever someone among the Levites might redeem—the sale of a house which is his property in a city—must revert in the Jubilee,[ff] because the houses of the cities of the Levites are their property in the midst of the Israelites. 34 Moreover,[fg] the open field areas of their cities[fh] must not be sold, because that is their perpetual possession.
Debt and Slave Regulations
35 “‘If your brother[fi] becomes impoverished and is indebted to you,[fj] you must support[fk] him; he must live[fl] with you like a foreign resident.[fm] 36 Do not take interest or profit from him,[fn] but you must fear your God and your brother must live[fo] with you. 37 You must not lend him your money at interest and you must not sell him food for profit.[fp] 38 I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan—to be your God.[fq]
39 “‘If your brother becomes impoverished with regard to you so that he sells himself to you, you must not subject him to slave service.[fr] 40 He must be with you as a hired worker, as a resident foreigner;[fs] he must serve with you until the Year of Jubilee, 41 but then[ft] he may go free,[fu] he and his children with him, and may return to his family and to the property of his ancestors.[fv] 42 Since the Israelites[fw] are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt, they must not be sold in a slave sale.[fx] 43 You must not rule over them harshly,[fy] but you must fear your God.
44 “‘As for your male and female slaves[fz] who may belong to you—you may buy male and female slaves from the nations all around you.[ga] 45 Also, you may buy slaves[gb] from the children of the foreigners who reside with you, and from their families that are[gc] with you, whom they have fathered in your land; they may become your property. 46 You may give them as an inheritance to your children after you to possess as property. You may enslave them perpetually. However, as for your brothers the Israelites, no man may rule over his brother harshly.[gd]
47 “‘If a resident foreigner who is with you prospers[ge] and your brother becomes impoverished with regard to him so that[gf] he sells himself to a resident foreigner who is with you or to a member[gg] of a foreigner’s family, 48 after he has sold himself he retains a right of redemption.[gh] One of his brothers may redeem him, 49 or his uncle or his cousin[gi] may redeem him, or any one of the rest of his blood relatives—his family[gj]—may redeem him, or if[gk] he prospers he may redeem himself. 50 He must calculate with the one who bought him the number of years[gl] from the year he sold himself to him until the Jubilee year, and the cost of his sale must correspond to the number of years, according to the rate of wages a hired worker would have earned while with him.[gm] 51 If there are still many years, in keeping with them[gn] he must refund most of the cost of his purchase for his redemption, 52 but if only a few years remain[go] until the Jubilee, he must calculate for himself in keeping with the remaining years and refund it for his redemption. 53 He must be with the one who bought him[gp] like a yearly hired worker.[gq] The one who bought him[gr] must not rule over him harshly in your sight. 54 If, however,[gs] he is not redeemed in these ways, he must go free[gt] in the Jubilee year, he and his children with him, 55 because the Israelites are my own servants;[gu] they are my servants whom I brought out from the land of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.
Exhortation to Obedience
26 “‘You must not make for yourselves idols,[gv] so you must not set up for yourselves a carved image or a pillar, and you must not place a sculpted stone in your land to bow down before[gw] it, for I am the Lord your God. 2 You must keep my Sabbaths and reverence[gx] my sanctuary. I am the Lord.
The Benefits of Obedience
3 “‘If you walk in my statutes and are sure to obey my commandments,[gy] 4 I will give you your rains in their time so that[gz] the land will give its yield and the trees of the field will produce their fruit.[ha] 5 Threshing season will extend for you until the season for harvesting grapes,[hb] and the season for harvesting grapes will extend until sowing season, so[hc] you will eat your bread until you are satisfied,[hd] and you will live securely in your land. 6 I will grant peace in the land so that[he] you will lie down to sleep without anyone terrifying you.[hf] I will remove harmful animals[hg] from the land, and no sword of war[hh] will pass through your land. 7 You will pursue your enemies and they will fall before you by the sword.[hi] 8 Five of you will pursue a hundred, and a hundred of you will pursue ten thousand, and your enemies will fall before you by the sword. 9 I will turn to you, make you fruitful, multiply you, and maintain[hj] my covenant with you. 10 You will still be eating stored produce from the previous year[hk] and will have to clean out what is stored from the previous year to make room for new.[hl]
11 “‘I will put my tabernacle[hm] in your midst and I will not abhor you.[hn] 12 I will walk among you, and I will be your God and you will be my people. 13 I am the Lord your God who brought you out from the land of Egypt, from being their slaves,[ho] and I broke the bars of your yoke and caused you to walk upright.[hp]
The Consequences of Disobedience
14 “‘If, however,[hq] you do not obey me and keep[hr] all these commandments— 15 if you reject my statutes and abhor my regulations so that you do not keep[hs] all my commandments and you break my covenant— 16 I for my part[ht] will do this to you: I will inflict horror on you, consumption and fever, which diminish eyesight and drain away the vitality of life.[hu] You will sow your seed in vain because[hv] your enemies will eat it.[hw] 17 I will set my face against you. You will be struck down before your enemies, those who hate you will rule over you, and you will flee when there is no one pursuing you.
18 “‘If, in spite of all these things,[hx] you do not obey me, I will discipline you seven times more on account of your sins.[hy] 19 I will break your strong pride and make your sky like iron and your land like bronze. 20 Your strength will be used up in vain, your land will not give its yield, and the trees of the land[hz] will not produce their fruit.
21 “‘If you walk in hostility against me[ia] and are not willing to obey me, I will increase your affliction[ib] seven times according to your sins. 22 I will send the wild animals[ic] against you and they will bereave you of your children,[id] annihilate your cattle, and diminish your population[ie] so that your roads will become deserted.
23 “‘If in spite of these things[if] you do not allow yourselves to be disciplined and you walk in hostility against me,[ig] 24 then I myself will also walk in hostility against you and strike you[ih] seven times on account of your sins. 25 I will bring on you an avenging sword, a covenant vengeance.[ii] Although[ij] you will gather together into your cities, I will send pestilence among you and you will be given into enemy hands.[ik] 26 When I break off your supply of bread,[il] ten women will bake your bread in one oven; they will ration your bread by weight,[im] and you will eat and not be satisfied.
27 “‘If in spite of this[in] you do not obey me but walk in hostility against me,[io] 28 I will walk in hostile rage against you[ip] and I myself will also discipline you seven times on account of your sins. 29 You will eat the flesh of your sons and the flesh of your daughters.[iq] 30 I will destroy your high places and cut down your incense altars,[ir] and I will stack your dead bodies on top of the lifeless bodies of your idols.[is] I will abhor you.[it] 31 I will lay your cities waste[iu] and make your sanctuaries desolate, and I will refuse to smell your soothing aromas. 32 I myself will make the land desolate and your enemies who live in it will be appalled. 33 I will scatter you among the nations and unsheathe the sword[iv] after you, so your land will become desolate and your cities will become a waste.
34 “‘Then the land will make up for[iw] its Sabbaths all the days it lies desolate while you are in the land of your enemies; then the land will rest and make up its Sabbaths. 35 All the days of the desolation it will have the rest it did not have[ix] on your Sabbaths when you lived on it.
36 “‘As for[iy] the ones who remain among you, I will bring despair into their hearts in the lands of their enemies. The sound of a blowing leaf will pursue them, and they will flee as one who flees the sword and will fall down even though there is no pursuer. 37 They will stumble over each other as those who flee before a sword, though[iz] there is no pursuer, and there will be no one to take a stand[ja] for you before your enemies. 38 You will perish among the nations; the land of your enemies will consume you.
Restoration through Confession and Repentance
39 “‘As for the ones who remain among you, they will rot away because of[jb] their iniquity in the lands of your enemies, and they will also rot away because of their ancestors’[jc] iniquities which are with them. 40 However, when[jd] they confess their iniquity and their ancestors’ iniquities which they committed by trespassing against me,[je] by which they also walked[jf] in hostility against me[jg] 41 (and I myself will walk in hostility against them and bring them into the land of their enemies), and[jh] then their uncircumcised hearts become humbled and they make up for[ji] their iniquities, 42 I will remember my covenant with Jacob and also my covenant with Isaac and also my covenant with Abraham,[jj] and I will remember the land. 43 The land will be abandoned by them[jk] in order that it may make up for[jl] its Sabbaths while it is made desolate[jm] without them,[jn] and they will make up for their iniquity because[jo] they have rejected my regulations and have abhorred[jp] my statutes. 44 In spite of this, however, when they are in the land of their enemies I will not reject them and abhor them to make a complete end of them, to break my covenant with them, for I am the Lord their God. 45 I will remember for them the covenant with their ancestors[jq] whom I brought out from the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations to be their God. I am the Lord.’”
Redemption of Persons Given as Votive Offerings
27 The Lord spoke to Moses: 2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them, ‘When a man makes a special votive offering[jt] based on the conversion value of a person to the Lord,[ju] 3 the conversion value of the male[jv] from twenty years old up to sixty years old[jw] is fifty shekels by the standard of the sanctuary shekel.[jx] 4 If the person is a female, the conversion value is thirty shekels. 5 If the person is from five years old up to twenty years old, the conversion value of the male is twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 6 If the person is one month old up to five years old, the conversion value of the male is five shekels of silver,[jy] and for the female the conversion value is three shekels of silver. 7 If the person is from sixty years old and older, if he is a male the conversion value is fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 8 If the person making the votive offering[jz] is too poor to pay the conversion value, he must stand the person before the priest and the priest will establish his conversion value;[ka] according to what the man who made the votive offering can afford,[kb] the priest will establish his conversion value.
Redemption of Animals Given as Votive Offerings
9 “‘If what is vowed is a kind of animal from which an offering may be presented[kc] to the Lord, anything which he gives to the Lord from this kind of animal[kd] will be holy. 10 He must not replace or exchange it, good for bad or bad for good, and if he does indeed exchange one animal for another animal, then both the original animal[ke] and its substitute will be holy. 11 If what is vowed is an unclean animal from which an offering must not be presented to the Lord, then he must stand the animal before the priest, 12 and the priest will establish its conversion value,[kf] whether good or bad. According to the conversion value assessed by the priest, thus it will be. 13 If, however, the person who made the vow redeems the animal,[kg] he must add one-fifth to[kh] its conversion value.
Redemption of Houses Given as Votive Offerings
14 “‘If a man consecrates his house as holy to the Lord, the priest will establish its conversion value, whether good or bad. Just as the priest establishes its conversion value, thus it will stand.[ki] 15 If the one who consecrates it redeems his house, he must add to it one-fifth of its conversion value in silver, and it will belong to him.[kj]
Redemption of Fields Given as Votive Offerings
16 “‘If a man consecrates to the Lord some of his own landed property, the conversion value must be calculated in accordance with the amount of seed needed to sow it,[kk] a homer of barley seed being priced at fifty shekels of silver.[kl] 17 If he consecrates his field in the Jubilee year,[km] the conversion value will stand, 18 but if[kn] he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, the priest will calculate the price[ko] for him according to the years that are left until the next Jubilee year, and it will be deducted from the conversion value. 19 If, however, the one who consecrated the field redeems it,[kp] he must add to it one-fifth of the conversion price[kq] and it will belong to him.[kr] 20 If he does not redeem the field, but sells[ks] the field to someone else, he may never redeem it. 21 When it reverts[kt] in the Jubilee, the field will be holy to the Lord like a permanently dedicated field;[ku] it will become the priest’s property.[kv]
22 “‘If he consecrates to the Lord a field he has purchased,[kw] which is not part of his own landed property, 23 the priest will calculate for him the amount of its conversion value until the Jubilee year, and he must pay[kx] the conversion value on that Jubilee day as something that is holy to the Lord. 24 In the Jubilee year the field will return to the one from whom he bought it, the one to whom it belongs as landed property. 25 Every conversion value must be calculated by the standard of the sanctuary shekel;[ky] twenty gerahs to the shekel.
Redemption of the Firstborn
26 “‘Surely no man may consecrate a firstborn that already belongs to the Lord as a firstborn among the animals; whether it is an ox or a sheep, it belongs to the Lord.[kz] 27 If, however,[la] it is among the unclean animals, he may ransom it according to[lb] its conversion value and must add one-fifth to it, but if it is not redeemed it must be sold according to its conversion value.
Things Permanently Dedicated to the Lord
28 “‘Surely anything that a man permanently dedicates to the Lord[lc] from all that belongs to him, whether from people, animals, or his landed property, must be neither sold nor redeemed; anything permanently dedicated is most holy to the Lord. 29 Any human being who is permanently dedicated[ld] to the Lord[le] must not be ransomed; such a person must be put to death.
Redemption of the Tithe
30 “‘Any tithe[lf] of the land, from the grain of the land or from the fruit of the trees, belongs to the Lord; it is holy to the Lord. 31 If a man redeems[lg] part of his tithe, however, he must add one-fifth to it.[lh] 32 All the tithe of herds or flocks, everything which passes under the rod, the tenth one will be holy to the Lord.[li] 33 The owner[lj] must not examine the animals to distinguish between good and bad, and he must not exchange it. If, however, he does exchange it,[lk] both the original animal[ll] and its substitute will be holy[lm] and must not be redeemed.’”
34 These are the commandments which the Lord commanded Moses to tell the Israelites[ln] at Mount Sinai.
- Leviticus 23:2 tn Heb “these are them, my appointed times.” sn The term מוֹעֵד (moʿed, rendered “appointed time” here) can refer to either a time or place of meeting. See the note on “tent of meeting” (אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, ʾohel moʿed) in Lev 1:1.
- Leviticus 23:3 tn This is a superlative expression, emphasizing the full and all inclusive rest of the Sabbath and certain festival times throughout the chapter (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 155). Cf. ASV “a sabbath of solemn rest.”
- Leviticus 23:5 tn Heb “between the two evenings,” either designating the time between the setting of the sun and the true darkness of night or the time between the descent of the sun from high noon to sunset; the translation “at twilight” accepts the first interpretation. Cf. KJV, ASV “at even”; NAB “at the evening twilight.”sn See B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 156, for a full discussion of the issues raised in this verse. The rabbinic tradition places the slaughter of Passover offerings between approximately 3:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m., not precisely at twilight. Moreover, the term פֶּסַח (pesakh) may mean “protective offering” rather than “Passover offering,” although they amount to about the same thing in the historical context of the exodus from Egypt (see Exod 11-12).
- Leviticus 23:6 tn Heb “to this month.”
- Leviticus 23:7 tn Heb “work of service”; KJV “servile work”; NASB “laborious work”; TEV “daily work.”
- Leviticus 23:10 tn Heb “and you harvest its harvest.”
- Leviticus 23:10 tn Heb “the sheaf of the first of your harvest.”
- Leviticus 23:11 tn Heb “for your acceptance.”
- Leviticus 23:11 sn See Lev 7:30 for a note on the “waving” of a “wave offering.”
- Leviticus 23:12 tn Heb “And you shall make in the day of your waving the sheaf.”
- Leviticus 23:12 tn Heb “a flawless lamb, a son of its year”; KJV “of the first year”; NLT “a year-old male lamb.”
- Leviticus 23:13 sn See the note on Lev 5:11.
- Leviticus 23:13 sn See the note on Lev 2:1.
- Leviticus 23:13 sn See the note on Lev 1:9.
- Leviticus 23:13 tn Heb “wine, one-fourth of the hin.” A pre-exilic hin is about 3.6 liters (= ca. 1 gallon), so one-fourth of a hin would be about 1 quart (1 liter).
- Leviticus 23:14 tn Heb “until the bone of this day.”
- Leviticus 23:14 tn Heb “for your generations.”
- Leviticus 23:15 tn Heb “seven Sabbaths, they shall be complete.” The disjunctive accent under “Sabbaths” precludes the translation “seven complete Sabbaths” (as NASB, NIV; cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). The text is somewhat awkward, which may explain why the LXX tradition is confused here, either adding “you shall count” again at the end of the verse, or leaving out “they shall be,” or keeping “they shall be” and adding “to you.”
- Leviticus 23:16 tn Heb “and.” In the translation “then” is supplied to clarify the sequence.
- Leviticus 23:17 tc Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Onq., and Tg. Ps.-J. insert the word חַלּוֹת (khallot, “loaves”; cf. Lev 2:4 and the note there). Even though “loaves” is not explicit in the MT, the number “two” suggests that these are discrete units, not just a measure of flour, so “loaves” should be assumed even in the MT.
- Leviticus 23:17 tn Heb “with leaven.” The noun “leaven” is traditional in English versions (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV), but “yeast” is more commonly used today.
- Leviticus 23:18 tn Heb “And you shall present on the bread.”
- Leviticus 23:18 tn Heb “seven flawless lambs, sons of a year.”
- Leviticus 23:18 tn Heb “and one bull, a son of a herd.”
- Leviticus 23:18 tc Smr and LXX add “flawless.”
- Leviticus 23:18 tn Heb “and their grain offering.”
- Leviticus 23:18 sn See the note on Lev 1:9.
- Leviticus 23:19 tn Heb “And you shall make.”
- Leviticus 23:19 tn Heb “a he-goat of goats.”
- Leviticus 23:20 tn Smr and LXX have the Hebrew article on “lambs.” The syntax of this verse is difficult. The object of the verb (two lambs) is far removed from the verb itself (shall wave) in the MT, and the preposition עַל (ʿal, “upon”), rendered “along with” in this verse, is also added to the far removed subject (literally, “upon [the] two lambs”; see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 159). It is clear, however, that the two lambs and the loaves (along with their associated grain and drink offerings) constituted the “wave offering,” which served as the prebend “for the priest.” Burnt and sin offerings (vv. 18-19a) were not included in this (see Lev 7:11-14, 28-36).
- Leviticus 23:21 tn Heb “And you shall proclaim [an assembly] in the bone of this day; a holy assembly it shall be to you” (see the remarks in B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 160, and the remarks on the LXX rendering in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 367).
- Leviticus 23:21 tn Heb “for your generations.”
- Leviticus 23:22 tn Heb “And when you harvest the harvest.”
- Leviticus 23:22 tn Heb “you shall not complete the corner of your field in your harvest.”
- Leviticus 23:22 sn On the Hebrew גֵּר (ger, “resident foreigner”) see notes at Exod 12:19 and Deut 29:11. On the privilege of gleaning see also Lev 19:10; 23:22; Deut 14:29; 24:19-21.
- Leviticus 23:22 sn Cf. Lev 19:9-10.
- Leviticus 23:24 tn Heb “a memorial of loud blasts.” Although the term for “horn” does not occur here, allowing for the possibility that vocal “shouts” of acclamation are envisioned (see P. J. Budd, Leviticus [NCBC], 325), the “blast” of the shofar (a trumpet made from a ram’s “horn”) is most likely what is intended. On this occasion, the loud blasts on the horn announced the coming of the new year on the first day of the seventh month (see the explanations in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 387, and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 160).
- Leviticus 23:25 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have adversative force here (cf. KJV, NASB, NIV).
- Leviticus 23:27 tn Heb “Surely the tenth day” or perhaps “Precisely the tenth day.” The Hebrew adverbial particle אַךְ (ʾakh) is left untranslated by most recent English versions; cf. however NASB “On exactly the tenth day.”
- Leviticus 23:27 sn See the description of this day and its regulations in Lev 16 and the notes there.
- Leviticus 23:27 tn Heb “you shall humble your souls.” See the note on Lev 16:29 above.
- Leviticus 23:28 tn Heb “in the bone of this day.”
- Leviticus 23:28 tn Heb “on you [plural]”; cf. NASB, NRSV “on your behalf.”
- Leviticus 23:29 tn The particular כִּי (ki) is taken in an asseverative sense here (“Indeed,” see the NJPS translation).
- Leviticus 23:29 tn Heb “it [i.e., that person; literally “soul,” feminine] shall be cut off from its peoples [plural]”; NLT “from the community.”
- Leviticus 23:30 tn Heb “And any person.”
- Leviticus 23:30 tn See HALOT 3 s.v. I אבד hif. Cf. KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “destroy”; CEV “wipe out.”
- Leviticus 23:30 tn Heb “its people” (“its” is feminine to agree with “person,” literally “soul,” which is feminine in Hebrew; cf. v. 29).
- Leviticus 23:31 tn Heb “for your generations.”
- Leviticus 23:32 tn Heb “you shall rest your Sabbath.”
- Leviticus 23:34 tn The rendering “booths” (cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV) is probably better than the traditional “tabernacles” in light of the meaning of the term סֻכָּה (sukkah, “hut, booth”), but “booths” are frequently associated with trade shows and craft fairs in contemporary American English. The nature of the celebration during this feast (see the following verses) as a commemoration of the wanderings of the Israelites after they left Egypt suggests that a translation like “shelters” is more appropriate.
- Leviticus 23:35 tn Heb “work of service”; KJV “servile work”; NASB “laborious work”; TEV “daily work.”
- Leviticus 23:36 tn The Hebrew term עֲצֶרֶת (ʿatseret) “solemn assembly [day]” derives from a root associated with restraint or closure. It could refer either to the last day as “closing assembly” day of the festival (e.g., NIV) or a special day of restraint expressed in a “solemn assembly” (e.g., NRSV); cf. NLT “a solemn closing assembly.”
- Leviticus 23:37 tn The LXX has “[their] burnt offerings, and their sacrifices, and their drink offerings.”
- Leviticus 23:37 tn Heb “a matter of a day in its day”; NAB “as prescribed for each day”; NRSV, NLT “each on its proper day.”
- Leviticus 23:38 tn Heb “from to separation.” See BDB 94 s.v. בַּד 1.e for an explanation of this phrase. This phrase is repeated in front of each of the four items in this verse in the Hebrew text, but these have not been translated into English for stylistic reasons. Cf. KJV, NASB “besides”; NRSV “apart from.”
- Leviticus 23:39 tn Heb “Surely on the fifteenth day.” The Hebrew adverbial particle אַךְ (ʾakh) is left untranslated by most recent English versions; however, cf. NASB “On exactly the fifteenth day.”
- Leviticus 23:40 tn Heb “fruit of majestic trees,” but the following terms and verses define what is meant by this expression. For extensive remarks on the celebration of this festival in history and tradition see B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 163; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 389-90; and P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC), 328-29.
- Leviticus 23:41 tn Heb “for your generations.”
- Leviticus 23:42 tn Heb “in the huts” (again at the end of this verse and in v. 43), perhaps referring to temporary shelters (i.e., huts) made of the foliage referred to in v. 40 (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 389).
- Leviticus 23:44 sn E. S. Gerstenberger (Leviticus [OTL], 352) takes v. 44 to be an introduction to another set of festival regulations, perhaps something like those found in Exod 23:14-17. For others this verse reemphasizes the Mosaic authority of the preceding festival regulations (e.g., J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 390).
- Leviticus 24:2 tn Heb “and let them take.” The simple vav (ו) on the imperfect/jussive form of the verb לָקַח (laqakh, “to take”) following the imperative (“Command”) indicates a purpose clause (“to bring…”).
- Leviticus 24:2 tn Heb “to cause to ascend a lamp continually.”
- Leviticus 24:3 tn The Hebrew term פָּרֹכֶת (parokhet) is usually translated “veil” or “curtain.” It seems to have stretched not only in front of but also over the top of the ark of the covenant which stood behind and under it inside the most holy place thus forming a canopy (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:687-89).
- Leviticus 24:3 tc Several medieval Hebrew mss, Smr, and the LXX add “and his sons.”
- Leviticus 24:3 tn Heb “for your generations.”
- Leviticus 24:4 tn Alternatively, “pure [gold] lampstand,” based on Exod 25:31, etc., where the term for “gold” actually appears (see NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT, and the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 395, etc.). However, in Lev 24:4 the adjective “pure” is feminine, corresponding to “lampstand,” not an assumed noun “gold” (contrast Exod 25:31), and the “table” in v. 6 was overlaid with gold, but was not made of pure gold. Therefore, it is probably better to translate “[ceremonially] pure lampstand” (v. 4) and “[ceremonially] pure table” (v. 6); see NEB; cf. KJV, ASV; B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 164-65; and G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 307.
- Leviticus 24:5 sn See the note on Lev 2:1.
- Leviticus 24:5 tn Heb “and bake it twelve loaves”; KJV, NAB, NASB “cakes.”
- Leviticus 24:5 tn The words “of flour” are supplied in the translation for clarity.sn See the note on Lev 5:11.
- Leviticus 24:6 tn Heb “six of the row.”
- Leviticus 24:7 tn This is not just any “incense” (קְטֹרֶת, qetoret; R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:913-16), but specifically “frankincense” (לְבֹנָה, levonah; R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:756-57).
- Leviticus 24:7 tn Heb “on [עַל, ʿal] the row,” probably used distributively, “on each row” (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 395-96). Perhaps the frankincense was placed “with” or “along side of” each row, not actually on the bread itself, and was actually burned as incense to the Lord (cf. NIV “Along [Alongside CEV] each row”; NRSV “with each row”; NLT “near each row”; B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 165). This particular preposition can have such a meaning.
- Leviticus 24:7 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָרָה, ʾazkharah) was normally the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (see Lev 2:2 and the notes there), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (Lev 2:3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [6:7-16 HT]).
- Leviticus 24:7 sn See the note on Lev 1:9 regarding the term “gift.”
- Leviticus 24:8 tn Heb “In the day of the Sabbath, in the day of the Sabbath.” The repetition is distributive. A few medieval Hebrew mss, the LXX, and the Syriac delete the second occurrence of the expression.
- Leviticus 24:8 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Aaron) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 24:8 tn The word “portion” is supplied in the translation here for clarity, to specify what “this” refers to.
- Leviticus 24:9 tn Or “a perpetual regulation”; NRSV “a perpetual due.”
- Leviticus 24:10 tn Heb “And.”
- Leviticus 24:10 tn Heb “the Israelite man,” but Smr has no article, and the point is that there was a conflict between the man of mixed background and a man of full Israelite descent.
- Leviticus 24:11 tn The verb rendered “misused” means literally “to bore through, to pierce” (HALOT 719 s.v. נקב qal); it is from נָקַב (naqav), not קָבַב (qavav; see the participial form in v. 16a). Its exact meaning here is uncertain. The two verbs together may form a hendiadys, “he pronounced by cursing blasphemously” (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 166), the idea being one of the following: (1) he pronounced the name “Yahweh” in a way or with words that amounted to “some sort of verbal aggression against Yahweh himself” (E. S. Gerstenberger, Leviticus [OTL], 362), (2) he pronounced a curse against the man using the name “Yahweh” (N. H. Snaith, Leviticus and Numbers [NCBC], 110; G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 311), or (3) he pronounced the name “Yahweh” and thereby blasphemed, since the “Name” was never to be pronounced (a standard Jewish explanation). In one way or another, the offense surely violated Exod 20:7, one of the ten commandments, and the same verb for cursing is used explicitly in Exod 22:28 (27 HT) for prohibition against “cursing” God. For a full discussion of these and related options for interpreting this verse see P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC), 335-36; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 408-9; and Levine, 166.
- Leviticus 24:12 tn The words “until they were able” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
- Leviticus 24:12 tn The Hebrew here is awkward. A literal reading would be something like the following: “And they placed him in custody to give a clear decision [HALOT 976 s.v. פרשׁ qal] for themselves on the mouth of the Lord.” In any case, they were apparently waiting for a direct word from the Lord regarding this matter (see vv. 13ff).
- Leviticus 24:14 tn The words “to death” are supplied in the translation as a clarification; they are clearly implied from v. 16.
- Leviticus 24:15 tn Heb “And.”
- Leviticus 24:15 sn See the note on v. 11 above and esp. Exod 22:28 [27 HT].
- Leviticus 24:16 sn See the note on v. 11 above.
- Leviticus 24:17 tn Heb “And if a man strikes any soul [נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh] of mankind.” The idiom seems to derive from the idea of striking a fatal blow to the very “life” (literally, “soul”) of a human being, not just landing a blow on their body (HALOT 698 s.v. נכה hif.2). On the difficulty of the meaning and significance of the term נֶפֶשׁ see the notes on Lev 17:10-11.
- Leviticus 24:18 tn Heb “And one who strikes a soul of an animal.”
- Leviticus 24:18 tn Heb “soul under soul.” Cf. KJV “beast for beast”; NCV “must give…another animal to take its place.”
- Leviticus 24:19 tn Heb “gives a flaw in”; KJV, ASV “cause a blemish in.”
- Leviticus 24:19 tn Or “neighbor” (so NAB, NASB, NIV); TEV, NLT “another person.”
- Leviticus 24:20 tn Heb “in the man [אָדָם, ʾadam].”
- Leviticus 24:20 tn Heb “just as he inflicts an injury…it must be inflicted on him.” The referent (“that same injury”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 24:21 sn See the note on v. 18 above.
- Leviticus 24:21 tn Heb “and,” but here the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) is adversative, contrasting the consequences of beating an animal to death with those of beating a person to death.
- Leviticus 24:22 tn Heb “a regulation of one”; KJV, ASV “one manner of law”; NASB “one standard.”
- Leviticus 24:22 sn On the Hebrew גֵּר (ger, “resident foreigner”) see notes at Exod 12:19 and Deut 29:11. Several passages emphasize equal standing under Mosaic Law (Exod 12:49; Lev 24:22; Num 9:14; 15:15, 16, 26, 29; 19:10; 35:15; Deut 1:16) or similar obligations (Exod 20:10; 23:12; Lev 16:29; 17:10, 12, 13; 18:26; 24:16; Num 15:14).
- Leviticus 25:2 tn Heb “the land shall rest a Sabbath.”
- Leviticus 25:3 tn Heb “its produce,” but the feminine pronoun “its” probably refers to the “land” (a feminine noun in Hebrew; cf. v. 2), not the “field” or the “vineyard,” both of which are normally masculine nouns (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 170).
- Leviticus 25:4 tn Heb “and in the seventh year a Sabbath of complete rest shall be to the land.” The expression “a Sabbath of complete rest” is superlative, emphasizing the full and all inclusive rest of the seventh year of the sabbatical cycle. Cf. ASV “a sabbath of solemn rest”; NAB “a complete rest.”
- Leviticus 25:4 tn Heb “and.” Here the Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) has an alternative sense (“or”).
- Leviticus 25:5 tn Heb “consecrated, devoted, forbidden” (נָזִיר, nazir). The same term is used for the “consecration” of the “Nazirite” (and his hair, Num 6:2, 18, etc.), a designation which, in turn, derives from the very same root.
- Leviticus 25:6 tn The word “produce” is not in the Hebrew text but is implied; cf. NASB “the sabbath products.”
- Leviticus 25:6 tn A “resident who stays” would be a foreign person who was probably residing as another kind of laborer in the household of a landowner (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 170-71). See v. 35 below.
- Leviticus 25:7 tn The words “for you” are implied.
- Leviticus 25:8 tn Heb “And you shall count off for yourself.”
- Leviticus 25:8 tn Heb “seven years seven times.”
- Leviticus 25:8 tn Heb “and they shall be for you, the days of the seven Sabbaths of years, forty-nine years.”
- Leviticus 25:9 sn On the “loud horn blasts” see the note on Lev 23:24, but unlike the language there, the Hebrew term for “horn” (שׁוֹפָר, shofar) actually appears here in this verse (twice).
- Leviticus 25:10 tn Heb “the year of the fifty years,” or perhaps “the year, fifty years” (GKC 435 §134.o, note 2).
- Leviticus 25:10 tn Cf. KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV “liberty”; TEV, CEV “freedom.” The characteristics of this “release” are detailed in the following verses. For substantial summaries and bibliography on the biblical and ancient Near Eastern material regarding such a “release” see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 427-34, and B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 270-74.
- Leviticus 25:10 tn Heb “A jubilee that shall be to you.” Although there has been some significant debate about the original meaning of the Hebrew word translated “jubilee” (יוֹבֵל, yovel; see the summary in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 434), the term most likely means “ram” and can refer also to a “ram’s horn.” The fiftieth year would, therefore, be called the “jubilee” because of the associated sounding of the “ram’s horn” (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 172, and the literature cited there).
- Leviticus 25:10 tn Heb “you [plural] shall return, a man.”
- Leviticus 25:11 tn Heb “you shall not sow and you shall not…and you shall not….”sn See v. 5 above and the notes there.
- Leviticus 25:12 tn That is, the produce of the land (fem.; cf. v. 7 above).
- Leviticus 25:13 tn Heb “you [plural] shall return, a man.”
- Leviticus 25:14 tn Heb “sell a sale.”
- Leviticus 25:14 tn Or “to one of your countrymen” (NIV); NASB “to your friend.”
- Leviticus 25:14 tn The Hebrew infinitive absolute קָנֹה (qanoh, “buying”) substitutes for the finite verb here in sequence with the previous finite verb “sell” at the beginning of the verse (see GKC 345 §113.z).
- Leviticus 25:14 tn Heb “do not oppress a man his brother.” Here “brother” does not refer only to a sibling, but to a fellow Israelite.
- Leviticus 25:15 tn Heb “in the number of years after.”
- Leviticus 25:15 tn The words “that are left” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.sn The purchaser is actually buying only the crops that the land will produce until the next Jubilee, since the land will revert to the original owner at that time. The purchaser, therefore, is not actually buying the land itself.
- Leviticus 25:16 tn Heb “To the mouth of the many years.”
- Leviticus 25:16 tn Heb “to the mouth of the few years.”
- Leviticus 25:16 tn Heb “a number of produce”; the words “years of” are implied. As an alternative this could be translated “a number of harvests” (cf. NRSV, NLT).
- Leviticus 25:17 tn Heb “And you shall not oppress a man his fellow citizen.”
- Leviticus 25:18 tn Heb “And you shall keep and do them.” This appears to be a kind of verbal hendiadys, where the first verb is a modifier of the action of the second verb (see GKC 386 §120.d, although שָׁמַר [shamar, “to keep”] is not cited there; cf. Lev 20:8, etc.).
- Leviticus 25:18 tn Heb “and you shall dwell on the land to security.”
- Leviticus 25:19 tn Heb “eat to satisfaction”; KJV, ASV “ye shall eat your fill.”
- Leviticus 25:21 tn Heb “and it [i.e., the land] shall make the produce.” The Hebrew term וְעָשָׂת (veʿasat, “and it shall make”) is probably an older third feminine singular form of the verb (GKC 210 §75.m). Smr has the normal form.
- Leviticus 25:21 tn Smr and LXX have “its produce” (cf. 25:3, 7, etc.) rather than “the produce.”
- Leviticus 25:22 tn Heb “the produce,” referring to “the produce” of the sixth year of v. 21. The words “sixth year” are supplied for clarity.
- Leviticus 25:22 tn Heb “until the ninth year, until bringing [in] its produce.”
- Leviticus 25:23 tn The term rendered “without reclaim” means that the land has been bought for the full price and is, therefore, not subject to reclaim under any circumstances. This was not to be done with land in ancient Israel (contrast the final full sale of houses in v. 30; see the evidence cited in B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 174).
- Leviticus 25:23 tn The Hebrew terms ger (גֵּר; “resident foreigner”) and toshav (תּוֹשָׁב; “resident/dweller”) have similar meaning. The toshav was less integrated into Israelite society, had less rights, and had not fully committed to the religion of Israel. But in this context the terms are used simply to emphasize that Israel would be a guest on God’s land. They were attached to the Lord’s household. They did not own the land.sn Abraham refers to himself by these terms in Gen 23:4. Ps 39:12 and 1 Chron 29:15 take up this language from Lev 25:23.
- Leviticus 25:24 tn Heb “And in all the land of your property.”
- Leviticus 25:24 tn Heb “right of redemption you shall give to the land”; NAB “you must permit the land to be redeemed.”
- Leviticus 25:25 tn Heb “the sale of his brother.”
- Leviticus 25:26 tn Heb “and his hand reaches.”
- Leviticus 25:26 tn Heb “and he finds as sufficiency of its redemption.”
- Leviticus 25:27 tn Heb “and he shall calculate its years of sale.”
- Leviticus 25:27 tn Heb “and return the excess.”
- Leviticus 25:28 tn Heb “And if his hand has not found sufficiency of returning.” Although some versions take this to mean that he has not made enough to regain the land (e.g., NASB, NRSV; see also B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 176), the combination of terms in Hebrew corresponds to the portion of v. 27 that refers specifically to refunding the money (cf. v. 27; see NIV and G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 315).
- Leviticus 25:28 tn Heb “his sale.”
- Leviticus 25:28 tn Heb “will be in the hand of.” This refers to the temporary control of the one who purchased its produce until the next Year of Jubilee, at which time it would revert to the original owner.
- Leviticus 25:28 tn Heb “it shall go out” (so KJV, ASV; see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 176).
- Leviticus 25:28 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the original owner of the land) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 25:29 tn Heb “a house of a residence of a walled city.”
- Leviticus 25:29 tn Heb “shall be.”
- Leviticus 25:29 tn Heb “of its sale.”
- Leviticus 25:29 tn Heb “days its right of redemption shall be” (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 176).
- Leviticus 25:30 tn Heb “until fulfilling to it a complete year.’
- Leviticus 25:30 tn Heb “the house which [is] in the city which to it [is] a wall.” The Kethib has לֹא (loʾ, “no, not”) rather than לוֹ (lo, “to it”) which is the Qere.
- Leviticus 25:30 tn See the note on v. 23 above.
- Leviticus 25:31 tn Heb “And the houses of the villages.”
- Leviticus 25:31 tn Heb “which there is not to them a wall.”
- Leviticus 25:31 tn Heb “on the field.”
- Leviticus 25:32 tn Heb “And.”
- Leviticus 25:32 tn Heb “the houses of the cities of their property.”
- Leviticus 25:33 tn Heb “And which he shall redeem from the Levites shall go out, sale of house and city, his property in the Jubilee.” Although the end of this verse is clear, the first part is notoriously difficult. There are five main views. (1) The first clause of the verse actually attaches to the previous verse, and refers to the fact that their houses retain a perpetual right of redemption (v. 32b), “which any of the Levites may exercise” (v. 33a; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 418, 421). (2) It refers to property that one Levite sells to another Levite, which is then redeemed by still another Levite (v. 33a). In such cases, the property reverts to the original Levite owner in the Jubilee Year (v. 33b; G. J. Wenham, Leviticus [NICOT], 321). (3) It refers to houses in a city that had come to be declared as a Levitical city but had original non-Levitical owners. Once the city was declared to belong to the Levites, however, an owner could only sell his house to a Levite, and he could only redeem it back from a Levite up until the time of the first Jubilee after the city was declared to be a Levitical city. In this case the first part of the verse would be translated, “Such property as may be redeemed from the Levites” (NRSV, NJPS). At the first Jubilee, however, all such houses became the property of the Levites (v. 33b; P. J. Budd, Leviticus [NCBC], 353). (4) It refers to property “which is appropriated from the Levites” (not “redeemed from the Levites,” v. 33a) by those who have bought it or taken it as security for debts owed to them by Levites who had fallen on bad times. Again, such property reverts back to the original Levite owners at the Jubilee (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 177). (5) It simply refers to the fact that a Levite has the option of redeeming his house (i.e., the prefix form of the verb is taken to be subjunctive, “may or might redeem”), which he had to sell because he had fallen into debt or perhaps even become destitute. Even if he never gained the resources to do so, however, it would still revert to him in the Jubilee year. The present translation is intended to reflect this latter view.
- Leviticus 25:34 tn Heb “And.”
- Leviticus 25:34 sn This refers to the region of fields just outside and surrounding the city where cattle were kept and garden crops were grown (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 177).
- Leviticus 25:35 tn It is not clear to whom this refers. It is probably broader than “sibling” (cf. NRSV “any of your kin”; NLT “any of your Israelite relatives”) but some English versions take it to mean “fellow Israelite” (so TEV; cf. NAB, NIV “countrymen”) and others are ambiguous (cf. CEV “any of your people”).
- Leviticus 25:35 tn Heb “and his hand slips with you.”
- Leviticus 25:35 tn Heb “strengthen”; NASB “sustain.”
- Leviticus 25:35 tn The form וָחַי (vakhay, “and shall live”) looks like the adjective “living,” but the MT form is simply the same verb written as a double ayin verb (see HALOT 309 s.v. חיה qal, and GKC 218 §76.i; cf. Lev 18:5).
- Leviticus 25:35 tn Heb “a foreigner and resident,” which is probably to be combined (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 170-71). tn The Hebrew terms ger (גֵּר; “resident foreigner”) and toshav (תּוֹשָׁב; “resident/dweller”) have similar meaning. The toshav was less integrated into Israelite society, had less rights, and had not fully committed to the religion of Israel. Here the combination emphasizes the impoverished Israelites change in status. Note that the native born citizen and the resident foreigner (or naturalized citizen) were equal under the law (Exod 12:49; Lev 24:22; Num 9:14; 15:15, 16, 26, 29; 19:10; 35:15; Deut 1:16) or similar obligations (Exod 20:10; 23:12; Lev 16:29; 17:10, 12, 13; 18:26; 24:16; Num 15:14).
- Leviticus 25:36 tn The meaning of the terms rendered “interest” and “profit” is much debated (see the summaries in P. J. Budd, Leviticus [NCBC], 354-55 and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 178). Verse 37, however, suggests that the first refers to a percentage of money and the second percentage of produce (see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 421).
- Leviticus 25:36 tn In form the Hebrew term וְחֵי (vekhey, “shall live”) is the construct plural noun (i.e., “the life of”), but here it is used as the finite verb (cf. v. 35 and GKC 218 §76.i).
- Leviticus 25:37 tn Heb “your money” and “your food.” With regard to “interest” and “profit” see the note on v. 36 above.
- Leviticus 25:38 tn Heb “to be to you for a God.”
- Leviticus 25:39 tn Heb “you shall not serve against him service of a slave.” A distinction is being made here between the status of slave and indentured servant.
- Leviticus 25:40 tn See the note on Lev 25:6 above.
- Leviticus 25:41 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have adversative force here.
- Leviticus 25:41 tn Heb “may go out from you.”
- Leviticus 25:41 tn Heb “fathers.”
- Leviticus 25:42 tn Heb “they”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 25:42 tn Or perhaps reflexive Niphal rather than passive, “they shall not sell themselves [as in] a slave sale.”
- Leviticus 25:43 tn Heb “You shall not rule in him in violence”; cf. NASB “with severity”; NIV “ruthlessly.”
- Leviticus 25:44 tn Heb “And your male slave and your female slave.” Smr has these as plural terms, “slaves,” not singular.
- Leviticus 25:44 tn Heb “ from the nations which surround you, from them you shall buy male slave and female slave.”
- Leviticus 25:45 tn The word “slaves” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied here.
- Leviticus 25:45 tn Heb “family which is” (i.e., singular rather than plural).
- Leviticus 25:46 tn Heb “and your brothers, the sons of Israel, a man in his brother you shall not rule in him in violence.”
- Leviticus 25:47 tn Heb “And if the hand of a foreigner and resident with you reaches” (cf. v. 26 for this idiom).
- Leviticus 25:47 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.
- Leviticus 25:47 tn Heb “offshoot, descendant.”
- Leviticus 25:48 tn Heb “right of redemption shall be to him.”
- Leviticus 25:49 tn Heb “the son of his uncle.”
- Leviticus 25:49 tn Heb “or from the remainder of his flesh from his family.”
- Leviticus 25:49 tc The LXX, followed by the Syriac, actually has “if,” which is not in the MT.
- Leviticus 25:50 tn Heb “the years.”
- Leviticus 25:50 tn Heb “as days of a hired worker he shall be with him.” For this and the following verses see the explanation in P. J. Budd, Leviticus (NCBC), 358-59.
- Leviticus 25:51 tn Heb “to the mouth of them.”
- Leviticus 25:52 tn Heb “but if a little remains in the years.”
- Leviticus 25:53 tn Heb “be with him”; the referent (the one who bought him) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 25:53 tn Heb “As a hired worker year in year.”
- Leviticus 25:53 tn Heb “He”; the referent (the one who bought him) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 25:54 tn Heb “And if.”
- Leviticus 25:54 tn Heb “go out.”
- Leviticus 25:55 tn Heb “because to me the sons of Israel are servants.”
- Leviticus 26:1 sn For the literature regarding the difficult etymology and meaning of the term for “idols” (אֱלִילִם, ʾelilim), see the literature cited in the note on Lev 19:4. It appears to be a diminutive play on words with אֵל (ʾel, “god, God”) and, perhaps at the same time, recalls a common Semitic word for “worthless, weak, powerless, nothingness.” Snaith suggests a rendering of “worthless godlings.”
- Leviticus 26:1 tn Heb “on.” The “sculpted stone” appears to be some sort of stone with images carved into (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 181, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 449).
- Leviticus 26:2 tn Heb “and my sanctuary you shall fear.” Cf. NCV “respect”; CEV “honor.”
- Leviticus 26:3 tn Heb “and my commandments you shall keep and do them.” This appears to be a kind of verbal hendiadys, where the first verb is a modifier of the action of the second verb (see GKC 386 §120.d, although שָׁמַר [shamar, “to keep”] is not cited there; cf. Lev 20:8; 25:18, etc.).
- Leviticus 26:4 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.
- Leviticus 26:4 tn Heb “the tree of the field will give its fruit.” As a collective singular this has been translated as plural.
- Leviticus 26:5 tn Heb “will reach for you the vintage season.”
- Leviticus 26:5 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.
- Leviticus 26:5 tn Heb “to satisfaction”; KJV, ASV, NASB “to the full.”
- Leviticus 26:6 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have resultative force here.
- Leviticus 26:6 tn Heb “and there will be no one who terrifies.” The words “to sleep” have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 26:6 tn Heb “harmful animal,” singular, but taken here as a collective plural (so almost all English versions).
- Leviticus 26:6 tn Heb “no sword”; the words “of war” are supplied in the translation to indicate what the metaphor of the sword represents.
- Leviticus 26:7 tn Heb “to the sword.”
- Leviticus 26:9 tn Heb “cause to arise,” but probably used here for the Lord’s intention of confirming or maintaining the covenant commitment made at Sinai. Cf. KJV “establish”; NASB “will confirm”; NAB “carry out”; NIV “will keep.”
- Leviticus 26:10 tn Heb “old [produce] growing old.”
- Leviticus 26:10 tn Heb “and old from the presence of new you will bring out.”
- Leviticus 26:11 tn LXX codexes Vaticanus and Alexandrinus have “my covenant” rather than “my tabernacle.” Cf. NAB, NASB, NRSV “my dwelling.”
- Leviticus 26:11 tn Heb “and my soul [נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh] will not abhor you.”
- Leviticus 26:13 tn Heb “from being to them slaves.”
- Leviticus 26:13 tn In other words, to walk as free people and not as slaves. Cf. NIV “with (+ your CEV, NLT) heads held high”; NCV “proudly.”
- Leviticus 26:14 tn Heb “And if.”
- Leviticus 26:14 tn Heb “and do not do.”
- Leviticus 26:15 tn Heb “to not do.”
- Leviticus 26:16 tn Or “I also” (see HALOT 76 s.v. אַף 6.b).
- Leviticus 26:16 tn Heb “soul.” These expressions may refer either to the physical effects of consumption and fever as the rendering in the text suggests (e.g., J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 452, 454, “diminishing eyesight and loss of appetite”), or perhaps the more psychological effects, “which exhausts the eyes” because of anxious hope “and causes depression” (Heb “causes soul [נֶפֶשׁ, nefesh] to pine away”), e.g., B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 185.
- Leviticus 26:16 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have causal force here.
- Leviticus 26:16 tn That is, “your enemies will eat” the produce that grows from the sown seed.
- Leviticus 26:18 tn Heb “And if until these.”
- Leviticus 26:18 tn Heb “I will add to discipline you seven [times] on your sins.”
- Leviticus 26:20 tn Heb “the tree of the land will not give its fruit.” The collective singular has been translated as a plural. One Hebrew ms from Cairo Geniza, other medieval Hebrew mss, Smr, LXX, and Tg. Ps.-J. have “the field” as in v. 4, rather than “the land.”
- Leviticus 26:21 tn Heb “hostile with me,” but see the added preposition ב (bet) on the phrase “in hostility” in v. 24 and 27.
- Leviticus 26:21 tn Heb “your blow, stroke”; cf. TEV “punishment”; NLT “I will inflict you with seven more disasters.”
- Leviticus 26:22 tn Heb “the animal of the field.” This collective singular has been translated as a plural. The expression “animal of the field” refers to a wild (i.e., nondomesticated) animal.
- Leviticus 26:22 tn The words “of your children” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.
- Leviticus 26:22 tn Heb “and diminish you.”
- Leviticus 26:23 tn Heb “And if in these.”
- Leviticus 26:23 tn Heb “with me,” but see the added preposition ב (bet) on the phrase “in hostility” in vv. 24 and 27.
- Leviticus 26:24 tn Heb “and I myself will also strike you.”
- Leviticus 26:25 tn Heb “vengeance of covenant”; cf. NAB “the avenger of my covenant.”
- Leviticus 26:25 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) has a concessive force in this context.
- Leviticus 26:25 tn Heb “in hand of enemy,” but Tg. Ps.-J. and Tg. Neof. have “in the hands of your enemies” (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 454).
- Leviticus 26:26 tn Heb “When I break to you staff of bread” (KJV, ASV, and NASB all similar).
- Leviticus 26:26 tn Heb “they will return your bread in weight.”
- Leviticus 26:27 tn Heb “And if in this.”
- Leviticus 26:27 tn Heb “with me.”
- Leviticus 26:28 tn Heb “in rage of hostility with you”; NASB “with wrathful hostility”; NRSV “I will continue hostile to you in fury”; CEV “I’ll get really furious.”
- Leviticus 26:29 tn Heb “and the flesh of your daughters you will eat.” The phrase “you will eat” has not been repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Leviticus 26:30 sn Regarding these cultic installations, see the remarks in B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 188, and R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:903. The term rendered “incense altars” might better be rendered “sanctuaries [of foreign deities]” or “stelae.”
- Leviticus 26:30 tn The translation reflects the Hebrew wordplay “your corpses…the corpses of your idols.” Since idols, being lifeless, do not really have “corpses,” the translation uses “dead bodies” for people and “lifeless bodies” for the idols.
- Leviticus 26:30 tn Heb “and my soul will abhor you.”
- Leviticus 26:31 tn Heb “And I will give your cities a waste”; NLT “make your cities desolate.”
- Leviticus 26:33 tn Heb “and I will empty sword” (see HALOT 1228 s.v. ריק 3).
- Leviticus 26:34 tn There are two Hebrew roots רָצָה (ratsah), one meaning “to be pleased with; to take pleasure” (HALOT 1280-81 s.v. רצה; cf. “enjoy” in NASB, NIV, NRSV, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 452), and the other meaning “to restore” (HALOT 1281-82 s.v. II רצה; cf. NAB “retrieve” and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 189).
- Leviticus 26:35 tn Heb “it shall rest which it did not rest.”
- Leviticus 26:36 tn Heb “And.”
- Leviticus 26:37 tn Heb “and.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) is used in a concessive sense here.
- Leviticus 26:37 tn The term rendered “to stand up” is a noun, not an infinitive. It occurs only here and appears to designate someone who would take a powerful stand for them against their enemies.
- Leviticus 26:39 tn Heb “in” (so KJV, ASV; also later in this verse).
- Leviticus 26:39 tn Heb “fathers’” (also in the following verse).
- Leviticus 26:40 tn Heb “And.” Many English versions take this to be a conditional clause (“if…”) though there is no conditional particle (see, e.g., NASB, NIV, NRSV; but see the very different rendering in B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 190). The temporal translation offered here (“when”) takes into account the particle אָז (ʾaz, “then”), which occurs twice in v. 41. The obvious contextual contrast between vv. 39 and 40 is expressed by “however” in the translation.
- Leviticus 26:40 tn Heb “in their trespassing which they trespassed in me.” See the note on Lev 5:15, although the term is used in a more technical sense there in relation to the “guilt offering.”
- Leviticus 26:40 tn Heb “and also which they walked.”
- Leviticus 26:40 tn Heb “with me.”
- Leviticus 26:41 tn Heb “or then,” although the LXX has “then” and the Syriac “and then.”
- Leviticus 26:41 tn Heb “and then they make up for.” On the verb “make up for” see the note on v. 34 above.
- Leviticus 26:42 tn Heb “my covenant with Abraham I will remember.” The phrase “I will remember” has not been repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Leviticus 26:43 tn Heb “from them.” The preposition “from” refers here to the agent of the action (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 455).
- Leviticus 26:43 tn The jussive form of the verb with the simple vav (ו) here calls for a translation that expresses purpose.
- Leviticus 26:43 tn The verb is the Hophal infinitive construct with the third feminine singular suffix (GKC 182 §67.y; cf. v. 34).
- Leviticus 26:43 tn Heb “from them.”
- Leviticus 26:43 tn Heb “because and in because,” a double expression, which is used only here and in Ezek 13:10 (without the vav) for emphasis (GKC 492 §158.b).
- Leviticus 26:43 tn Heb “and their soul has abhorred.”
- Leviticus 26:45 tn Heb “covenant of former ones.” sn For similar expressions referring back to the ancestors who refused to follow the stipulations of the Mosaic covenant see, for example, Deut 19:14, Jer 11:10, and Ps 79:8 (see B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 192, and J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 471).
- Leviticus 26:46 tn Heb “gave” (so NLT); KJV, ASV, NCV “made.”
- Leviticus 26:46 tn Heb “by the hand of” (so KJV).
- Leviticus 27:2 tn Cf. the note on Lev 22:21. Some take this as an expression for fulfilling a vow, “to fulfill a vow” (e.g., HALOT 927-28 s.v. פלא piel and NASB; cf. NRSV “in fulfillment of a vow”) or, alternatively, “to make a vow” or “for making a vow” (HALOT 928 s.v. פלא piel [II פלא]). Perhaps it refers to the making a special vow, from the verb פָלָא (palaʾ, “to be wonderful; to be remarkable”), cf. Milgrom, Numbers [JPSTC], 44. B. A. Levine, Leviticus (JPSTC), 151 and 193, suggests that this is a special term for “setting aside a votive offering” (related to פָלָה, palah, “to set aside”). In general, the point of the expression seems to be that this sacrifice is a special gift to God that arose out of special circumstances in the life of the worshiper.
- Leviticus 27:2 tn Heb “in your valuation, persons to the Lord,” but “in your valuation” is a frozen form and, therefore, the person (“your”) does not figure into the translation (see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 73). Instead of offering a person to the Lord one could redeem that person with the appropriate amount of money delineated in the following verses (see the note on Lev 5:15 above and the explanation in Hartley, 480-81).
- Leviticus 27:3 tn Heb “your conversion value shall be [for] the male.”
- Leviticus 27:3 tn Heb “from a son of twenty years and until a son of sixty years.”
- Leviticus 27:3 tn See the note on Lev 5:15.
- Leviticus 27:6 tn Heb “five shekels silver.”
- Leviticus 27:8 tn Heb “if he.”
- Leviticus 27:8 tn Heb “and the priest shall cause him to be valued.”
- Leviticus 27:8 tn Heb “on the mouth which the hand of the one who vowed reaches.”
- Leviticus 27:9 tn Heb “which they may present from it an offering.” The plural active verb is sometimes best rendered in the passive (GKC 460 §144.f, g). Some medieval Hebrew mss, Smr, a ms of the Targum, and the Vulgate all have the singular verb instead (cf. similarly v. 11).
- Leviticus 27:9 tn Heb “from it.” The masculine suffix “it” here is used for the feminine in the MT, but one medieval Hebrew ms, some mss of Smr, the LXX, and the Syriac have the feminine. The referent (this kind of animal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:10 tn Heb “it and its substitute.” The referent (the original animal offered) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:12 tn Heb “and the priest shall cause it to be valued.” See the note on v. 8 above.
- Leviticus 27:13 tn Heb “And if redeeming [infinitive absolute] he redeems it [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p. The referent of “he” (the person who made the vow) and “it” (the animal) have both been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:13 tn Heb “on,” meaning “on top of, in addition to” (likewise in v. 15).
- Leviticus 27:14 tn The expression “it shall stand” may be a technical term for “it shall be legally valid”; cf. NLT “assessment will be final.”
- Leviticus 27:15 tn Heb “and it shall be to him.”
- Leviticus 27:16 tn Heb “a conversion value shall be to the mouth of its seed.”
- Leviticus 27:16 tn Heb “seed of a homer of barley in fifty shekels of silver.”
- Leviticus 27:17 tn Heb “from the year of the jubilee.” For the meaning of “jubilee,” see the note on Lev 25:10 above.
- Leviticus 27:18 tn Heb “And if.” The Hebrew conjunction ו (vav, “and”) can be considered to have adversative force here.
- Leviticus 27:18 tn Heb “the silver.”
- Leviticus 27:19 tn Heb “And if redeeming [infinitive absolute] he redeems [finite verb] the field, the one who consecrated it.” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
- Leviticus 27:19 tn Heb “the silver of the conversion value.”
- Leviticus 27:19 tn Heb “and it shall rise to him.” See HALOT 1087 s.v. קום 7 for the rendering offered here, but see also the note on the end of v. 14 above (cf. J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 476, 478).
- Leviticus 27:20 tn Heb “and if he sells.”
- Leviticus 27:21 tn Heb “When it goes out” (cf. Lev 25:25-34).
- Leviticus 27:21 tn Heb “like the field of the permanent dedication.” The Hebrew word חֵרֶם (kherem) is a much discussed term. In this and the following verses it refers in a general way to the fact that something is permanently devoted to the Lord and therefore cannot be redeemed (cf. v. 20b). See J. A. Naudé, NIDOTTE 2:276-77; N. Lohfink, TDOT 5:180-99, esp. pp. 184, 188, and 198-99; and the numerous explanations in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 483-85.
- Leviticus 27:21 tn Heb “to the priest it shall be his property.”
- Leviticus 27:22 tn Heb “his field of purchase,” which is to be distinguished from his own ancestral “landed property” (cf. v. 16 above).
- Leviticus 27:23 tn Heb “give” (so KJV, ASV, NASB, NLT).
- Leviticus 27:25 tn See the note on Lev 5:15.
- Leviticus 27:26 tn Heb “to the Lord it is.”
- Leviticus 27:27 tn Heb “And if.”
- Leviticus 27:27 tn Heb “in” or “by.”
- Leviticus 27:28 tn Heb “Surely, any permanently dedicated [thing] which a man shall permanently dedicate to the Lord.” The Hebrew term חֵרֶם (kherem) refers to things that are devoted permanently to the Lord (see the note on v. 21 above).
- Leviticus 27:29 tn Heb “permanently dedicated from among men.”
- Leviticus 27:29 tn The words “to the Lord” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:30 tn On the “tithe” system in Israel, see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:1035-55 and esp. pp. 1041-42 on Lev 27:30-33.
- Leviticus 27:31 tn Heb “And if redeeming [infinitive absolute] a man redeems [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
- Leviticus 27:31 tn Heb “its one-fifth on it.”
- Leviticus 27:32 sn The tithed animal was the tenth one that passed under the shepherd’s rod or staff as they were being counted (see J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 485, and B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 200).
- Leviticus 27:33 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the owner of the animal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:33 tn Heb “And if exchanging [infinitive absolute] he exchanges it [finite verb].” For the infinitive absolute used to highlight contrast rather than emphasis see GKC 343 §113.p.
- Leviticus 27:33 tn Heb “it and its substitute.” The referent (the original animal offered) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Leviticus 27:33 tn Heb “it shall be and its substitute shall be holy.”
- Leviticus 27:34 tn Most of the commentaries and English versions translate, “which the Lord commanded Moses for the children of Israel.” The preposition אֶל (ʾel), however, does not usually mean “for.” In this book it is commonly used when the Lord commands Moses “to speak [un]to” a person or group of persons (see, e.g., Lev 1:2; 4:2, etc.). The translation “to tell” here reflects this pattern in the book of Leviticus.