Das Wort wurde Fleisch
1 Im Anfang war das Wort[a], und das Wort war bei Gott, und das Wort war Gott.
2 Dieses war im Anfang bei Gott.
3 Alles ist durch dasselbe entstanden; und ohne dasselbe ist auch nicht eines entstanden, was entstanden ist.[b]
4 In ihm war das Leben[c], und das Leben war das Licht der Menschen.
5 Und das Licht leuchtet in der Finsternis, und die Finsternis hat es nicht begriffen.
6 Es war ein Mensch, von Gott gesandt; sein Name war Johannes.
7 Dieser kam zum Zeugnis, um von dem Licht Zeugnis zu geben, damit alle durch ihn glaubten.
8 Nicht er war das Licht, sondern er sollte Zeugnis geben von dem Licht.
9 Das wahre Licht, welches jeden Menschen erleuchtet[d], sollte in die Welt kommen.
10 Er war in der Welt[e], und die Welt ist durch ihn geworden, doch die Welt erkannte ihn nicht.
11 Er kam in sein Eigentum, und die Seinen nahmen ihn nicht auf.
12 Allen aber, die ihn aufnahmen, denen gab er das Anrecht[f], Kinder Gottes zu werden, denen, die an seinen Namen glauben;
13 die nicht aus dem Blut, noch aus dem Willen des Fleisches, noch aus dem Willen des Mannes, sondern aus Gott geboren[g] sind.
14 Und das Wort wurde Fleisch und wohnte unter uns; und wir sahen seine Herrlichkeit, eine Herrlichkeit als des Eingeborenen vom Vater, voller Gnade und Wahrheit.
Das Zeugnis Johannes des Täufers von Jesus Christus
15 Johannes legte Zeugnis ab von ihm, rief und sprach: Dieser war es, von dem ich sagte: Der nach mir kommt, ist vor mir gewesen, denn er war eher als ich.
16 Und aus seiner Fülle haben wir alle empfangen[h] Gnade um Gnade.
17 Denn das Gesetz wurde durch Mose gegeben; die Gnade und die Wahrheit ist durch Jesus Christus geworden.
18 Niemand hat Gott je gesehen; der eingeborene[i] Sohn, der im Schoß des Vaters ist, der hat Aufschluss [über ihn] gegeben.
19 Und dies ist das Zeugnis des Johannes, als die Juden von Jerusalem Priester und Leviten sandten, um ihn zu fragen: Wer bist du?
20 Und er bekannte es und leugnete nicht, sondern bekannte: Ich bin nicht der Christus![j]
21 Und sie fragten ihn: Was denn? Bist du Elia? Und er sprach: Ich bin"s nicht! Bist du der Prophet[k]? Und er antwortete: Nein!
22 Nun sprachen sie zu ihm: Wer bist du denn? Damit wir denen Antwort geben, die uns gesandt haben: Was sagst du über dich selbst?
23 Er sprach: Ich bin »die Stimme eines Rufenden, [die ertönt] in der Wüste: Ebnet den Weg des Herrn!«,[l] wie der Prophet Jesaja gesagt hat.
24 Die Gesandten gehörten aber zu den Pharisäern.
25 Und sie fragten ihn und sprachen zu ihm: Warum taufst du denn, wenn du nicht der Christus bist, noch Elia, noch der Prophet?
26 Johannes antwortete ihnen und sprach: Ich taufe mit Wasser; aber mitten unter euch steht einer, den ihr nicht kennt;
27 dieser ist’s, der nach mir kommt, der vor mir gewesen ist; und ich bin nicht würdig, ihm den Schuhriemen zu lösen.
28 Dies geschah in Bethabara, jenseits des Jordan, wo Johannes taufte.
Das Lamm Gottes
30 Das ist der, von dem ich sagte: Nach mir kommt ein Mann, der vor mir gewesen ist; denn er war eher als ich.
31 Und ich kannte ihn nicht; aber damit er Israel offenbar würde, darum bin ich gekommen, mit Wasser zu taufen.
32 Und Johannes bezeugte und sprach: Ich sah den Geist wie eine Taube vom Himmel herabsteigen, und er blieb auf ihm.
33 Und ich kannte ihn nicht; aber der mich sandte, mit Wasser zu taufen, der sprach zu mir: Der, auf den du den Geist herabsteigen und auf ihm bleiben siehst, der ist"s, der mit Heiligem Geist tauft.
34 Und ich habe es gesehen und bezeuge, dass dieser der Sohn Gottes ist.
35 Am folgenden Tag stand Johannes wiederum da und zwei seiner Jünger.
36 Und indem er auf Jesus blickte, der vorüberging, sprach er: Siehe, das Lamm Gottes![o]
Die ersten Jünger
37 Und die beiden Jünger hörten ihn reden und folgten Jesus nach.
38 Als aber Jesus sich umwandte und sie nachfolgen sah, sprach er zu ihnen: Was sucht ihr? Sie sprachen zu ihm: Rabbi (das heißt übersetzt: »Lehrer«), wo wohnst du?
39 Er spricht zu ihnen: Kommt und seht! Sie kamen und sahen, wo er wohnte, und blieben jenen Tag bei ihm. Es war aber um die zehnte Stunde.[p]
40 Andreas, der Bruder des Simon Petrus, war einer von den beiden, die es von Johannes gehört hatten und ihm nachgefolgt waren.
41 Dieser findet zuerst seinen Bruder Simon und spricht zu ihm: Wir haben den Messias gefunden (das heißt übersetzt: den »Gesalbten«[q]).
42 Und er führte ihn zu Jesus. Jesus aber sah ihn an und sprach: Du bist Simon, Jonas Sohn, du sollst Kephas heißen (das heißt übersetzt: »ein Stein«).
43 Am folgenden Tag wollte Jesus nach Galiläa reisen; da findet er Philippus und spricht zu ihm: Folge mir nach!
44 Philippus aber war von Bethsaida, aus der Stadt des Andreas und Petrus.
45 Philippus findet den Nathanael und spricht zu ihm: Wir haben den gefunden, von welchem Mose im Gesetz und die Propheten geschrieben haben, Jesus, den Sohn Josephs, von Nazareth.
46 Und Nathanael sprach zu ihm: Kann aus Nazareth etwas Gutes kommen? Philippus spricht zu ihm: Komm und sieh!
47 Jesus sah den Nathanael auf sich zukommen und spricht von ihm: Siehe, wahrhaftig ein Israelit, in dem keine Falschheit ist!
48 Nathanael spricht zu ihm: Woher kennst du mich? Jesus antwortete und sprach zu ihm: Ehe dich Philippus rief, als du unter dem Feigenbaum warst, sah ich dich!
49 Nathanael antwortete und sprach zu ihm: Rabbi, du bist der Sohn Gottes, du bist der König von Israel!
50 Jesus antwortete und sprach zu ihm: Du glaubst, weil ich dir sagte: Ich sah dich unter dem Feigenbaum? Du wirst Größeres sehen als das!
- (1,1) »Das Wort« (gr. logos) ist ein Name des Herrn Jesus Christus (vgl. 1Joh 1,1; Offb 19,13).
- (1,3) od. … durch Ihn … ohne Ihn…
- (1,4) gr. zoe; ein Wort, das im NT fast nur für das ewige, wahre Leben gebraucht wird; vgl. u.a. auch Joh 3,16; 5,29; 6,35; 10,10; 14,6; 17,3; 20,31.
- (1,9) od. ins Licht stellt.
- (1,10) »Welt« (gr. kosmos) steht hier und des Öfteren im NT für die von der Sünde gezeichnete Schöpfung und besonders für die von Gott abgefallene Menschheit.
- (1,12) od. die Vollmacht.
- (1,13) od. gezeugt.
- (1,16) od. genommen.
- (1,18) od. einziggeborene / einziggezeugte.
- (1,20) d.h. der Messias, der von Gott gesandte Retter und König (vgl. Fn. zu Mt 1,16).
- (1,21) d.h. der verheißene Prophet aus 5Mo 18,18.
- (1,23) Jes 40,3.
- (1,29) Jesus ist die gr. Umschrift des hebr. Jehoschua; dieser Name bedeutet »Der Herr ist Rettung«.
- (1,29) od. das die Sünde der Welt auf sich nimmt / trägt. Diese Bezeichnung Jesu Christi bezieht sich auf das Opferlamm, das eine wichtige Rolle in den Opfern des AT spielte (vgl. u.a. 1Mo 4,4; 2Mo 12,3-11; 13,13; 29,38; 3Mo 14,10-18; Jes 53,7).
- (1,36) Andere Übersetzung: Schaut auf das Lamm Gottes!
- (1,39) d.h. ca. 10 Uhr vormittags nach der römischen Zeitrechnung.
- (1,41) gr. Christus. Das ist der besondere Titel des verheißenen Retters und Königs für Israel und die Welt, der von Gott durch »Salbung« in seine Königswürde eingesetzt ist (vgl. u.a. Ps 2,2; Dan 9,25).
- (1,51) w. Amen, Amen; so auch später.
- (1,51) Sohn des Menschen ist eine Bezeichnung für den Messias (vgl. Dan 7,13; 1Mo 3,15; Joh 1,14; 1Tim 3,16; Phil 2,7; Hebr 2,14-18).
Hoffnung für Alle
Jesus und sein Zeuge: Johannes der Täufer (Kapitel 1)
Jesus Christus – Gottes Wort an die Welt
1 Am Anfang war das Wort.
Das Wort war bei Gott, und das Wort war Gott selbst.
2 Von Anfang an war es bei Gott.
3 Alles wurde durch das Wort geschaffen; nichts ist ohne das Wort entstanden.
4 In ihm war das Leben, und dieses Leben war das Licht für alle Menschen.
5 Es leuchtet in der Finsternis, und die Finsternis hat es nicht auslöschen können[a].
6 Gott schickte einen Boten, einen Mann, der Johannes[b] hieß.
7 Sein Auftrag war es, die Menschen auf das Licht hinzuweisen. Alle sollten durch seine Botschaft an den glauben, der das Licht ist.
8 Johannes selbst war nicht das Licht. Er sollte nur ein Zeuge für das kommende Licht sein.
9 Das wahre Licht ist der, der in die Welt gekommen ist, um für alle Menschen das Licht zu bringen.
10 Doch obwohl er unter ihnen lebte und die Welt durch ihn geschaffen wurde, erkannten ihn die Menschen nicht.
11 Er kam in seine Welt, aber die Menschen wiesen ihn ab.[c]
12 Die ihn aber aufnahmen und an ihn glaubten, denen gab er das Recht, Kinder Gottes zu werden.
13 Das wurden sie nicht, weil sie zu einem auserwählten Volk gehörten, auch nicht durch menschliche Zeugung und Geburt. Dieses neue Leben gab ihnen allein Gott.[d]
14 Das Wort wurde Mensch und lebte unter uns. Wir selbst haben seine göttliche Herrlichkeit gesehen, eine Herrlichkeit, wie sie Gott nur seinem einzigen Sohn gibt. In ihm sind Gottes Gnade und Wahrheit zu uns gekommen.
15 Johannes wies immer wieder auf ihn hin. »Diesen habe ich gemeint«, rief er, »wenn ich sagte: ›Nach mir wird einer kommen, der weit über mir steht. Denn er war schon da, bevor ich geboren wurde!‹«
16 Aus seinem göttlichen Reichtum hat er uns immer wieder mit seiner grenzenlosen Liebe beschenkt.
17 Durch Mose gab uns Gott das Gesetz mit seinen Forderungen, aber nun ist uns durch Jesus Christus seine Gnade und Wahrheit begegnet.[e] 18 Kein Mensch hat jemals Gott gesehen. Doch sein einziger Sohn, der selbst Gott ist und in enger Gemeinschaft mit dem Vater lebt, hat ihn uns gezeigt.
Johannes der Täufer weist auf Christus hin (Matthäus 3,1‒12; Markus 1,1‒8; Lukas 3,1‒18)
19 Die führenden Männer der Juden in Jerusalem schickten einige Priester und Leviten zu Johannes. Sie fragten ihn: »Wer bist du?« Da nutzte Johannes die Gelegenheit, um sie auf Jesus Christus hinzuweisen. 20 Er bekannte und ließ keinen Zweifel offen: »Ich bin nicht der Christus, der von Gott versprochene Retter.« 21 »Wer bist du dann?«, fragten sie weiter. »Bist du Elia?«[f] Johannes verneinte auch das. »Bist du der Prophet, den Mose uns angekündigt hat?«[g] »Nein!«, entgegnete Johannes.
22 »Dann sag uns doch, wer du bist. Welche Antwort sollen wir denen geben, die uns hergeschickt haben?« 23 Da sagte Johannes: »Ich bin die Stimme, die in der Wüste ruft: ›Macht den Weg frei für den Herrn!‹[h] So hat es der Prophet Jesaja schon angekündigt.«
24 Unter den Abgesandten waren auch Pharisäer. 25 Sie fragten Johannes nun: »Wenn du nicht der Christus, nicht Elia und auch nicht der von Mose angekündigte Prophet bist, mit welchem Recht taufst du dann?« 26 Darauf erwiderte Johannes: »Ich taufe mit Wasser. Aber mitten unter euch lebt schon der, auf den wir warten. Ihr kennt ihn nur noch nicht. 27 Er kommt nach mir – und ich bin nicht einmal würdig, ihm die Schuhe auszuziehen[i].« 28 Dieses Gespräch führten sie in Betanien, einem Dorf östlich des Jordan, wo Johannes taufte.
Das Opferlamm Gottes (Matthäus 3,13‒17; Markus 1,9‒11; Lukas 3,21‒22)
29 Am nächsten Tag bemerkte Johannes, dass Jesus zu ihm kam. Da rief er: »Seht, das ist Gottes Opferlamm, das die Sünde der Menschen wegnimmt.[j] 30 Dieser Mann ist es, von dem ich gesagt habe: ›Nach mir wird einer kommen, der weit über mir steht. Denn er war schon da, bevor ich geboren wurde!‹ 31 Auch ich wusste vorher nicht, wer er ist. Aber damit dem Volk Israel die Augen für ihn geöffnet werden, taufe ich hier mit Wasser.«
32 Und Johannes berichtete weiter: »Ich sah den Geist Gottes wie eine Taube vom Himmel herabkommen und auf ihm bleiben. 33 Wer er ist, wusste ich vorher noch nicht«, wiederholte Johannes, »aber Gott, der mir den Auftrag gab, mit Wasser zu taufen, sagte zu mir: ›Du wirst sehen, wie der Geist auf einen Menschen herabkommt und auf ihm bleibt. Dann weißt du, dass er es ist, der mit dem Heiligen Geist tauft.‹ 34 Und weil ich das gesehen habe, kann ich bezeugen: Dieser Mann ist Gottes Sohn[k]!«
Die ersten Jünger von Jesus
35 Johannes der Täufer und zwei seiner Jünger waren am nächsten Tag wieder an dieser Stelle, 36 als Jesus vorüberging. Da schaute Johannes ihn an und sagte: »Seht, dies ist Gottes Opferlamm!« 37 Als die beiden Jünger das hörten, folgten sie Jesus. 38 Jesus drehte sich zu ihnen um, sah sie kommen und fragte: »Was sucht ihr?« Sie antworteten: »Rabbi[l], wo wohnst du?« 39 »Kommt mit, dann werdet ihr es sehen!«, sagte Jesus. Also gingen sie mit Jesus dorthin, wo er wohnte. Es war ungefähr vier Uhr nachmittags, und sie blieben bei ihm bis zum Abend.
40 Einer der beiden, die Jesus auf das Wort von Johannes hin gefolgt waren, hieß Andreas. Er war der Bruder von Simon Petrus. 41 Wenig später traf er seinen Bruder Simon und erzählte ihm: »Wir haben den Messias[m] gefunden, den von Gott versprochenen Retter!« 42 Dann nahm Andreas seinen Bruder mit zu Jesus. Der sah ihn an und sagte: »Du bist Simon, der Sohn von Johannes. Von jetzt an sollst du Petrus[n] heißen!«
Jesus beruft Philippus und überzeugt Nathanael
43 Als Jesus am nächsten Tag nach Galiläa gehen wollte, traf er unterwegs Philippus. Auch ihn forderte er auf: »Komm, folge mir nach!« 44 Philippus stammte wie Andreas und Petrus aus Betsaida. 45 Später begegnete Philippus Nathanael und erzählte ihm: »Wir haben den gefunden, von dem Mose im Gesetz geschrieben hat und den die Propheten angekündigt haben. Es ist Jesus aus Nazareth, der Sohn von Josef.« 46 »Nazareth?«, entgegnete Nathanael. »Was kann von da schon Gutes kommen!« Doch Philippus antwortete ihm: »Komm mit und überzeuge dich selbst!«
47 Als Jesus Nathanael erblickte, sagte er: »Hier kommt ein wahrer Israelit, ein ganz und gar aufrichtiger Mensch!« 48 Nathanael staunte: »Woher kennst du mich?« Jesus erwiderte: »Noch bevor Philippus dich rief, habe ich dich unter dem Feigenbaum gesehen.« 49 »Rabbi, du bist wirklich Gottes Sohn!«, rief Nathanael. »Du bist der König von Israel!« 50 Jesus sagte: »Das glaubst du, weil ich dir gesagt habe, dass ich dich unter dem Feigenbaum sah. Aber du wirst noch viel größere Dinge zu sehen bekommen.« 51 Und er fuhr fort: »Ich sage euch die Wahrheit: Ihr werdet den Himmel offen und die Engel Gottes hinauf- und herabsteigen sehen zwischen Gott und dem Menschensohn!«
- 1,5 Oder: doch die Finsternis wehrte sich gegen das Licht.
- 1,6 Gemeint ist Johannes der Täufer. Vgl. Kapitel 1,19‒34.
- 1,11 Oder: Er kam zu seinem Volk, aber sein Volk wies ihn ab.
- 1,13 Wörtlich: Die nicht aus Blut, auch nicht aus dem Willen des Fleisches und nicht aus dem Willen des Mannes, sondern aus Gott geboren sind.
- 1,17 Oder: Durch Mose gab uns Gott das Gesetz, und nun ist uns (außerdem) durch Jesus Christus seine Gnade und Wahrheit begegnet.
- 1,21 Vgl. Maleachi 3,23.
- 1,21 Vgl. 5. Mose 18,15.18.
- 1,23 Vgl. Jesaja 40,3.
- 1,27 Das Ausziehen und Nachtragen der Schuhe gehörte zu den Aufgaben eines Sklaven für seinen Herrn.
- 1,29 Vgl. 2. Mose 12,3‒14.
- 1,34 Oder nach anderen Handschriften: der Erwählte Gottes.
- 1,38 Im griechischen Text folgt an dieser Stelle unmittelbar die Erklärung des Wortes Rabbi: … das heißt übersetzt: »Lehrer«.
- 1,41 Im griechischen Text folgt an dieser Stelle unmittelbar die Erklärung des Wortes Messias: »Messias« ist das hebräische Wort für Christus.
- 1,42 Wörtlich: Kephas. – Im griechischen Text folgt an dieser Stelle unmittelbar die Erklärung des Namens Kephas: Das ist der hebräische Name für Petrus und bedeutet »Fels«.
Holman Christian Standard Bible
1 In the beginning(A) was the Word,[a](B)
and the Word was with God,
and the Word was God.(C)
2 He was with God in the beginning.(D)
3 All things were created(E) through Him,(F)
and apart from Him not one thing was created
that has been created.
4 Life was in Him,[b](G)
and that life was the light(H) of men.
5 That light shines(I) in the darkness,
yet the darkness did not overcome[c] it.(J)
6 There was a man named John(K)
who was sent from God.
7 He came as a witness
to testify about the light,
so that all might believe through him.[d]
8 He was not the light,
but he came to testify(L) about the light.
9 The true light,(M) who gives light to everyone,
was coming into the world.[e](N)
10 He was in the world,
and the world was created(O) through Him,
yet the world did not recognize Him.
11 He came to His own,[f]
and His own people[g] did not receive Him.
12 But to all who did receive(P) Him,(Q)
He gave them the right(R) to be[h] children(S) of God,(T)
to those who believe(U) in His name,(V)
13 who were born,(W)
not of blood,[i]
or of the will(X) of the flesh,(Y)
or of the will of man,[j]
but of God.(Z)
14 The Word(AA) became flesh[k](AB)
and took up residence[l] among us.
We observed His glory,(AC)
the glory as the One and Only(AD) Son[m] from the Father,
full of grace and truth.
15 (John testified concerning Him and exclaimed,
“This was the One of whom I said,
‘The One coming after me(AE) has surpassed me,(AF)
because He existed before me.’”)(AG)
16 Indeed, we have all received grace(AH) after grace
from His fullness,
17 for the law was given through Moses,(AI)
grace and truth(AJ) came through Jesus Christ.
18 No one has ever seen God.[n]
The One and Only(AK) Son[o]—
the One who is at the Father’s(AL) side[p]—
He has revealed Him.(AM)
John the Baptist’s Testimony
20 He did not refuse to answer, but he declared: “I am not the Messiah.”(AQ)
21 “What then?” they asked him. “Are you Elijah?”(AR)
“I am not,” he said.
“No,” he answered.
22 “Who are you, then?” they asked. “We need to give an answer to those who sent us. What can you tell us about yourself?”
24 Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.(AV) 25 So they asked him, “Why then do you baptize if you aren’t the Messiah, or Elijah, or the Prophet?”
The Lamb of God
29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Here is the Lamb of God,(AZ) who takes away the sin(BA) of the world! 30 This is the One I told you about: ‘After me comes a man who has surpassed me, because He existed before me.’ 31 I didn’t know Him,(BB) but I came baptizing with[w] water so He might be revealed(BC) to Israel.”
32 And John testified, “I watched the Spirit(BD) descending from heaven like a dove, and He rested on Him.(BE) 33 I didn’t know Him, but He[x] who sent me to baptize with[y] water told me, ‘The One you see the Spirit descending and resting on—He is the One who baptizes with[z] the Holy Spirit.’(BF) 34 I have seen and testified that He is the Son of God!”[aa](BG)
35 Again the next day, John was standing with two of his disciples. 36 When he saw Jesus passing by, he said, “Look! The Lamb of God!”
37 The two disciples heard him say this and followed Jesus. 38 When Jesus turned and noticed them following Him, He asked them, “What are you looking for?”
They said to Him, “Rabbi”(BH) (which means “Teacher”), “where are You staying?”
39 “Come and you’ll see,” He replied. So they went and saw where He was staying, and they stayed with Him that day. It was about 10 in the morning.[ab]
40 Andrew,(BI) Simon Peter’s brother, was one of the two who heard John and followed Him. 41 He first found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah!”[ac](BJ) (which means “Anointed(BK) One”), 42 and he brought Simon to Jesus.
Philip and Nathanael
44 Now Philip was from Bethsaida,(BN) the hometown of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip found Nathanael[af](BO) and told him, “We have found the One Moses wrote about in the Law (and so did the prophets(BP)): Jesus the son of Joseph,(BQ) from Nazareth!”(BR)
46 “Can anything good(BS) come out of Nazareth?” Nathanael asked him.
“Come and see,” Philip answered.
47 Then Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward Him and said about him, “Here is a true Israelite;(BT) no deceit is in him.”
48 “How do you know me?” Nathanael asked.
“Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you,” Jesus answered.
50 Jesus responded to him, “Do you believe only because I told you I saw you under the fig tree? You[ag] will see greater things than this.” 51 Then He said, “I assure you: You[ah] will see heaven opened and the angels of God(BX) ascending and descending(BY) on the Son of Man.”(BZ)
- John 1:1 The Word (Gk Logos) is a title for Jesus as the communication and the revealer of God the Father; Jn 1:14,18; Rv 19:13.
- John 1:4 Other punctuation is possible: . . . not one thing was created. What was created in Him was life
- John 1:5 Or grasp, or comprehend, or overtake; Jn 12:35
- John 1:7 Or through it (the light)
- John 1:9 Or The true light who comes into the world gives light to everyone, or The true light enlightens everyone coming into the world.
- John 1:11 The same Gk adjective is used twice in this verse: the first refers to all that Jesus owned as Creator (to His own); the second refers to the Jews (His own people).
- John 1:11 The same Gk adjective is used twice in this verse: the first refers to all that Jesus owned as Creator (to His own); the second refers to the Jews (His own people).
- John 1:12 Or become
- John 1:13 Lit bloods; the pl form of blood occurs only here in the NT. It may refer either to lineal descent (that is, blood from one’s father and mother) or to the OT sacrificial system (that is, the various blood sacrifices). Neither is the basis for birth into the family of God.
- John 1:13 Or not of human lineage, or of human capacity, or of human volition
- John 1:14 The eternally existent Word (vv. 1-2) took on full humanity but without sin; Heb 4:15.
- John 1:14 Or and dwelt in a tent; lit and tabernacled; this word occurs only here in John. A related word, referring to the Festival of Tabernacles, occurs only in 7:2; Ex 40:34-38.
- John 1:14 Son is implied from the reference to the Father and from Gk usage.
- John 1:18 Since God is an infinite being, no one can see Him in His absolute essential nature; Ex 33:18-23.
- John 1:18 Other mss read God
- John 1:18 Lit is in the bosom of the Father
- John 1:21 Probably the Prophet in Dt 18:15
- John 1:23 Is 40:3
- John 1:26 Or in
- John 1:27 Other mss add who came before me
- John 1:28 Other mss read in Bethabara
- John 1:28 Another Bethany, near Jerusalem, was the home of Lazarus, Martha, and Mary; Jn 11:1.
- John 1:31 Or in
- John 1:33 He refers to God the Father, who gave John a sign to help him identify the Messiah. Vv. 32-34 indicate that John did not know that Jesus was the Messiah until the Spirit descended upon Him at His baptism.
- John 1:33 Or in
- John 1:33 Or in
- John 1:34 Other mss read is the Chosen One of God
- John 1:39 Lit about the tenth hour. Various methods of reckoning time were used in the ancient world. John probably used a different method from the other 3 Gospels. If John used the same method of time reckoning as the other 3 Gospels, the translation would be: It was about four in the afternoon.
- John 1:41 In the NT, the word Messiah translates the Gk word Christos (“Anointed One”), except here and in Jn 4:25 where it translates Messias.
- John 1:42 Other mss read Simon, son of Jonah
- John 1:43 Or he, referring either to Simon Peter (vv. 41-42) or Andrew (vv. 40-41)
- John 1:45 Probably the Bartholomew of the other Gospels and Acts
- John 1:50 In Gk, the word you is sg and refers to Nathanael.
- John 1:51 In Gk, the word you is pl and refers to Nathanael and the other disciples.
New English Translation
The Prologue to the Gospel
1 In the beginning[a] was the Word, and the Word was with God,[b] and the Word was fully God.[c] 2 The Word[d] was with God in the beginning. 3 All things were created[e] by him, and apart from him not one thing was created[f] that has been created.[g] 4 In him was life,[h] and the life was the light of mankind.[i] 5 And the light shines on[j] in the darkness,[k] but[l] the darkness has not mastered it.[m]
6 A man came, sent from God, whose name was John.[n] 7 He came as a witness[o] to testify[p] about the light, so that everyone[q] might believe through him. 8 He himself was not the light, but he came to testify[r] about the light. 9 The true light, who gives light to everyone,[s] was coming into the world.[t] 10 He was in the world, and the world was created[u] by him, but[v] the world did not recognize[w] him. 11 He came to what was his own,[x] but[y] his own people[z] did not receive him.[aa] 12 But to all who have received him—those who believe in his name[ab]—he has given the right to become God’s children 13 —children not born[ac] by human parents[ad] or by human desire[ae] or a husband’s[af] decision,[ag] but by God.
14 Now[ah] the Word became flesh[ai] and took up residence[aj] among us. We[ak] saw his glory—the glory of the one and only,[al] full of grace and truth, who came from the Father. 15 John[am] testified[an] about him and shouted out,[ao] “This one was the one about whom I said, ‘He who comes after me is greater than I am,[ap] because he existed before me.’” 16 For we have all received from his fullness one gracious gift after another.[aq] 17 For the law was given through Moses, but[ar] grace and truth came about through Jesus Christ. 18 No one has ever seen God. The only one,[as] himself God, who is in closest fellowship with[at] the Father, has made God[au] known.[av]
The Testimony of John the Baptist
19 Now[aw] this was[ax] John’s[ay] testimony[az] when the Jewish leaders[ba] sent[bb] priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, “Who are you?”[bc] 20 He confessed—he did not deny but confessed—“I am not the Christ!”[bd] 21 So they asked him, “Then who are you?[be] Are you Elijah?” He said, “I am not!”[bf] “Are you the Prophet?”[bg] He answered, “No!” 22 Then they said to him, “Who are you? Tell us[bh] so that we can give an answer to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?”
23 John[bi] said, “I am the voice of one shouting in the wilderness, ‘Make straight[bj] the way for the Lord,’[bk] as the prophet Isaiah said.” 24 (Now they had been sent from the Pharisees.[bl])[bm] 25 So they asked John,[bn] “Why then are you baptizing if you are not the Christ,[bo] nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”
26 John answered them,[bp] “I baptize with water. Among you stands one whom you do not recognize,[bq] 27 who is coming after me. I am not worthy[br] to untie the strap[bs] of his sandal!” 28 These things happened in Bethany[bt] across the Jordan River[bu] where John was baptizing.
29 On the next day John[bv] saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God[bw] who takes away the sin of the world! 30 This is the one about whom I said, ‘After me comes a man who is greater than I am,[bx] because he existed before me.’ 31 I did not recognize[by] him, but I came baptizing with water so that he could be revealed to Israel.”[bz]
32 Then[ca] John testified,[cb] “I saw the Spirit descending like a dove[cc] from heaven,[cd] and it remained on him.[ce] 33 And I did not recognize him, but the one who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘The one on whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining—this is the one who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’ 34 I have both seen and testified that this man is the Chosen One of God.”[cf]
35 Again the next day John[cg] was standing there[ch] with two of his disciples. 36 Gazing at Jesus as he walked by, he said, “Look, the Lamb of God!”[ci] 37 When John’s[cj] two disciples heard him say this,[ck] they followed Jesus.[cl] 38 Jesus turned around and saw them following and said to them, “What do you want?”[cm] So they said to him, “Rabbi” (which is translated Teacher),[cn] “where are you staying?” 39 Jesus[co] answered,[cp] “Come and you will see.” So they came and saw where he was staying, and they stayed with him that day. Now it was about four o’clock in the afternoon.[cq]
40 Andrew, the brother of Simon Peter, was one of the two disciples who heard what John said[cr] and followed Jesus.[cs] 41 He first[ct] found his own brother Simon and told him, “We have found the Messiah!”[cu] (which is translated Christ).[cv] 42 Andrew brought Simon[cw] to Jesus. Jesus looked at him and said, “You are Simon, the son of John.[cx] You will be called Cephas” (which is translated Peter).[cy]
The Calling of More Disciples
43 On the next day Jesus[cz] wanted to set out for Galilee.[da] He[db] found Philip and said[dc] to him, “Follow me.” 44 (Now Philip was from Bethsaida,[dd] the town of[de] Andrew and Peter.) 45 Philip found Nathanael[df] and told him, “We have found the one Moses wrote about in the law, and the prophets also[dg] wrote about—Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.” 46 Nathanael[dh] replied,[di] “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?”[dj] Philip replied,[dk] “Come and see.”
47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and exclaimed,[dl] “Look, a true Israelite in whom there is no deceit!”[dm] 48 Nathanael asked him, “How do you know me?” Jesus replied,[dn] “Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree,[do] I saw you.” 49 Nathanael answered him, “Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you are the king[dp] of Israel!”[dq] 50 Jesus said to him,[dr] “Because I told you that I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You will see greater things than these.”[ds] 51 He continued,[dt] “I tell all of you the solemn truth[du]—you will see heaven opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.”[dv]
- John 1:1 sn In the beginning. The search for the basic “stuff” out of which things are made was the earliest one in Greek philosophy. It was attended by the related question of “What is the process by which the secondary things came out of the primary one (or ones)?,” or in Aristotelian terminology, “What is the ‘beginning’ (same Greek word as beginning, John 1:1) and what is the origin of the things that are made?” In the New Testament the word usually has a temporal sense, but even BDAG 138 s.v. ἀρχή 3 lists a major category of meaning as “the first cause.” For John, the words “In the beginning” are most likely a conscious allusion to the opening words of Genesis—“In the beginning.” Other concepts which occur prominently in Gen 1 are also found in John’s prologue: “life” (1:4) “light” (1:4) and “darkness” (1:5). Gen 1 describes the first (physical) creation; John 1 describes the new (spiritual) creation. But this is not to play off a false dichotomy between “physical” and “spiritual”; the first creation was both physical and spiritual. The new creation is really a re-creation, of the spiritual (first) but also the physical. (In spite of the common understanding of John’s “spiritual” emphasis, the “physical” re-creation should not be overlooked; this occurs in John 2 with the changing of water into wine, in John 11 with the resurrection of Lazarus, and the emphasis of John 20-21 on the aftermath of Jesus’ own resurrection.)
- John 1:1 tn The preposition πρός (pros) implies not just proximity, but intimate personal relationship. M. Dods stated, “Πρός…means more than μετά or παρά, and is regularly employed in expressing the presence of one person with another” (“The Gospel of St. John,” The Expositor’s Greek Testament, 1:684). See also Mark 6:3, Matt 13:56, Mark 9:19, Gal 1:18, 2 John 12.
- John 1:1 tn Or “and what God was the Word was.” Colwell’s Rule is often invoked to support the translation of θεός (theos) as definite (“God”) rather than indefinite (“a god”) here. However, Colwell’s Rule merely permits, but does not demand, that a predicate nominative ahead of an equative verb be translated as definite rather than indefinite. Furthermore, Colwell’s Rule did not deal with a third possibility, that the anarthrous predicate noun may have more of a qualitative nuance when placed ahead of the verb. A definite meaning for the term is reflected in the traditional rendering “the word was God.” From a technical standpoint, though, it is preferable to see a qualitative aspect to anarthrous θεός in John 1:1c (ExSyn 266-69). Translations like the NEB, REB, and Moffatt are helpful in capturing the sense in John 1:1c, that the Word was fully deity in essence (just as much God as God the Father). However, in contemporary English “the Word was divine” (Moffatt) does not quite catch the meaning since “divine” as a descriptive term is not used in contemporary English exclusively of God. The translation “what God was the Word was” is perhaps the most nuanced rendering, conveying that everything God was in essence, the Word was too. This points to unity of essence between the Father and the Son without equating the persons. However, in surveying a number of native speakers of English, some of whom had formal theological training and some of whom did not, the editors concluded that the fine distinctions indicated by “what God was the Word was” would not be understood by many contemporary readers. Thus the translation “the Word was fully God” was chosen because it is more likely to convey the meaning to the average English reader that the Logos (which “became flesh and took up residence among us” in John 1:14 and is thereafter identified in the Fourth Gospel as Jesus) is one in essence with God the Father. The previous phrase, “the Word was with God,” shows that the Logos is distinct in person from God the Father.sn And the Word was fully God. John’s theology consistently drives toward the conclusion that Jesus, the incarnate Word, is just as much God as God the Father. This can be seen, for example, in texts like John 10:30 (“The Father and I are one”), 17:11 (“so that they may be one just as we are one”), and 8:58 (“before Abraham came into existence, I am”). The construction in John 1:1c does not equate the Word with the person of God (this is ruled out by 1:1b, “the Word was with God”); rather it affirms that the Word and God are one in essence.
- John 1:2 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the Word) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:3 tn Or “made”; Grk “came into existence.”
- John 1:3 tn Or “made”; Grk “nothing came into existence.”
- John 1:3 tc There is a major punctuation problem here: Should this relative clause go with v. 3 or v. 4? The earliest mss have no punctuation (P66,75* א* A B Δ al). Many of the later mss which do have punctuation place it before the phrase, thus putting it with v. 4 (P75c C D L Ws 050* pc). NA25 placed the phrase in v. 3; NA26 moved the words to the beginning of v. 4. In a detailed article K. Aland defended the change (“Eine Untersuchung zu Johannes 1, 3-4. Über die Bedeutung eines Punktes,” ZNW 59 : 174-209). He sought to prove that the attribution of ὃ γέγονεν (ho gegonen) to v. 3 began to be carried out in the 4th century in the Greek church. This came out of the Arian controversy, and was intended as a safeguard for doctrine. The change was unknown in the West. Aland is probably correct in affirming that the phrase was attached to v. 4 by the Gnostics and the Eastern Church; only when the Arians began to use the phrase was it attached to v. 3. But this does not rule out the possibility that, by moving the words from v. 4 to v. 3, one is restoring the original reading. Understanding the words as part of v. 3 is natural and adds to the emphasis which is built up there, while it also gives a terse, forceful statement in v. 4. On the other hand, taking the phrase ὃ γέγονεν with v. 4 gives a complicated expression: C. K. Barrett says that both ways of understanding v. 4 with ὃ γέγονεν included “are almost impossibly clumsy” (St. John, 157): “That which came into being—in it the Word was life”; “That which came into being—in the Word was its life.” The following stylistic points should be noted in the solution of this problem: (1) John frequently starts sentences with ἐν (en); (2) he repeats frequently (“nothing was created that has been created”); (3) 5:26 and 6:53 both give a sense similar to v. 4 if it is understood without the phrase; (4) it makes far better Johannine sense to say that in the Word was life than to say that the created universe (what was made, ὃ γέγονεν) was life in him. In conclusion, the phrase is best taken with v. 3. Schnackenburg, Barrett, Carson, Haenchen, Morris, KJV, and NIV concur (against Brown, Beasley-Murray, and NEB). The arguments of R. Schnackenburg, St. John, 1:239-40, are particularly persuasive.tn Or “made”; Grk “that has come into existence.”
- John 1:4 tn John uses ζωή (zōē) 36 times: 17 times it occurs with αἰώνιος (aiōnios), and in the remaining occurrences outside the prologue it is clear from context that “eternal” life is meant. The two uses in 1:4, if they do not refer to “eternal” life, would be the only exceptions. (Also 1 John uses ζωή 13 times, always of “eternal” life.)sn An allusion to Ps 36:9, which gives significant OT background: “For with you is the fountain of life; In your light we see light.” In later Judaism, Bar 4:2 expresses a similar idea. Life, especially eternal life, will become one of the major themes of John’s Gospel.
- John 1:4 tn Or “humanity”; Grk “of men” (but ἄνθρωπος [anthrōpos] is used in a generic sense here, not restricted to males only, thus “mankind,” “humanity”).
- John 1:5 tn To this point the author has used past tenses (imperfects, aorists); now he switches to a present. The light continually shines (thus the translation, “shines on”). Even as the author writes, it is shining. The present here most likely has gnomic force (though it is possible to take it as a historical present); it expresses the timeless truth that the light of the world (cf. 8:12; 9:5; 12:46) never ceases to shine.sn The light shines on. The question of whether John has in mind here the preincarnate Christ or the incarnate Christ is probably too specific. The incarnation is not really introduced until v. 9, but here the point is more general: It is of the very nature of light, that it shines.
- John 1:5 sn The author now introduces what will become a major theme of John’s Gospel: the opposition of light and darkness. The antithesis is a natural one, widespread in antiquity. Gen 1 gives considerable emphasis to it in the account of the creation, and so do the writings of Qumran. It is the major theme of one of the most important extra-biblical documents found at Qumran, the so-called War Scroll, properly titled The War of the Sons of Light with the Sons of Darkness. Connections between John and Qumran are still an area of scholarly debate and a consensus has not yet emerged. See T. A. Hoffman, “1 John and the Qumran Scrolls,” BTB 8 (1978): 117-25.
- John 1:5 tn Grk “and,” but the context clearly indicates a contrast, so this has been translated as an adversative use of καί (kai).
- John 1:5 tn Or “comprehended it,” or “overcome it.” The verb κατέλαβεν (katelaben) is not easy to translate. “To seize” or “to grasp” is possible, but this also permits “to grasp with the mind” in the sense of “to comprehend” (esp. in the middle voice). This is probably another Johannine double meaning—one does not usually think of darkness as trying to “understand” light. For it to mean this, “darkness” must be understood as meaning “certain people,” or perhaps “humanity” at large, darkened in understanding. But in John’s usage, darkness is not normally used of people or a group of people. Rather it usually signifies the evil environment or ‘sphere’ in which people find themselves: “They loved darkness rather than light” (John 3:19). Those who follow Jesus do not walk in darkness (8:12). They are to walk while they have light, lest the darkness “overtake/overcome” them (12:35, same verb as here). For John, with his set of symbols and imagery, darkness is not something which seeks to “understand (comprehend)” the light, but represents the forces of evil which seek to “overcome (conquer)” it. The English verb “to master” may be used in both sorts of contexts, as “he mastered his lesson” and “he mastered his opponent.”
- John 1:6 sn John refers to John the Baptist.
- John 1:7 tn Grk “came for a testimony.”sn Witness is also one of the major themes of John’s Gospel. The Greek verb μαρτυρέω (martureō) occurs 33 times (compare to once in Matthew, once in Luke, 0 in Mark) and the noun μαρτυρία (marturia) 14 times (0 in Matthew, once in Luke, 3 times in Mark).
- John 1:7 tn Or “to bear witness.”
- John 1:7 tn Grk “all.”
- John 1:8 tn Or “to bear witness.”
- John 1:9 tn Grk “every man” (but in a generic sense, “every person,” or “every human being”).
- John 1:9 tn Or “He was the true light, who gives light to everyone who comes into the world.” The participle ἐρχόμενον (erchomenon) may be either (1) neuter nominative, agreeing with τὸ φῶς (to phōs), or (2) masculine accusative, agreeing with ἄνθρωπον (anthrōpon). Option (1) results in a periphrastic imperfect with ἦν (ēn), ἦν τὸ φῶς…ἐρχόμενον, referring to the incarnation. Option (2) would have the participle modifying ἄνθρωπον and referring to the true light as enlightening “every man who comes into the world.” Option (2) has some rabbinic parallels: The phrase “all who come into the world” is a fairly common expression for “every man” (cf. Leviticus Rabbah 31.6). But (1) must be preferred here, because: (a) In the next verse the light is in the world; it is logical for v. 9 to speak of its entering the world; (b) in other passages Jesus is described as “coming into the world” (6:14; 9:39; 11:27; 16:28) and in 12:46 Jesus says: ἐγὼ φῶς εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἐλήλυθα (egō phōs eis ton kosmon elēlutha); (c) use of a periphrastic participle with the imperfect tense is typical Johannine style: 1:28; 2:6; 3:23; 10:40; 11:1; 13:23; 18:18 and 25. In every one of these except 13:23 the finite verb is first and separated by one or more intervening words from the participle.sn In v. 9 the world (κόσμος, kosmos) is mentioned for the first time. This is another important theme word for John. Generally, the world as a Johannine concept does not refer to the totality of creation (the universe), although there are exceptions at 11:9. 17:5, 24; 21:25, but to the world of human beings and human affairs. Even in 1:10 the world created through the Logos is a world capable of knowing (or reprehensibly not knowing) its Creator. Sometimes the world is further qualified as this world (ὁ κόσμος οὗτος, ho kosmos houtos) as in 8:23; 9:39; 11:9; 12:25, 31; 13:1; 16:11; 18:36. This is not merely equivalent to the rabbinic phrase “this present age” (ὁ αἰών οὗτος, ho aiōn houtos) and contrasted with “the world to come.” For John it is also contrasted to a world other than this one, already existing; this is the lower world, corresponding to which there is a world above (see especially 8:23; 18:36). Jesus appears not only as the Messiah by means of whom an eschatological future is anticipated (as in the synoptic gospels) but also as an envoy from the heavenly world to this world.
- John 1:10 tn Or “was made”; Grk “came into existence.”
- John 1:10 tn Grk “and,” but in context this is an adversative use of καί (kai) and is thus translated “but.”
- John 1:10 tn Or “know.”
- John 1:11 tn Grk “to his own things.”
- John 1:11 tn Grk “and,” but in context this is an adversative use of καί (kai) and is thus translated “but.”
- John 1:11 tn “People” is not in the Greek text but is implied.
- John 1:11 sn His own people did not receive him. There is a subtle irony here: When the λόγος (logos) came into the world, he came to his own (τὰ ἴδια, ta idia, literally “his own things”) and his own people (οἱ ἴδιοι, hoi idioi), who should have known and received him, but they did not. This time John does not say that “his own” did not know him, but that they did not receive him (παρέλαβον, parelabon). The idea is one not of mere recognition, but of acceptance and welcome.
- John 1:12 tn On the use of the πιστεύω + εἰς (pisteuō + eis) construction in John: The verb πιστεύω occurs 98 times in John (compared to 11 times in Matthew, 14 times in Mark [including the longer ending], and 9 times in Luke). One of the unsolved mysteries is why the corresponding noun form πίστις (pistis) is never used at all. Many have held the noun was in use in some pre-Gnostic sects and this rendered it suspect for John. It might also be that for John, faith was an activity, something that men do (cf. W. Turner, “Believing and Everlasting Life—A Johannine Inquiry,” ExpTim 64 [1952/53]: 50-52). John uses πιστεύω in 4 major ways: (1) of believing facts, reports, etc., 12 times; (2) of believing people (or the scriptures), 19 times; (3) of believing “in” Christ” (πιστεύω + εἰς + acc.), 36 times; (4) used absolutely without any person or object specified, 30 times (the one remaining passage is 2:24, where Jesus refused to “trust” himself to certain individuals). Of these, the most significant is the use of πιστεύω with εἰς + accusative. It is not unlike the Pauline ἐν Χριστῷ (en Christō) formula. Some have argued that this points to a Hebrew (more likely Aramaic) original behind the Fourth Gospel. But it probably indicates something else, as C. H. Dodd observed: “πιστεύειν with the dative so inevitably connoted simple credence, in the sense of an intellectual judgment, that the moral element of personal trust or reliance inherent in the Hebrew or Aramaic phrase—an element integral to the primitive Christian conception of faith in Christ—needed to be otherwise expressed” (The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel, 183).
- John 1:13 tn The Greek term translated “born” here also involves conception.
- John 1:13 tn Grk “of blood(s).” The plural αἱμάτων (haimatōn) has seemed a problem to many interpreters. At least some sources in antiquity imply that blood was thought of as being important in the development of the fetus during its time in the womb: thus Wis 7:1: “in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh, within the period of 10 months, compacted with blood, from the seed of a man and the pleasure of marriage.” In John 1:13, the plural αἱμάτων may imply the action of both parents. It may also refer to the “genetic” contribution of both parents, and so be equivalent to “human descent” (see BDAG 26 s.v. αἷμα 1.a). E. C. Hoskyns thinks John could not have used the singular here because Christians are in fact ‘begotten’ by the blood of Christ (The Fourth Gospel, 143), although the context would seem to make it clear that the blood in question is something other than the blood of Christ.
- John 1:13 tn Or “of the will of the flesh.” The phrase οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκός (oude ek thelēmatos sarkos) is more clearly a reference to sexual desire, but it should be noted that σάρξ (sarx) in John does not convey the evil sense common in Pauline usage. For John it refers to the physical nature in its weakness rather than in its sinfulness. There is no clearer confirmation of this than the immediately following verse, where the λόγος (logos) became σάρξ.
- John 1:13 tn Or “man’s.”
- John 1:13 tn The third phrase, οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός (oude ek thelēmatos andros), means much the same as the second one. The word here (ἀνηρ, anēr) is often used for a husband, resulting in the translation “or a husband’s decision,” or more generally, “or of any human volition whatsoever.” L. Morris may be right when he sees here an emphasis directed at the Jewish pride in race and patriarchal ancestry, although such a specific reference is difficult to prove (John [NICNT], 101).
- John 1:14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic, the incarnation of the Word. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
- John 1:14 tn This looks at the Word incarnate in humility and weakness; the word σάρξ (sarx) does not carry overtones of sinfulness here as it frequently does in Pauline usage. See also John 3:6.
- John 1:14 tn Grk “and tabernacled.”sn The Greek word translated took up residence (σκηνόω, skēnoō) alludes to the OT tabernacle, where the Shekinah, the visible glory of God’s presence, resided. The author is suggesting that this glory can now be seen in Jesus (note the following verse). The verb used here may imply that the Shekinah glory that once was found in the tabernacle has taken up residence in the person of Jesus. Cf. also John 2:19-21. The Word became flesh. This verse constitutes the most concise statement of the incarnation in the New Testament. John 1:1 makes it clear that the Logos was fully God, but 1:14 makes it clear that he was also fully human. A Docetic interpretation is completely ruled out. Here for the first time the Logos of 1:1 is identified as Jesus of Nazareth—the two are one and the same. Thus this is the last time the word logos is used in the Fourth Gospel to refer to the second person of the Trinity. From here on it is Jesus of Nazareth who is the focus of John’s Gospel.
- John 1:14 tn Grk “and we saw.”
- John 1:14 tn Or “of the unique one.” Although this word is often translated “only begotten,” such a translation is misleading, since in English it appears to express a metaphysical relationship. The word in Greek was used of an only child (a son [Luke 7:12; 9:38] or a daughter [Luke 8:42]). It was also used of something unique (only one of its kind) such as the mythological Phoenix (1 Clem. 25:2). From here it passes easily to a description of Isaac (Heb 11:17 and Josephus, Ant., 1.13.1 [1.222]) who was not Abraham’s only son, but was one-of-a-kind because he was the child of the promise. Thus the word means “one-of-a-kind” and is reserved for Jesus in the Johannine literature of the NT. While all Christians are children of God, Jesus is God’s Son in a unique, one-of-a-kind sense. The word is used in this way in all its uses in the Gospel of John (1:14; 1:18; 3:16, and 3:18).
- John 1:15 sn John refers to John the Baptist.
- John 1:15 tn Or “bore witness.”
- John 1:15 tn Grk “and shouted out saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
- John 1:15 tn Or “has a higher rank than I.”
- John 1:16 tn Grk “for from his fullness we have all received, and grace upon grace.” The meaning of the phrase χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος (charin anti charitos) could be: (1) love (grace) under the New Covenant in place of love (grace) under the Sinai Covenant, thus replacement; (2) grace “on top of” grace, thus accumulation; (3) grace corresponding to grace, thus correspondence. The most commonly held view is (2) in one sense or another, and this is probably the best explanation. This sense is supported by a fairly well-known use in Philo, Posterity 43 (145). Morna D. Hooker suggested that Exod 33:13 provides the background for this expression: “Now therefore, I pray you, if I have found χάρις (LXX) in your sight, let me know your ways, that I may know you, so that I may find χάρις (LXX) in your sight.” Hooker proposed that it is this idea of favor given to one who has already received favor which lies behind 1:16, and this seems very probable as a good explanation of the meaning of the phrase (“The Johannine Prologue and the Messianic Secret,” NTS 21 [1974/75]: 53).sn Earlier commentators (including Origen and Luther) took the words For we have all received from his fullness one gracious gift after another to be John the Baptist’s. Most modern commentators take them as the words of the author.
- John 1:17 tn “But” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the implied contrast between the Mosaic law and grace through Jesus Christ. John 1:17 seems to indicate clearly that the Old Covenant (Sinai) was being contrasted with the New. In Jewish sources the Law was regarded as a gift from God (Josephus, Ant. 3.8.10 [3.223]; Pirqe Avot 1.1; Sifre Deut 31:4 §305). Further information can be found in T. F. Glasson, Moses in the Fourth Gospel (SBT).
- John 1:18 tc The textual problem μονογενὴς θεός (monogenēs theos, “the only God”) versus ὁ μονογενὴς υἱός (ho monogenēs huios, “the only son”) is a notoriously difficult one. Only one letter would have differentiated the readings in the mss, since both words would have been contracted as nomina sacra: thus qMs or uMs. Externally, there are several variants, but they can be grouped essentially by whether they read θεός or υἱός. The majority of mss, especially the later ones (A C3 Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat), read ὁ μονογενὴς υἱός. P75 א1 33 have ὁ μονογενὴς θεός, while the anarthrous μονογενὴς θεός is found in P66 א* B C* L. The articular θεός is almost certainly a scribal emendation to the anarthrous θεός, for θεός without the article is a much harder reading. The external evidence thus strongly supports μονογενὴς θεός. Internally, although υἱός fits the immediate context more readily, θεός is much more difficult. As well, θεός also explains the origin of the other reading (υἱός), because it is difficult to see why a scribe who found υἱός in the text he was copying would alter it to θεός. Scribes would naturally change the wording to υἱός however, since μονογενὴς υἱός is a uniquely Johannine christological title (cf. John 3:16, 18; 1 John 4:9). But θεός as the older and more difficult reading is preferred. As for translation, it makes the most sense to see the word θεός as in apposition to μονογενής, and the participle ὁ ὤν (ho ōn) as in apposition to θεός, giving in effect three descriptions of Jesus rather than only two. (B. D. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, 81, suggests that it is nearly impossible and completely unattested in the NT for an adjective followed immediately by a noun that agrees in gender, number, and case, to be a substantival adjective: “when is an adjective ever used substantivally when it immediately precedes a noun of the same inflection?” This, however, is an overstatement. First, as Ehrman admits, μονογενής in John 1:14 is substantival. And since it is an established usage for the adjective in this context, one might well expect that the author would continue to use the adjective substantivally four verses later. Indeed, μονογενής is already moving toward a crystallized substantival adjective in the NT [cf. Luke 9:38; Heb 11:17]; in patristic Greek, the process continued [cf. PGL 881 s.v. 7]. Second, there are several instances in the NT in which a substantival adjective is followed by a noun with which it has complete concord: cf., e.g., Rom 1:30; Gal 3:9; 1 Tim 1:9; 2 Pet 2:5.) The modern translations which best express this are the NEB (margin) and TEV. Several things should be noted: μονογενής alone, without υἱός, can mean “only son,” “unique son,” “unique one,” etc. (see 1:14). Furthermore, θεός is anarthrous. As such it carries qualitative force much like it does in 1:1c, where θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος (theos ēn ho logos) means “the Word was fully God” or “the Word was fully of the essence of deity.” Finally, ὁ ὤν occurs in Rev 1:4, 8; 4:8; 11:17; and 16:5, but even more significantly in the LXX of Exod 3:14. Putting all of this together leads to the translation given in the text.tn Or “The unique one.” For the meaning of μονογενής (monogenēs) see the note on “one and only” in 1:14.
- John 1:18 tn Grk “in the bosom of” (an idiom for closeness or nearness; cf. L&N 34.18; BDAG 556 s.v. κόλπος 1).
- John 1:18 tn Grk “him”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:18 sn Has made God known. In this final verse of the prologue, the climactic and ultimate statement of the earthly career of the Logos, Jesus of Nazareth, is reached. The unique One (John 1:14), the One who has taken on human form and nature by becoming incarnate (became flesh, 1:14), who is himself fully God (the Word was God, 1:1c) and is to be identified with the ever-living One of the Old Testament revelation (Exod 3:14), who is in intimate relationship with the Father, this One and no other has fully revealed what God is like. As Jesus said to Philip in John 14:9, “The one who has seen me has seen the Father.”
- John 1:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
- John 1:19 tn Grk “is.”
- John 1:19 sn John’s refers to John the Baptist.
- John 1:19 tn Or “witness.”sn John the Baptist’s testimony seems to take place over 3 days: day 1, John’s testimony about his own role is largely negative (1:19-28); day 2, John gives positive testimony about who Jesus is (1:29-34); day 3, John sends his own disciples to follow Jesus (1:35-40).
- John 1:19 tn Or “the Jewish authorities”; Grk “the Jews.” In NT usage the term ᾿Ιουδαῖοι (Ioudaioi) may refer to the entire Jewish people, the residents of Jerusalem and surrounding territory, the authorities in Jerusalem, or merely those who were hostile to Jesus. Here the author refers to the authorities or leaders in Jerusalem. (For further information see R. G. Bratcher, “‘The Jews’ in the Gospel of John,” BT 26 : 401-9.)
- John 1:19 tc ‡ Several significant witnesses have πρὸς αὐτόν (pros auton, “to him”) either here (B C* 33 892c al it) or after “Levites” (P66c vid A Θ Ψ ƒ13 579 al lat), while the earliest mss as well as the majority of mss (P66*,75 א C3 L Ws ƒ1 M) lack the phrase. On the one hand, πρὸς αὐτόν could be perceived as redundant since αὐτόν is used again later in the verse, thus prompting scribes to omit the phrase. On the other hand, both the variation in placement of πρὸς αὐτόν and the fact that this phrase rather than the latter αὐτόν is lacking in certain witnesses (cf. John 11:44; 14:7; 18:31), suggests that scribes felt that the sentence needed the phrase to make the sense clearer. Although a decision is difficult, the shorter reading is slightly preferred. NA28 has πρὸς αὐτόν in brackets, indicating doubt as to the phrase’s authenticity.
- John 1:19 sn “Who are you?” No uniform Jewish expectation of a single eschatological figure existed in the 1st century. A majority expected the Messiah. But some pseudepigraphic books describe God’s intervention without mentioning the anointed Davidic king; in parts of 1 Enoch, for example, the figure of the Son of Man, not the Messiah, embodies the expectations of the author. Essenes at Qumran seem to have expected three figures: a prophet, a priestly messiah, and a royal messiah. In baptizing, John the Baptist was performing an eschatological action. It also seems to have been part of his proclamation (John 1:23, 26-27). Crowds were beginning to follow him. He was operating in an area not too far from the Essene center on the Dead Sea. No wonder the authorities were curious about who he was.
- John 1:20 tn Or “the Messiah” (Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “one who has been anointed”).sn “I am not the Christ.” A 3rd century work, the pseudo-Clementine Recognitions (1.54 and 1.60 in the Latin text; the statement is not as clear in the Syriac version) records that John’s followers proclaimed him to be the Messiah. There is no clear evidence that they did so in the 1st century, however—but Luke 3:15 indicates some wondered. Concerning the Christ, the term χριστός (christos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
- John 1:21 tn Grk “What then?” (an idiom).
- John 1:21 sn According to the 1st century rabbinic interpretation of 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah. How does one reconcile John the Baptist’s denial here (“I am not”) with Jesus’ statements in Matt 11:14 (see also Mark 9:13 and Matt 17:12) that John the Baptist was Elijah? Some have attempted to remove the difficulty by a reconstruction of the text in the Gospel of John which makes the Baptist say that he was Elijah. However, external support for such emendations is lacking. According to Gregory the Great, John was not Elijah, but exercised toward Jesus the function of Elijah by preparing his way. But this avoids the real difficulty, since in John’s Gospel the question of the Jewish authorities to the Baptist concerns precisely his function. It has also been suggested that the author of the Gospel here preserves a historically correct reminiscence—that John the Baptist did not think of himself as Elijah, although Jesus said otherwise. Mark 6:14-16 and Mark 8:28 indicate the people and Herod both distinguished between John and Elijah—probably because he did not see himself as Elijah. But Jesus’ remarks in Matt 11:14, Mark 9:13, and Matt 17:12 indicate that John did perform the function of Elijah—John did for Jesus what Elijah was to have done for the coming of the Lord. C. F. D. Moule pointed out that it is too simple to see a straight contradiction between John’s account and that of the synoptic gospels: “We have to ask by whom the identification is made, and by whom refused. The synoptic gospels represent Jesus as identifying, or comparing, the Baptist with Elijah, while John represents the Baptist as rejecting the identification when it is offered him by his interviewers. Now these two, so far from being incompatible, are psychologically complementary. The Baptist humbly rejects the exalted title, but Jesus, on the contrary, bestows it on him. Why should not the two both be correct?” (The Phenomenon of the New Testament [SBT], 70).
- John 1:21 sn The Prophet is a reference to the “prophet like Moses” of Deut 18:15, by this time an eschatological figure in popular belief. Acts 3:22 identifies Jesus as this prophet.
- John 1:22 tn The words “Tell us” are not in the Greek but are implied.
- John 1:23 tn Grk “He”; the referent (John the Baptist) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:23 sn This call to “make straight” is probably an allusion to preparation through repentance.
- John 1:23 sn A quotation from Isa 40:3.
- John 1:24 sn Pharisees were members of one of the most important and influential religious and political parties of Judaism in the time of Jesus. There were more Pharisees than Sadducees (according to Josephus, Ant. 17.2.4 [17.42] there were more than 6,000 Pharisees at about this time). Pharisees differed with Sadducees on certain doctrines and patterns of behavior. The Pharisees were strict and zealous adherents to the laws of the OT and to numerous additional traditions such as angels and bodily resurrection.
- John 1:24 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
- John 1:25 tn Grk “And they asked him, and said to him”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity, and the phrase has been simplified in the translation to “So they asked John.”
- John 1:25 tn Or “the Messiah” (Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “one who has been anointed”).sn See the note on Christ in 1:20.
- John 1:26 tn Grk “answered them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- John 1:26 tn Or “know.”
- John 1:27 tn Grk “of whom I am not worthy.”sn The humility of John is evident in the statement I am not worthy. This was considered one of the least worthy tasks of a slave, and John did not consider himself worthy to do even that for the one to come, despite the fact he himself was a prophet.
- John 1:27 tn The term refers to the leather strap or thong used to bind a sandal. This is often viewed as a collective singular and translated as a plural, “the straps of his sandals,” but it may be more emphatic to retain the singular here.
- John 1:28 tc Many witnesses ([א2] C2 K T Ψc 083 ƒ1,13 33 pm sa Or) read Βηθαβαρᾷ (Bēthabara, “Bethabara”) instead of Βηθανίᾳ (Bēthania, “Bethany”). But the reading Βηθανίᾳ is strongly supported by P66,75 A B C* L Ws Δ Θ Ψ* 565 579 700 1241 1424 pm latt bo as well as several fathers. Since there is no known Bethany “beyond the Jordan,” it is likely that the name would have been changed to a more etymologically edifying one (Origen mistakenly thought the name Bethabara meant “house of preparation” and for this reason was appropriate in this context; see TCGNT 171 for discussion). On the other hand, both since Origen’s understanding of the Semitic etymology of Bethabara was incorrect, and because Bethany was at least a well-known location in Palestine, mentioned in the Gospels about a dozen times, one has to wonder whether scribes replaced Βηθαβαρᾷ with Βηθανίᾳ. However, if Origen’s understanding of the etymology of the name was representative, scribes may have altered the text in the direction of Bethabara. And even if most scribes were unfamiliar with what the name might signify, that a reading which did not contradict the Gospels’ statements of a Bethany near Jerusalem was already at hand may have been sufficient reason for them to adopt Bethabara. Further, in light of the very strong testimony for Βηθανίᾳ, this reading should be regarded as authentic.
- John 1:28 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity.
- John 1:29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (John) has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:29 sn Gen 22:8 is an important passage in the background of the title Lamb of God as applied to Jesus. In Jewish thought this was held to be a supremely important sacrifice. G. Vermès stated: “For the Palestinian Jew, all lamb sacrifice, and especially the Passover lamb and the Tamid offering, was a memorial of the Akedah with its effects of deliverance, forgiveness of sin and messianic salvation” (Scripture and Tradition in Judaism [StPB], 225).
- John 1:30 tn Or “has a higher rank than I.”
- John 1:31 tn Or “know.”
- John 1:31 sn John the Baptist, who has been so reluctant to elaborate his own role, now more than willingly gives his testimony about Jesus. For the author, the emphasis is totally on John the Baptist as a witness to Jesus. No attention is given to the Baptist’s call to national repentance and very little to his baptizing. Everything is focused on what he has to say about Jesus: so that he could be revealed to Israel.
- John 1:32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events in the narrative. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style generally does not.
- John 1:32 tn Grk “testified, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- John 1:32 sn The phrase like a dove is a descriptive comparison. The Spirit is not a dove, but descended like one in some sort of bodily representation.
- John 1:32 tn Or “from the sky.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context.
- John 1:32 sn John says the Spirit remained on Jesus. The Greek verb μένω (menō) is a favorite Johannine word, used 40 times in the Gospel and 27 times in the Epistles (67 together) against 118 times total in the NT. The general significance of the verb μένω for John is to express the permanency of relationship between Father and Son and Son and believer. Here the use of the word implies that Jesus permanently possesses the Holy Spirit, and because he does, he will dispense the Holy Spirit to others in baptism. Other notes on the dispensation of the Spirit occur at John 3:5 and following (at least implied by the wordplay), John 3:34; 7:38-39, numerous passages in John 14-16 (the Paraclete passages) and John 20:22. Note also the allusion to Isa 42:1—“Behold my servant…my chosen one in whom my soul delights. I have put my Spirit on him.”
- John 1:34 tc ‡ What did John the Baptist declare about Jesus on this occasion? Did he say, “This is the Son of God” (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, houtos estin ho huios tou theou), or “This is the Chosen One of God” (οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, houtos estin ho eklektos tou theou)? The majority of the witnesses, impressive because of their diversity in age and locales, read “This is the Son of God” (so P66,75 A B C L Θ Ψ 0233vid ƒ1,13 33 1241 aur c f l q bo as well as the majority of Byzantine minuscules and many others). Most scholars take this to be sufficient evidence to regard the issue as settled without much of a need to reflect on internal evidence. On the other hand, one of the earliest mss for this verse, P5 (3rd century), evidently read οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἐκλεκτὸς τοῦ θεοῦ. (There is a gap in the ms at the point of the disputed words; it is too large for υἱός especially if written, as it surely would have been, as a nomen sacrum [uMs]. The term ἐκλεκτός was not a nomen sacrum and would have therefore taken up much more space [eklektos]. Given these two variants, there is hardly any question as to what P5 read.) This papyrus has many affinities with א*, which here also has ὁ ἐκλεκτός. In addition to their combined testimony P106vid b e ff2* sys,c also support this reading. P106 is particularly impressive, for it is a second third-century papyrus in support of ὁ ἐκλεκτός. A third reading combines these two: “the elect Son” (electus filius in ff2c sa and a [with slight variation]). Although the evidence for ἐκλεκτός is not as impressive as that for υἱός, the reading is found in early Alexandrian and Western witnesses. Turning to the internal evidence, “the Chosen One” clearly comes out ahead. “Son of God” is a favorite expression of the author (cf. 1:49; 3:18; 5:25; 10:36; 11:4, 27; 19:7; 20:31); further, there are several other references to “his Son,” “the Son,” etc. Scribes would be naturally motivated to change ἐκλεκτός to υἱός since the latter is both a Johannine expression and is, on the surface, richer theologically in 1:34. On the other hand, there is not a sufficient reason for scribes to change υἱός to ἐκλεκτός. The term never occurs in John; even its verbal cognate (ἐκλέγω, eklegō) is never affirmed of Jesus in this Gospel. ἐκλεκτός clearly best explains the rise of υἱός. Further, the third reading (“Chosen Son of God”) is patently a conflation of the other two. It has all the earmarks of adding υἱός to ἐκλεκτός. Thus, ὁ υἱός τοῦ θεοῦ is almost certainly a motivated reading. As R. E. Brown notes (John [AB], 1:57), “On the basis of theological tendency…it is difficult to imagine that Christian scribes would change ‘the Son of God’ to ‘God’s chosen one,’ while a change in the opposite direction would be quite plausible. Harmonization with the Synoptic accounts of the baptism (‘You are [This is] my beloved Son’) would also explain the introduction of ‘the Son of God’ into John; the same phenomenon occurs in vi 69. Despite the weaker textual evidence, therefore, it seems best—with Lagrange, Barrett, Boismard, and others—to accept ‘God’s chosen one’ as original.”
- John 1:35 sn John refers to John the Baptist.
- John 1:35 tn “There” is not in the Greek text but is implied by current English idiom.
- John 1:36 sn This section (1:35-51) is joined to the preceding by the literary expedient of repeating the Baptist’s testimony about Jesus being the Lamb of God (1:36, cf. 1:29). This repeated testimony (1:36) no longer has revelatory value in itself, since it has been given before; its purpose, instead, is to institute a chain reaction which will bring John the Baptist’s disciples to Jesus and make them Jesus’ own disciples.
- John 1:37 tn Grk “his”; the referent (John) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:37 tn Grk “And the two disciples heard him speaking.”
- John 1:37 sn The expression followed Jesus pictures discipleship, which means that to learn from Jesus is to follow him as the guiding priority of one’s life.
- John 1:38 tn Grk “What are you seeking?”
- John 1:38 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
- John 1:39 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:39 tn Grk “said to them.”
- John 1:39 tn Grk “about the tenth hour.” sn About four o’clock in the afternoon. What system of time reckoning is the author using? B. F. Westcott thought John, unlike the synoptic gospels, was using Roman time, which started at midnight (St. John, 282). This would make the time 10 a.m., which would fit here. But later in the Gospel’s Passover account (John 19:14, where the sixth hour is on the “eve of the Passover”) it seems clear the author had to be using Jewish reckoning, which began at 6 a.m. This would make the time here in 1:39 to be 4 p.m. This may be significant: If the hour was late, Andrew and the unnamed disciple probably spent the night in the same house where Jesus was staying, and the events of 1:41-42 took place on the next day. The evidence for Westcott’s view, that the Gospel is using Roman time, is very slim. The Roman reckoning which started at midnight was only used by authorities as legal time (for contracts, official documents, etc.). Otherwise, the Romans too reckoned time from 6 a.m. (e.g., Roman sundials are marked VI, not XII, for noon).
- John 1:40 tn Grk “who heard from John.”
- John 1:40 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:41 tc Most witnesses (א* L Ws M) read πρῶτος (prōtos) here instead of πρῶτον (prōton). The former reading would be a predicate adjective and suggest that Andrew “was the first” person to proselytize another regarding Jesus. The reading preferred, however, is the neuter πρῶτον, used as an adverb (BDAG 893 s.v. πρῶτος 1.a.β.), and it suggests that the first thing that Andrew did was to proselytize Peter. The evidence for this reading is early and weighty: P66,75 א2 A B Θ Ψ 083 ƒ1,13 892 al lat.
- John 1:41 sn Naturally part of Andrew’s concept of the Messiah would have been learned from John the Baptist (v. 40). However, there were a number of different messianic expectations in 1st century Palestine (see the note on “Who are you?” in v. 19), and it would be wrong to assume that what Andrew meant here is the same thing the author means in the purpose statement at the end of the Fourth Gospel, 20:31. The issue here is not whether the disciples’ initial faith in Jesus as Messiah was genuine or not, but whether their concept of who Jesus was grew and developed progressively as they spent time following him, until finally after his resurrection it is affirmed in the climactic statement of John’s Gospel, the affirmation of Thomas in 20:28.
- John 1:41 tn Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “the one who has been anointed.”sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. See the note on Christ in 1:20.
- John 1:42 tn Grk “He brought him”; both referents (Andrew, Simon) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
- John 1:42 tc The reading “Simon, son of John” is well attested in P66,75,106 א B* L 33 it co. The majority of mss (A B2 Ψ ƒ1,13 M) read “Simon, the son of Jonah” here instead, but that is perhaps an assimilation to Matt 16:17.
- John 1:42 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author. Giving Simon the name of Cephas is indicative of the future role he will play. Only John among the gospel writers gives the Greek transliteration (Κηφᾶς, Kēphas) of Simon’s new name, Qéphâ (which is Galilean Aramaic). Neither Πέτρος (Petros) in Greek nor Qéphâ in Aramaic is a normal proper name; it is more like a nickname.
- John 1:43 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Jesus is best taken as the subject of εὑρίσκει (heuriskei), since Peter would scarcely have wanted to go to Galilee.
- John 1:43 sn No explanation is given for why Jesus wanted to set out for Galilee, but probably he wanted to go to the wedding at Cana (about a two day trip).
- John 1:43 tn Grk “and he.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- John 1:43 tn Grk “and Jesus said.”
- John 1:44 sn Although the author thought of the town as in Galilee (12:21), Bethsaida technically was in Gaulanitis (Philip the Tetrarch’s territory) across from Herod’s Galilee. There may have been two places called Bethsaida, or this may merely reflect popular imprecision—locally it was considered part of Galilee, even though it was just east of the Jordan river. This territory was heavily Gentile (which may explain why Andrew and Philip both have Gentile names).
- John 1:44 tn Probably ἀπό (apo) indicates “originally from” in the sense of hometown rather than current residence; Mark 1:21, 29 seems to locate the home of Andrew and Peter at Capernaum. The entire remark (v. 44) amounts to a parenthetical comment by the author.
- John 1:45 sn Nathanael is traditionally identified with Bartholomew (although John never describes him as such). He appears here after Philip; in all lists of the twelve except in Acts 1:13, Bartholomew follows Philip. Also, the Aramaic Bar-tolmai means “son of Tolmai,” the surname; the man almost certainly had another name. Other alternatives than Bartholomew have also been suggested, e.g. James the son of Alphaeus; see C. E. Hill, “The Identity of John’s Nathanael,” JSNT 20 (1998): 45-61.
- John 1:45 tn “Also” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
- John 1:46 tn Grk “And Nathanael.”
- John 1:46 tn Grk “said to him.”
- John 1:46 sn Can anything good come out of Nazareth? may be a local proverb expressing jealousy among the towns.
- John 1:46 tn Grk “And Philip said to him.”
- John 1:47 tn Grk “said about him.”
- John 1:47 tn Or “treachery.”sn An allusion to Ps 32:2.
- John 1:48 tn Grk “answered and said to him.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation to “replied.”
- John 1:48 sn Many have speculated about what Nathanael was doing under the fig tree. Meditating on the Messiah who was to come? A good possibility, since the fig tree was used as shade for teaching or studying by the later rabbis (Ecclesiastes Rabbah 5:11). Also, the fig tree was symbolic for messianic peace and plenty (Mic 4:4, Zech 3:10.)
- John 1:49 tn Although βασιλεύς (basileus) lacks the article it is definite due to contextual and syntactical considerations. See ExSyn 263.
- John 1:49 sn Nathanael’s confession—You are the Son of God; you are the King of Israel—is best understood as a confession of Jesus’ messiahship. It has strong allusions to Ps 2:6-7, a well-known messianic psalm. What Nathanael’s exact understanding was at this point is hard to determine, but “son of God” was a designation for the Davidic king in the OT, and Nathanael parallels it with King of Israel here.
- John 1:50 tn Grk “answered and said to him.” This has been simplified in the translation to “said to him.”
- John 1:50 sn What are the greater things Jesus had in mind? In the narrative this forms an excellent foreshadowing of the miraculous signs which began at Cana of Galilee.
- John 1:51 tn Grk “and he said to him.”
- John 1:51 tn Grk “Truly, truly, I say to you.”
- John 1:51 sn The title Son of Man appears 13 times in John’s Gospel. It is associated especially with the themes of crucifixion (3:14; 8:28), revelation (6:27; 6:53), and eschatological authority (5:27; 9:35). The title as used in John’s Gospel has for its background the son of man figure who appears in Dan 7:13-14 and is granted universal regal authority. Thus for the author, the emphasis in this title is not on Jesus’ humanity, but on his heavenly origin and divine authority.