22 After Abimelek had governed Israel three years, 23 God stirred up animosity(A) between Abimelek and the citizens of Shechem so that they acted treacherously against Abimelek. 24 God did this in order that the crime against Jerub-Baal’s seventy sons,(B) the shedding(C) of their blood, might be avenged(D) on their brother Abimelek and on the citizens of Shechem, who had helped him(E) murder his brothers. 25 In opposition to him these citizens of Shechem set men on the hilltops to ambush and rob everyone who passed by, and this was reported to Abimelek.

26 Now Gaal son of Ebed(F) moved with his clan into Shechem, and its citizens put their confidence in him. 27 After they had gone out into the fields and gathered the grapes and trodden(G) them, they held a festival in the temple of their god.(H) While they were eating and drinking, they cursed Abimelek. 28 Then Gaal son of Ebed(I) said, “Who(J) is Abimelek, and why should we Shechemites be subject to him? Isn’t he Jerub-Baal’s son, and isn’t Zebul his deputy? Serve the family of Hamor,(K) Shechem’s father! Why should we serve Abimelek? 29 If only this people were under my command!(L) Then I would get rid of him. I would say to Abimelek, ‘Call out your whole army!’”[a](M)

30 When Zebul the governor of the city heard what Gaal son of Ebed said, he was very angry. 31 Under cover he sent messengers to Abimelek, saying, “Gaal son of Ebed and his clan have come to Shechem and are stirring up the city against you. 32 Now then, during the night you and your men should come and lie in wait(N) in the fields. 33 In the morning at sunrise, advance against the city. When Gaal and his men come out against you, seize the opportunity to attack them.(O)

34 So Abimelek and all his troops set out by night and took up concealed positions near Shechem in four companies. 35 Now Gaal son of Ebed had gone out and was standing at the entrance of the city gate(P) just as Abimelek and his troops came out from their hiding place.(Q)

36 When Gaal saw them, he said to Zebul, “Look, people are coming down from the tops of the mountains!”

Zebul replied, “You mistake the shadows of the mountains for men.”

37 But Gaal spoke up again: “Look, people are coming down from the central hill,[b] and a company is coming from the direction of the diviners’ tree.”

38 Then Zebul said to him, “Where is your big talk now, you who said, ‘Who is Abimelek that we should be subject to him?’ Aren’t these the men you ridiculed?(R) Go out and fight them!”

39 So Gaal led out[c] the citizens of Shechem and fought Abimelek. 40 Abimelek chased him all the way to the entrance of the gate, and many were killed as they fled. 41 Then Abimelek stayed in Arumah, and Zebul drove Gaal and his clan out of Shechem.

42 The next day the people of Shechem went out to the fields, and this was reported to Abimelek. 43 So he took his men, divided them into three companies(S) and set an ambush(T) in the fields. When he saw the people coming out of the city, he rose to attack them. 44 Abimelek and the companies with him rushed forward to a position at the entrance of the city gate. Then two companies attacked those in the fields and struck them down. 45 All that day Abimelek pressed his attack against the city until he had captured it and killed its people. Then he destroyed the city(U) and scattered salt(V) over it.

46 On hearing this, the citizens in the tower of Shechem went into the stronghold of the temple(W) of El-Berith. 47 When Abimelek heard that they had assembled there, 48 he and all his men went up Mount Zalmon.(X) He took an ax and cut off some branches, which he lifted to his shoulders. He ordered the men with him, “Quick! Do what you have seen me do!” 49 So all the men cut branches and followed Abimelek. They piled them against the stronghold and set it on fire with the people still inside. So all the people in the tower of Shechem, about a thousand men and women, also died.

50 Next Abimelek went to Thebez(Y) and besieged it and captured it. 51 Inside the city, however, was a strong tower, to which all the men and women—all the people of the city—had fled. They had locked themselves in and climbed up on the tower roof. 52 Abimelek went to the tower and attacked it. But as he approached the entrance to the tower to set it on fire, 53 a woman dropped an upper millstone on his head and cracked his skull.(Z)

54 Hurriedly he called to his armor-bearer, “Draw your sword and kill me,(AA) so that they can’t say, ‘A woman killed him.’” So his servant ran him through, and he died. 55 When the Israelites saw that Abimelek was dead, they went home.

56 Thus God repaid the wickedness that Abimelek had done to his father by murdering his seventy brothers. 57 God also made the people of Shechem pay for all their wickedness.(AB) The curse of Jotham(AC) son of Jerub-Baal came on them.


10 After the time of Abimelek,(AD) a man of Issachar(AE) named Tola son of Puah,(AF) the son of Dodo, rose to save(AG) Israel. He lived in Shamir,(AH) in the hill country of Ephraim. He led[d] Israel twenty-three years; then he died, and was buried in Shamir.


He was followed by Jair(AI) of Gilead, who led Israel twenty-two years. He had thirty sons, who rode thirty donkeys.(AJ) They controlled thirty towns in Gilead, which to this day are called Havvoth Jair.[e](AK) When Jair(AL) died, he was buried in Kamon.


Again the Israelites did evil in the eyes of the Lord.(AM) They served the Baals and the Ashtoreths,(AN) and the gods of Aram,(AO) the gods of Sidon,(AP) the gods of Moab, the gods of the Ammonites(AQ) and the gods of the Philistines.(AR) And because the Israelites forsook the Lord(AS) and no longer served him, he became angry(AT) with them. He sold them(AU) into the hands of the Philistines and the Ammonites, who that year shattered and crushed them. For eighteen years they oppressed all the Israelites on the east side of the Jordan in Gilead,(AV) the land of the Amorites. The Ammonites also crossed the Jordan to fight against Judah,(AW) Benjamin and Ephraim;(AX) Israel was in great distress. 10 Then the Israelites cried(AY) out to the Lord, “We have sinned(AZ) against you, forsaking our God and serving the Baals.”(BA)

11 The Lord replied, “When the Egyptians,(BB) the Amorites,(BC) the Ammonites,(BD) the Philistines,(BE) 12 the Sidonians, the Amalekites(BF) and the Maonites[f](BG) oppressed you(BH) and you cried to me for help, did I not save you from their hands? 13 But you have forsaken(BI) me and served other gods,(BJ) so I will no longer save you. 14 Go and cry out to the gods you have chosen. Let them save(BK) you when you are in trouble!(BL)

15 But the Israelites said to the Lord, “We have sinned. Do with us whatever you think best,(BM) but please rescue us now.” 16 Then they got rid of the foreign gods among them and served the Lord.(BN) And he could bear Israel’s misery(BO) no longer.(BP)

17 When the Ammonites were called to arms and camped in Gilead, the Israelites assembled and camped at Mizpah.(BQ) 18 The leaders of the people of Gilead said to each other, “Whoever will take the lead in attacking the Ammonites will be head(BR) over all who live in Gilead.”

11 Jephthah(BS) the Gileadite was a mighty warrior.(BT) His father was Gilead;(BU) his mother was a prostitute.(BV) Gilead’s wife also bore him sons, and when they were grown up, they drove Jephthah away. “You are not going to get any inheritance in our family,” they said, “because you are the son of another woman.” So Jephthah fled from his brothers and settled in the land of Tob,(BW) where a gang of scoundrels(BX) gathered around him and followed him.

Some time later, when the Ammonites(BY) were fighting against Israel, the elders of Gilead went to get Jephthah from the land of Tob. “Come,” they said, “be our commander, so we can fight the Ammonites.”

Jephthah said to them, “Didn’t you hate me and drive me from my father’s house?(BZ) Why do you come to me now, when you’re in trouble?”

The elders of Gilead said to him, “Nevertheless, we are turning to you now; come with us to fight the Ammonites, and you will be head(CA) over all of us who live in Gilead.”

Jephthah answered, “Suppose you take me back to fight the Ammonites and the Lord gives them to me—will I really be your head?”

10 The elders of Gilead replied, “The Lord is our witness;(CB) we will certainly do as you say.” 11 So Jephthah went with the elders(CC) of Gilead, and the people made him head and commander over them. And he repeated(CD) all his words before the Lord in Mizpah.(CE)

12 Then Jephthah sent messengers to the Ammonite king with the question: “What do you have against me that you have attacked my country?”

13 The king of the Ammonites answered Jephthah’s messengers, “When Israel came up out of Egypt, they took away my land from the Arnon(CF) to the Jabbok,(CG) all the way to the Jordan. Now give it back peaceably.”

14 Jephthah sent back messengers to the Ammonite king, 15 saying:

“This is what Jephthah says: Israel did not take the land of Moab(CH) or the land of the Ammonites.(CI) 16 But when they came up out of Egypt, Israel went through the wilderness to the Red Sea[g](CJ) and on to Kadesh.(CK) 17 Then Israel sent messengers(CL) to the king of Edom, saying, ‘Give us permission to go through your country,’(CM) but the king of Edom would not listen. They sent also to the king of Moab,(CN) and he refused.(CO) So Israel stayed at Kadesh.

18 “Next they traveled through the wilderness, skirted the lands of Edom(CP) and Moab, passed along the eastern side(CQ) of the country of Moab, and camped on the other side of the Arnon.(CR) They did not enter the territory of Moab, for the Arnon was its border.

19 “Then Israel sent messengers(CS) to Sihon king of the Amorites, who ruled in Heshbon,(CT) and said to him, ‘Let us pass through your country to our own place.’(CU) 20 Sihon, however, did not trust Israel[h] to pass through his territory. He mustered all his troops and encamped at Jahaz and fought with Israel.(CV)

21 “Then the Lord, the God of Israel, gave Sihon and his whole army into Israel’s hands, and they defeated them. Israel took over all the land of the Amorites who lived in that country, 22 capturing all of it from the Arnon to the Jabbok and from the desert to the Jordan.(CW)

23 “Now since the Lord, the God of Israel, has driven the Amorites out before his people Israel, what right have you to take it over? 24 Will you not take what your god Chemosh(CX) gives you? Likewise, whatever the Lord our God has given us,(CY) we will possess. 25 Are you any better than Balak son of Zippor,(CZ) king of Moab? Did he ever quarrel with Israel or fight with them?(DA) 26 For three hundred years Israel occupied(DB) Heshbon, Aroer,(DC) the surrounding settlements and all the towns along the Arnon. Why didn’t you retake them during that time? 27 I have not wronged you, but you are doing me wrong by waging war against me. Let the Lord, the Judge,(DD) decide(DE) the dispute this day between the Israelites and the Ammonites.(DF)

28 The king of Ammon, however, paid no attention to the message Jephthah sent him.


  1. Judges 9:29 Septuagint; Hebrew him.” Then he said to Abimelek, “Call out your whole army!”
  2. Judges 9:37 The Hebrew for this phrase means the navel of the earth.
  3. Judges 9:39 Or Gaal went out in the sight of
  4. Judges 10:2 Traditionally judged; also in verse 3
  5. Judges 10:4 Or called the settlements of Jair
  6. Judges 10:12 Hebrew; some Septuagint manuscripts Midianites
  7. Judges 11:16 Or the Sea of Reeds
  8. Judges 11:20 Or however, would not make an agreement for Israel

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