The Birth of Samuel

There was a certain man from Ramathaim,(A) a Zuphite[a](B) from the hill country(C) of Ephraim,(D) whose name was Elkanah(E) son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. He had two wives;(F) one was called Hannah and the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none.

Year after year(G) this man went up from his town to worship(H) and sacrifice to the Lord Almighty at Shiloh,(I) where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli,(J) were priests of the Lord. Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice,(K) he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters.(L) But to Hannah he gave a double portion(M) because he loved her, and the Lord had closed her womb.(N) Because the Lord had closed Hannah’s womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her.(O) This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the Lord, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat.(P) Her husband Elkanah would say to her, “Hannah, why are you weeping? Why don’t you eat? Why are you downhearted? Don’t I mean more to you than ten sons?(Q)

Once when they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh, Hannah stood up. Now Eli the priest was sitting on his chair by the doorpost of the Lord’s house.(R) 10 In her deep anguish(S) Hannah prayed to the Lord, weeping bitterly. 11 And she made a vow,(T) saying, “Lord Almighty(U), if you will only look on your servant’s misery and remember(V) me, and not forget your servant but give her a son, then I will give him to the Lord for all the days of his life,(W) and no razor(X) will ever be used on his head.”

12 As she kept on praying to the Lord, Eli observed her mouth. 13 Hannah was praying in her heart, and her lips were moving but her voice was not heard. Eli thought she was drunk 14 and said to her, “How long are you going to stay drunk? Put away your wine.”

15 “Not so, my lord,” Hannah replied, “I am a woman who is deeply troubled.(Y) I have not been drinking wine or beer; I was pouring(Z) out my soul to the Lord. 16 Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; I have been praying here out of my great anguish and grief.”(AA)

17 Eli answered, “Go in peace,(AB) and may the God of Israel grant you what you have asked of him.(AC)

18 She said, “May your servant find favor in your eyes.(AD)” Then she went her way and ate something, and her face was no longer downcast.(AE)

19 Early the next morning they arose and worshiped before the Lord and then went back to their home at Ramah.(AF) Elkanah made love to his wife Hannah, and the Lord remembered(AG) her. 20 So in the course of time Hannah became pregnant and gave birth to a son.(AH) She named(AI) him Samuel,[b](AJ) saying, “Because I asked the Lord for him.”

Hannah Dedicates Samuel

21 When her husband Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the annual(AK) sacrifice to the Lord and to fulfill his vow,(AL) 22 Hannah did not go. She said to her husband, “After the boy is weaned, I will take him and present(AM) him before the Lord, and he will live there always.”[c]

23 “Do what seems best to you,” her husband Elkanah told her. “Stay here until you have weaned him; only may the Lord make good(AN) his[d] word.” So the woman stayed at home and nursed her son until she had weaned(AO) him.

24 After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull,[e](AP) an ephah[f] of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord at Shiloh. 25 When the bull had been sacrificed, they brought the boy to Eli, 26 and she said to him, “Pardon me, my lord. As surely as you live, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the Lord. 27 I prayed(AQ) for this child, and the Lord has granted me what I asked of him. 28 So now I give him to the Lord. For his whole life(AR) he will be given over to the Lord.” And he worshiped the Lord there.

Hannah’s Prayer

Then Hannah prayed and said:(AS)

“My heart rejoices(AT) in the Lord;
    in the Lord my horn[g](AU) is lifted high.
My mouth boasts(AV) over my enemies,(AW)
    for I delight in your deliverance.

“There is no one holy(AX) like(AY) the Lord;
    there is no one besides you;
    there is no Rock(AZ) like our God.

“Do not keep talking so proudly
    or let your mouth speak such arrogance,(BA)
for the Lord is a God who knows,(BB)
    and by him deeds(BC) are weighed.(BD)

“The bows of the warriors are broken,(BE)
    but those who stumbled are armed with strength.(BF)
Those who were full hire themselves out for food,
    but those who were hungry(BG) are hungry no more.
She who was barren(BH) has borne seven children,
    but she who has had many sons pines away.

“The Lord brings death and makes alive;(BI)
    he brings down to the grave and raises up.(BJ)
The Lord sends poverty and wealth;(BK)
    he humbles and he exalts.(BL)
He raises(BM) the poor(BN) from the dust(BO)
    and lifts the needy(BP) from the ash heap;
he seats them with princes
    and has them inherit a throne of honor.(BQ)

“For the foundations(BR) of the earth are the Lord’s;
    on them he has set the world.
He will guard the feet(BS) of his faithful servants,(BT)
    but the wicked will be silenced in the place of darkness.(BU)

“It is not by strength(BV) that one prevails;
10     those who oppose the Lord will be broken.(BW)
The Most High will thunder(BX) from heaven;
    the Lord will judge(BY) the ends of the earth.

“He will give strength(BZ) to his king
    and exalt the horn(CA) of his anointed.”

11 Then Elkanah went home to Ramah,(CB) but the boy ministered(CC) before the Lord under Eli the priest.

Eli’s Wicked Sons

12 Eli’s sons were scoundrels; they had no regard(CD) for the Lord. 13 Now it was the practice(CE) of the priests that, whenever any of the people offered a sacrifice, the priest’s servant would come with a three-pronged fork in his hand while the meat(CF) was being boiled 14 and would plunge the fork into the pan or kettle or caldron or pot. Whatever the fork brought up the priest would take for himself. This is how they treated all the Israelites who came to Shiloh. 15 But even before the fat was burned, the priest’s servant would come and say to the person who was sacrificing, “Give the priest some meat to roast; he won’t accept boiled meat from you, but only raw.”

16 If the person said to him, “Let the fat(CG) be burned first, and then take whatever you want,” the servant would answer, “No, hand it over now; if you don’t, I’ll take it by force.”

17 This sin of the young men was very great in the Lord’s sight, for they[h] were treating the Lord’s offering with contempt.(CH)

18 But Samuel was ministering(CI) before the Lord—a boy wearing a linen ephod.(CJ) 19 Each year his mother made him a little robe and took it to him when she went up with her husband to offer the annual(CK) sacrifice. 20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife, saying, “May the Lord give you children by this woman to take the place of the one she prayed(CL) for and gave to[i] the Lord.” Then they would go home. 21 And the Lord was gracious to Hannah;(CM) she gave birth to three sons and two daughters. Meanwhile, the boy Samuel grew(CN) up in the presence of the Lord.

22 Now Eli, who was very old, heard about everything(CO) his sons were doing to all Israel and how they slept with the women(CP) who served at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 23 So he said to them, “Why do you do such things? I hear from all the people about these wicked deeds of yours. 24 No, my sons; the report I hear spreading among the Lord’s people is not good. 25 If one person sins against another, God[j] may mediate for the offender; but if anyone sins against the Lord, who will(CQ) intercede(CR) for them?” His sons, however, did not listen to their father’s rebuke, for it was the Lord’s will to put them to death.

26 And the boy Samuel continued to grow(CS) in stature and in favor with the Lord and with people.(CT)

Prophecy Against the House of Eli

27 Now a man of God(CU) came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Did I not clearly reveal myself to your ancestor’s family when they were in Egypt under Pharaoh? 28 I chose(CV) your ancestor out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to go up to my altar, to burn incense,(CW) and to wear an ephod(CX) in my presence. I also gave your ancestor’s family all the food offerings(CY) presented by the Israelites. 29 Why do you[k] scorn my sacrifice and offering(CZ) that I prescribed for my dwelling?(DA) Why do you honor your sons more than me by fattening yourselves on the choice parts of every offering made by my people Israel?’

30 “Therefore the Lord, the God of Israel, declares: ‘I promised that members of your family would minister before me forever.(DB)’ But now the Lord declares: ‘Far be it from me! Those who honor me I will honor,(DC) but those who despise(DD) me will be disdained.(DE) 31 The time is coming when I will cut short your strength and the strength of your priestly house, so that no one in it will reach old age,(DF) 32 and you will see distress(DG) in my dwelling. Although good will be done to Israel, no one in your family line will ever reach old age.(DH) 33 Every one of you that I do not cut off from serving at my altar I will spare only to destroy your sight and sap your strength, and all your descendants(DI) will die in the prime of life.

34 “‘And what happens to your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, will be a sign(DJ) to you—they will both die(DK) on the same day.(DL) 35 I will raise up for myself a faithful priest,(DM) who will do according to what is in my heart and mind. I will firmly establish his priestly house, and they will minister before my anointed(DN) one always. 36 Then everyone left in your family line will come and bow down before him for a piece of silver and a loaf of bread and plead,(DO) “Appoint me to some priestly office so I can have food to eat.(DP)”’”

The Lord Calls Samuel

The boy Samuel ministered(DQ) before the Lord under Eli. In those days the word of the Lord was rare;(DR) there were not many visions.(DS)

One night Eli, whose eyes(DT) were becoming so weak that he could barely see,(DU) was lying down in his usual place. The lamp(DV) of God had not yet gone out, and Samuel was lying down in the house(DW) of the Lord, where the ark(DX) of God was. Then the Lord called Samuel.

Samuel answered, “Here I am.(DY) And he ran to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”

But Eli said, “I did not call; go back and lie down.” So he went and lay down.

Again the Lord called, “Samuel!” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”

“My son,” Eli said, “I did not call; go back and lie down.”

Now Samuel did not yet know(DZ) the Lord: The word(EA) of the Lord had not yet been revealed(EB) to him.

A third time the Lord called, “Samuel!” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”

Then Eli realized that the Lord was calling the boy. So Eli told Samuel, “Go and lie down, and if he calls you, say, ‘Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.’” So Samuel went and lay down in his place.

10 The Lord came and stood there, calling as at the other times, “Samuel! Samuel!(EC)

Then Samuel said, “Speak, for your servant is listening.”

11 And the Lord said to Samuel: “See, I am about to do something in Israel that will make the ears of everyone who hears about it tingle.(ED) 12 At that time I will carry out against Eli everything(EE) I spoke against his family—from beginning to end. 13 For I told him that I would judge his family forever because of the sin he knew about; his sons blasphemed God,[l] and he failed to restrain(EF) them. 14 Therefore I swore to the house of Eli, ‘The guilt of Eli’s house will never be atoned(EG) for by sacrifice or offering.’”

15 Samuel lay down until morning and then opened the doors of the house of the Lord. He was afraid to tell Eli the vision, 16 but Eli called him and said, “Samuel, my son.”

Samuel answered, “Here I am.”

17 “What was it he said to you?” Eli asked. “Do not hide(EH) it from me. May God deal with you, be it ever so severely,(EI) if you hide from me anything he told you.” 18 So Samuel told him everything, hiding nothing from him. Then Eli said, “He is the Lord; let him do what is good in his eyes.”(EJ)

19 The Lord was with(EK) Samuel as he grew(EL) up, and he let none(EM) of Samuel’s words fall to the ground. 20 And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba(EN) recognized that Samuel was attested as a prophet of the Lord.(EO) 21 The Lord continued to appear at Shiloh, and there he revealed(EP) himself to Samuel through his word.

And Samuel’s word came to all Israel.

The Philistines Capture the Ark

Now the Israelites went out to fight against the Philistines. The Israelites camped at Ebenezer,(EQ) and the Philistines at Aphek.(ER) The Philistines deployed their forces to meet Israel, and as the battle spread, Israel was defeated by the Philistines, who killed about four thousand of them on the battlefield. When the soldiers returned to camp, the elders of Israel asked, “Why(ES) did the Lord bring defeat on us today before the Philistines? Let us bring the ark(ET) of the Lord’s covenant from Shiloh,(EU) so that he may go with us(EV) and save us from the hand of our enemies.”

So the people sent men to Shiloh, and they brought back the ark of the covenant of the Lord Almighty, who is enthroned between the cherubim.(EW) And Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.

When the ark of the Lord’s covenant came into the camp, all Israel raised such a great shout(EX) that the ground shook. Hearing the uproar, the Philistines asked, “What’s all this shouting in the Hebrew(EY) camp?”

When they learned that the ark of the Lord had come into the camp, the Philistines were afraid.(EZ) “A god has[m] come into the camp,” they said. “Oh no! Nothing like this has happened before. We’re doomed! Who will deliver us from the hand of these mighty gods? They are the gods who struck(FA) the Egyptians with all kinds of plagues(FB) in the wilderness. Be strong, Philistines! Be men, or you will be subject to the Hebrews, as they(FC) have been to you. Be men, and fight!”

10 So the Philistines fought, and the Israelites were defeated(FD) and every man fled to his tent. The slaughter was very great; Israel lost thirty thousand foot soldiers. 11 The ark of God was captured, and Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, died.(FE)

Death of Eli

12 That same day a Benjamite(FF) ran from the battle line and went to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dust(FG) on his head. 13 When he arrived, there was Eli(FH) sitting on his chair by the side of the road, watching, because his heart feared for the ark of God. When the man entered the town and told what had happened, the whole town sent up a cry.

14 Eli heard the outcry and asked, “What is the meaning of this uproar?”

The man hurried over to Eli, 15 who was ninety-eight years old and whose eyes(FI) had failed so that he could not see. 16 He told Eli, “I have just come from the battle line; I fled from it this very day.”

Eli asked, “What happened, my son?”

17 The man who brought the news replied, “Israel fled before the Philistines, and the army has suffered heavy losses. Also your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead,(FJ) and the ark of God has been captured.”(FK)

18 When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell backward off his chair by the side of the gate. His neck was broken and he died, for he was an old man, and he was heavy. He had led[n](FL) Israel forty years.(FM)

19 His daughter-in-law, the wife of Phinehas, was pregnant and near the time of delivery. When she heard the news that the ark of God had been captured and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she went into labor and gave birth, but was overcome by her labor pains. 20 As she was dying, the women attending her said, “Don’t despair; you have given birth to a son.” But she did not respond or pay any attention.

21 She named the boy Ichabod,[o](FN) saying, “The Glory(FO) has departed from Israel”—because of the capture of the ark of God and the deaths of her father-in-law and her husband. 22 She said, “The Glory(FP) has departed from Israel, for the ark of God has been captured.”(FQ)

The Ark in Ashdod and Ekron

After the Philistines had captured the ark of God, they took it from Ebenezer(FR) to Ashdod.(FS) Then they carried the ark into Dagon’s temple and set it beside Dagon.(FT) When the people of Ashdod rose early the next day, there was Dagon, fallen(FU) on his face on the ground before the ark of the Lord! They took Dagon and put him back in his place. But the following morning when they rose, there was Dagon, fallen on his face on the ground before the ark of the Lord! His head and hands had been broken(FV) off and were lying on the threshold; only his body remained. That is why to this day neither the priests of Dagon nor any others who enter Dagon’s temple at Ashdod step on the threshold.(FW)

The Lord’s hand(FX) was heavy on the people of Ashdod and its vicinity; he brought devastation(FY) on them and afflicted them with tumors.[p](FZ) When the people of Ashdod saw what was happening, they said, “The ark of the god of Israel must not stay here with us, because his hand is heavy on us and on Dagon our god.” So they called together all the rulers(GA) of the Philistines and asked them, “What shall we do with the ark of the god of Israel?”

They answered, “Have the ark of the god of Israel moved to Gath.(GB)” So they moved the ark of the God of Israel.

But after they had moved it, the Lord’s hand was against that city, throwing it into a great panic.(GC) He afflicted the people of the city, both young and old, with an outbreak of tumors.[q] 10 So they sent the ark of God to Ekron.(GD)

As the ark of God was entering Ekron, the people of Ekron cried out, “They have brought the ark of the god of Israel around to us to kill us and our people.” 11 So they called together all the rulers(GE) of the Philistines and said, “Send the ark of the god of Israel away; let it go back to its own place, or it[r] will kill us and our people.” For death had filled the city with panic; God’s hand was very heavy on it. 12 Those who did not die(GF) were afflicted with tumors, and the outcry of the city went up to heaven.

The Ark Returned to Israel

When the ark of the Lord had been in Philistine territory seven months, the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners(GG) and said, “What shall we do with the ark of the Lord? Tell us how we should send it back to its place.”

They answered, “If you return the ark of the god of Israel, do not send it back to him without a gift;(GH) by all means send a guilt offering(GI) to him. Then you will be healed, and you will know why his hand(GJ) has not been lifted from you.”

The Philistines asked, “What guilt offering should we send to him?”

They replied, “Five gold tumors and five gold rats, according to the number(GK) of the Philistine rulers, because the same plague(GL) has struck both you and your rulers. Make models of the tumors(GM) and of the rats that are destroying the country, and give glory(GN) to Israel’s god. Perhaps he will lift his hand from you and your gods and your land. Why do you harden(GO) your hearts as the Egyptians and Pharaoh did? When Israel’s god dealt harshly with them,(GP) did they(GQ) not send the Israelites out so they could go on their way?

“Now then, get a new cart(GR) ready, with two cows that have calved and have never been yoked.(GS) Hitch the cows to the cart, but take their calves away and pen them up. Take the ark of the Lord and put it on the cart, and in a chest beside it put the gold objects you are sending back to him as a guilt offering. Send it on its way, but keep watching it. If it goes up to its own territory, toward Beth Shemesh,(GT) then the Lord has brought this great disaster on us. But if it does not, then we will know that it was not his hand that struck us but that it happened to us by chance.”

10 So they did this. They took two such cows and hitched them to the cart and penned up their calves. 11 They placed the ark of the Lord on the cart and along with it the chest containing the gold rats and the models of the tumors. 12 Then the cows went straight up toward Beth Shemesh, keeping on the road and lowing all the way; they did not turn to the right or to the left. The rulers of the Philistines followed them as far as the border of Beth Shemesh.

13 Now the people of Beth Shemesh were harvesting their wheat(GU) in the valley, and when they looked up and saw the ark, they rejoiced at the sight. 14 The cart came to the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh, and there it stopped beside a large rock. The people chopped up the wood of the cart and sacrificed the cows as a burnt offering(GV) to the Lord. 15 The Levites(GW) took down the ark of the Lord, together with the chest containing the gold objects, and placed them on the large rock.(GX) On that day the people of Beth Shemesh(GY) offered burnt offerings and made sacrifices to the Lord. 16 The five rulers of the Philistines saw all this and then returned that same day to Ekron.

17 These are the gold tumors the Philistines sent as a guilt offering to the Lord—one each(GZ) for Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath and Ekron. 18 And the number of the gold rats was according to the number of Philistine towns belonging to the five rulers—the fortified towns with their country villages. The large rock on which the Levites set the ark of the Lord is a witness to this day in the field of Joshua of Beth Shemesh.

19 But God struck down(HA) some of the inhabitants of Beth Shemesh, putting seventy[s] of them to death because they looked(HB) into the ark of the Lord. The people mourned because of the heavy blow the Lord had dealt them. 20 And the people of Beth Shemesh asked, “Who can stand(HC) in the presence of the Lord, this holy(HD) God? To whom will the ark go up from here?”

21 Then they sent messengers to the people of Kiriath Jearim,(HE) saying, “The Philistines have returned the ark of the Lord. Come down and take it up to your town.” So the men of Kiriath Jearim came and took up the ark(HF) of the Lord. They brought it to Abinadab’s(HG) house on the hill and consecrated Eleazar his son to guard the ark of the Lord. The ark remained at Kiriath Jearim(HH) a long time—twenty years in all.

Samuel Subdues the Philistines at Mizpah

Then all the people of Israel turned back to the Lord.(HI) So Samuel said to all the Israelites, “If you are returning(HJ) to the Lord with all your hearts, then rid(HK) yourselves of the foreign gods and the Ashtoreths(HL) and commit(HM) yourselves to the Lord and serve him only,(HN) and he will deliver(HO) you out of the hand of the Philistines.” So the Israelites put away their Baals and Ashtoreths, and served the Lord only.

Then Samuel(HP) said, “Assemble all Israel at Mizpah,(HQ) and I will intercede(HR) with the Lord for you.” When they had assembled at Mizpah,(HS) they drew water and poured(HT) it out before the Lord. On that day they fasted and there they confessed, “We have sinned against the Lord.” Now Samuel was serving as leader[t](HU) of Israel at Mizpah.

When the Philistines heard that Israel had assembled at Mizpah, the rulers of the Philistines came up to attack them. When the Israelites heard of it, they were afraid(HV) because of the Philistines. They said to Samuel, “Do not stop crying(HW) out to the Lord our God for us, that he may rescue us from the hand of the Philistines.” Then Samuel(HX) took a suckling lamb and sacrificed it as a whole burnt offering to the Lord. He cried out to the Lord on Israel’s behalf, and the Lord answered him.(HY)

10 While Samuel was sacrificing the burnt offering, the Philistines drew near to engage Israel in battle. But that day the Lord thundered(HZ) with loud thunder against the Philistines and threw them into such a panic(IA) that they were routed before the Israelites. 11 The men of Israel rushed out of Mizpah and pursued the Philistines, slaughtering them along the way to a point below Beth Kar.

12 Then Samuel took a stone(IB) and set it up between Mizpah and Shen. He named it Ebenezer,[u](IC) saying, “Thus far the Lord has helped us.”

13 So the Philistines were subdued(ID) and they stopped invading Israel’s territory. Throughout Samuel’s lifetime, the hand of the Lord was against the Philistines. 14 The towns from Ekron(IE) to Gath that the Philistines had captured from Israel were restored to Israel, and Israel delivered the neighboring territory from the hands of the Philistines. And there was peace between Israel and the Amorites.(IF)

15 Samuel(IG) continued as Israel’s leader(IH) all(II) the days of his life. 16 From year to year he went on a circuit from Bethel(IJ) to Gilgal(IK) to Mizpah, judging(IL) Israel in all those places. 17 But he always went back to Ramah,(IM) where his home was, and there he also held court(IN) for Israel. And he built an altar(IO) there to the Lord.

Israel Asks for a King

When Samuel grew old, he appointed(IP) his sons as Israel’s leaders.[v] The name of his firstborn was Joel and the name of his second was Abijah,(IQ) and they served at Beersheba.(IR) But his sons(IS) did not follow his ways. They turned aside(IT) after dishonest gain and accepted bribes(IU) and perverted(IV) justice.

So all the elders(IW) of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah.(IX) They said to him, “You are old, and your sons do not follow your ways; now appoint a king(IY) to lead[w](IZ) us, such as all the other nations(JA) have.”

But when they said, “Give us a king(JB) to lead us,” this displeased(JC) Samuel; so he prayed to the Lord. And the Lord told him: “Listen(JD) to all that the people are saying to you; it is not you they have rejected,(JE) but they have rejected me as their king.(JF) As they have done from the day I brought them up out of Egypt until this day, forsaking(JG) me and serving other gods, so they are doing to you. Now listen to them; but warn them solemnly and let them know(JH) what the king who will reign over them will claim as his rights.”

10 Samuel told(JI) all the words of the Lord to the people who were asking him for a king. 11 He said, “This is what the king who will reign over you will claim as his rights: He will take(JJ) your sons and make them serve(JK) with his chariots and horses, and they will run in front of his chariots.(JL) 12 Some he will assign to be commanders(JM) of thousands and commanders of fifties, and others to plow his ground and reap his harvest, and still others to make weapons of war and equipment for his chariots. 13 He will take your daughters to be perfumers and cooks and bakers. 14 He will take the best of your(JN) fields and vineyards(JO) and olive groves and give them to his attendants.(JP) 15 He will take a tenth(JQ) of your grain and of your vintage and give it to his officials and attendants. 16 Your male and female servants and the best of your cattle[x] and donkeys he will take for his own use. 17 He will take a tenth of your flocks, and you yourselves will become his slaves. 18 When that day comes, you will cry out for relief from the king you have chosen, but the Lord will not answer(JR) you in that day.(JS)

19 But the people refused(JT) to listen to Samuel. “No!” they said. “We want(JU) a king(JV) over us. 20 Then we will be like all the other nations,(JW) with a king to lead us and to go out before us and fight our battles.”

21 When Samuel heard all that the people said, he repeated(JX) it before the Lord. 22 The Lord answered, “Listen(JY) to them and give them a king.”

Then Samuel said to the Israelites, “Everyone go back to your own town.”

Samuel Anoints Saul

There was a Benjamite,(JZ) a man of standing,(KA) whose name was Kish(KB) son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bekorath, the son of Aphiah of Benjamin. Kish had a son named Saul, as handsome(KC) a young man as could be found(KD) anywhere in Israel, and he was a head taller(KE) than anyone else.

Now the donkeys(KF) belonging to Saul’s father Kish were lost, and Kish said to his son Saul, “Take one of the servants with you and go and look for the donkeys.” So he passed through the hill(KG) country of Ephraim and through the area around Shalisha,(KH) but they did not find them. They went on into the district of Shaalim, but the donkeys(KI) were not there. Then he passed through the territory of Benjamin, but they did not find them.

When they reached the district of Zuph,(KJ) Saul said to the servant who was with him, “Come, let’s go back, or my father will stop thinking about the donkeys and start worrying(KK) about us.”

But the servant replied, “Look, in this town there is a man of God;(KL) he is highly respected, and everything(KM) he says comes true. Let’s go there now. Perhaps he will tell us what way to take.”

Saul said to his servant, “If we go, what can we give the man? The food in our sacks is gone. We have no gift(KN) to take to the man of God. What do we have?”

The servant answered him again. “Look,” he said, “I have a quarter of a shekel[y] of silver. I will give it to the man of God so that he will tell us what way to take.” (Formerly in Israel, if someone went to inquire(KO) of God, they would say, “Come, let us go to the seer,” because the prophet of today used to be called a seer.)(KP)

10 “Good,” Saul said to his servant. “Come, let’s go.” So they set out for the town where the man of God was.

11 As they were going up the hill to the town, they met some young women coming out to draw(KQ) water, and they asked them, “Is the seer here?”

12 “He is,” they answered. “He’s ahead of you. Hurry now; he has just come to our town today, for the people have a sacrifice(KR) at the high place.(KS) 13 As soon as you enter the town, you will find him before he goes up to the high place to eat. The people will not begin eating until he comes, because he must bless(KT) the sacrifice; afterward, those who are invited will eat. Go up now; you should find him about this time.”

14 They went up to the town, and as they were entering it, there was Samuel, coming toward them on his way up to the high place.

15 Now the day before Saul came, the Lord had revealed this to Samuel: 16 “About this time tomorrow I will send you a man from the land of Benjamin. Anoint(KU) him ruler(KV) over my people Israel; he will deliver(KW) them from the hand of the Philistines.(KX) I have looked on my people, for their cry(KY) has reached me.”

17 When Samuel caught sight of Saul, the Lord said to him, “This(KZ) is the man I spoke to you about; he will govern my people.”

18 Saul approached Samuel in the gateway and asked, “Would you please tell me where the seer’s house is?”

19 “I am the seer,” Samuel replied. “Go up ahead of me to the high place, for today you are to eat with me, and in the morning I will send you on your way and will tell you all that is in your heart. 20 As for the donkeys(LA) you lost three days ago, do not worry about them; they have been found. And to whom is all the desire(LB) of Israel turned, if not to you and your whole family line?”

21 Saul answered, “But am I not a Benjamite, from the smallest tribe(LC) of Israel, and is not my clan the least(LD) of all the clans of the tribe of Benjamin?(LE) Why do you say such a thing to me?”

22 Then Samuel brought Saul and his servant into the hall and seated them at the head of those who were invited—about thirty in number. 23 Samuel said to the cook, “Bring the piece of meat I gave you, the one I told you to lay aside.”

24 So the cook took up the thigh(LF) with what was on it and set it in front of Saul. Samuel said, “Here is what has been kept for you. Eat, because it was set aside for you for this occasion from the time I said, ‘I have invited guests.’” And Saul dined with Samuel that day.

25 After they came down from the high place to the town, Samuel talked with Saul on the roof(LG) of his house. 26 They rose about daybreak, and Samuel called to Saul on the roof, “Get ready, and I will send you on your way.” When Saul got ready, he and Samuel went outside together. 27 As they were going down to the edge of the town, Samuel said to Saul, “Tell the servant to go on ahead of us”—and the servant did so—“but you stay here for a while, so that I may give you a message from God.”

10 Then Samuel took a flask(LH) of olive oil and poured it on Saul’s head and kissed him, saying, “Has not the Lord anointed(LI) you ruler over his inheritance?[z](LJ) When you leave me today, you will meet two men near Rachel’s tomb,(LK) at Zelzah on the border of Benjamin. They will say to you, ‘The donkeys(LL) you set out to look for have been found. And now your father has stopped thinking about them and is worried(LM) about you. He is asking, “What shall I do about my son?”’

“Then you will go on from there until you reach the great tree of Tabor. Three men going up to worship God at Bethel(LN) will meet you there. One will be carrying three young goats, another three loaves of bread, and another a skin of wine. They will greet you and offer you two loaves of bread,(LO) which you will accept from them.

“After that you will go to Gibeah(LP) of God, where there is a Philistine outpost.(LQ) As you approach the town, you will meet a procession of prophets(LR) coming down from the high place(LS) with lyres, timbrels,(LT) pipes(LU) and harps(LV) being played before them, and they will be prophesying.(LW) The Spirit(LX) of the Lord will come powerfully upon you, and you will prophesy with them; and you will be changed(LY) into a different person. Once these signs are fulfilled, do whatever(LZ) your hand(MA) finds to do, for God is with(MB) you.

“Go down ahead of me to Gilgal.(MC) I will surely come down to you to sacrifice burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, but you must wait seven(MD) days until I come to you and tell you what you are to do.”

Saul Made King

As Saul turned to leave Samuel, God changed(ME) Saul’s heart, and all these signs(MF) were fulfilled(MG) that day. 10 When he and his servant arrived at Gibeah, a procession of prophets met him; the Spirit(MH) of God came powerfully upon him, and he joined in their prophesying.(MI) 11 When all those who had formerly known him saw him prophesying with the prophets, they asked each other, “What is this(MJ) that has happened to the son of Kish? Is Saul also among the prophets?”(MK)

12 A man who lived there answered, “And who is their father?” So it became a saying: “Is Saul also among the prophets?”(ML) 13 After Saul stopped prophesying,(MM) he went to the high place.

14 Now Saul’s uncle(MN) asked him and his servant, “Where have you been?”

“Looking for the donkeys,(MO)” he said. “But when we saw they were not to be found, we went to Samuel.”

15 Saul’s uncle said, “Tell me what Samuel said to you.”

16 Saul replied, “He assured us that the donkeys(MP) had been found.” But he did not tell his uncle what Samuel had said about the kingship.

17 Samuel summoned the people of Israel to the Lord at Mizpah(MQ) 18 and said to them, “This is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘I brought Israel up out of Egypt, and I delivered you from the power of Egypt and all the kingdoms that oppressed(MR) you.’ 19 But you have now rejected(MS) your God, who saves(MT) you out of all your disasters and calamities. And you have said, ‘No, appoint a king(MU) over us.’(MV) So now present(MW) yourselves before the Lord by your tribes and clans.”

20 When Samuel had all Israel come forward by tribes, the tribe of Benjamin was taken by lot. 21 Then he brought forward the tribe of Benjamin, clan by clan, and Matri’s clan was taken.(MX) Finally Saul son of Kish was taken. But when they looked for him, he was not to be found. 22 So they inquired(MY) further of the Lord, “Has the man come here yet?”

And the Lord said, “Yes, he has hidden himself among the supplies.”

23 They ran and brought him out, and as he stood among the people he was a head taller(MZ) than any of the others. 24 Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see the man the Lord has chosen?(NA) There is no one like(NB) him among all the people.”

Then the people shouted, “Long live(NC) the king!”

25 Samuel explained(ND) to the people the rights and duties(NE) of kingship.(NF) He wrote them down on a scroll and deposited it before the Lord. Then Samuel dismissed the people to go to their own homes.

26 Saul also went to his home in Gibeah,(NG) accompanied by valiant men(NH) whose hearts God had touched. 27 But some scoundrels(NI) said, “How can this fellow save us?” They despised him and brought him no gifts.(NJ) But Saul kept silent.

Saul Rescues the City of Jabesh

11 Nahash[aa](NK) the Ammonite went up and besieged Jabesh Gilead.(NL) And all the men of Jabesh said to him, “Make a treaty(NM) with us, and we will be subject to you.”

But Nahash the Ammonite replied, “I will make a treaty with you only on the condition(NN) that I gouge(NO) out the right eye of every one of you and so bring disgrace(NP) on all Israel.”

The elders(NQ) of Jabesh said to him, “Give us seven days so we can send messengers throughout Israel; if no one comes to rescue(NR) us, we will surrender(NS) to you.”

When the messengers came to Gibeah(NT) of Saul and reported these terms to the people, they all wept(NU) aloud. Just then Saul was returning from the fields, behind his oxen, and he asked, “What is wrong with everyone? Why are they weeping?” Then they repeated to him what the men of Jabesh had said.

When Saul heard their words, the Spirit(NV) of God came powerfully upon him, and he burned with anger. He took a pair of oxen,(NW) cut them into pieces, and sent the pieces by messengers throughout Israel,(NX) proclaiming, “This is what will be done to the oxen of anyone(NY) who does not follow Saul and Samuel.” Then the terror of the Lord fell on the people, and they came out together as one.(NZ) When Saul mustered(OA) them at Bezek,(OB) the men of Israel numbered three hundred thousand and those of Judah thirty thousand.

They told the messengers who had come, “Say to the men of Jabesh Gilead, ‘By the time the sun is hot tomorrow, you will be rescued.’” When the messengers went and reported this to the men of Jabesh, they were elated. 10 They said to the Ammonites, “Tomorrow we will surrender(OC) to you, and you can do to us whatever you like.”

11 The next day Saul separated his men into three divisions;(OD) during the last watch of the night they broke into the camp of the Ammonites(OE) and slaughtered them until the heat of the day. Those who survived were scattered, so that no two of them were left together.

Saul Confirmed as King

12 The people then said to Samuel, “Who(OF) was it that asked, ‘Shall Saul reign over us?’ Turn these men over to us so that we may put them to death.”

13 But Saul said, “No one will be put to death today,(OG) for this day the Lord has rescued(OH) Israel.”

14 Then Samuel said to the people, “Come, let us go to Gilgal(OI) and there renew the kingship.(OJ) 15 So all the people went to Gilgal(OK) and made Saul king(OL) in the presence of the Lord. There they sacrificed fellowship offerings before the Lord, and Saul and all the Israelites held a great celebration.

Samuel’s Farewell Speech

12 Samuel said to all Israel, “I have listened(OM) to everything you said to me and have set a king(ON) over you. Now you have a king as your leader.(OO) As for me, I am old and gray, and my sons(OP) are here with you. I have been your leader from my youth until this day.


  1. 1 Samuel 1:1 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. 6:26-27,33-35; or from Ramathaim Zuphim.
  2. 1 Samuel 1:20 Samuel sounds like the Hebrew for heard by God.
  3. 1 Samuel 1:22 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls always. I have dedicated him as a Nazirite—all the days of his life.”
  4. 1 Samuel 1:23 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac your
  5. 1 Samuel 1:24 Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac; Masoretic Text with three bulls
  6. 1 Samuel 1:24 That is, probably about 36 pounds or about 16 kilograms
  7. 1 Samuel 2:1 Horn here symbolizes strength; also in verse 10.
  8. 1 Samuel 2:17 Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint; Masoretic Text people
  9. 1 Samuel 2:20 Dead Sea Scrolls; Masoretic Text and asked from
  10. 1 Samuel 2:25 Or the judges
  11. 1 Samuel 2:29 The Hebrew is plural.
  12. 1 Samuel 3:13 An ancient Hebrew scribal tradition (see also Septuagint); Masoretic Text sons made themselves contemptible
  13. 1 Samuel 4:7 Or “Gods have (see Septuagint)
  14. 1 Samuel 4:18 Traditionally judged
  15. 1 Samuel 4:21 Ichabod means no glory.
  16. 1 Samuel 5:6 Hebrew; Septuagint and Vulgate tumors. And rats appeared in their land, and there was death and destruction throughout the city
  17. 1 Samuel 5:9 Or with tumors in the groin (see Septuagint)
  18. 1 Samuel 5:11 Or he
  19. 1 Samuel 6:19 A few Hebrew manuscripts; most Hebrew manuscripts and Septuagint 50,070
  20. 1 Samuel 7:6 Traditionally judge; also in verse 15
  21. 1 Samuel 7:12 Ebenezer means stone of help.
  22. 1 Samuel 8:1 Traditionally judges
  23. 1 Samuel 8:5 Traditionally judge; also in verses 6 and 20
  24. 1 Samuel 8:16 Septuagint; Hebrew young men
  25. 1 Samuel 9:8 That is, about 1/10 ounce or about 3 grams
  26. 1 Samuel 10:1 Hebrew; Septuagint and Vulgate over his people Israel? You will reign over the Lord’s people and save them from the power of their enemies round about. And this will be a sign to you that the Lord has anointed you ruler over his inheritance:
  27. 1 Samuel 11:1 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls gifts. Now Nahash king of the Ammonites oppressed the Gadites and Reubenites severely. He gouged out all their right eyes and struck terror and dread in Israel. Not a man remained among the Israelites beyond the Jordan whose right eye was not gouged out by Nahash king of the Ammonites, except that seven thousand men fled from the Ammonites and entered Jabesh Gilead. About a month later, Nahash

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