New American Bible (Revised Edition)
6 Who,[a] though he was in the form of God,(A)
did not regard equality with God something to be grasped.[b]
7 Rather, he emptied himself,
taking the form of a slave,
coming in human likeness;[c]
and found human in appearance,(B)
8 he humbled himself,(C)
becoming obedient to death,
even death on a cross.[d]
9 Because of this, God greatly exalted him
and bestowed on him the name[e]
that is above every name,(D)
10 that at the name of Jesus
every knee should bend,[f]
of those in heaven and on earth and under the earth,(E)
11 and every tongue confess that
Jesus Christ is Lord,[g]
to the glory of God the Father.(F)
Obedience and Service in the World.[h]Read full chapter
- 2:6–11 Perhaps an early Christian hymn quoted here by Paul. The short rhythmic lines fall into two parts, Phil 2:6–8 where the subject of every verb is Christ, and Phil 2:9–11 where the subject is God. The general pattern is thus of Christ’s humiliation and then exaltation. More precise analyses propose a division into six three-line stanzas (Phil 2:6; 7abc, 7d–8, 9, 10, 11) or into three stanzas (Phil 2:6–7ab, 7cd–8, 9–11). Phrases such as even death on a cross (Phil 2:8c) are considered by some to be additions (by Paul) to the hymn, as are Phil 2:10c, 11c.
- 2:6 Either a reference to Christ’s preexistence and those aspects of divinity that he was willing to give up in order to serve in human form, or to what the man Jesus refused to grasp at to attain divinity. Many see an allusion to the Genesis story: unlike Adam, Jesus, though…in the form of God (Gn 1:26–27), did not reach out for equality with God, in contrast with the first Adam in Gn 3:5–6.
- 2:7 Taking the form of a slave, coming in human likeness: or “…taking the form of a slave. Coming in human likeness, and found human in appearance.” While it is common to take Phil 2:6, 7 as dealing with Christ’s preexistence and Phil 2:8 with his incarnate life, so that lines Phil 2:7b, 7c are parallel, it is also possible to interpret so as to exclude any reference to preexistence (see note on Phil 2:6) and to take Phil 2:6–8 as presenting two parallel stanzas about Jesus’ human state (Phil 2:6–7b; 7cd–8); in the latter alternative, coming in human likeness begins the second stanza and parallels 6a to some extent.
- 2:8 There may be reflected here language about the servant of the Lord, Is 52:13–53:12 especially Is 53:12.
- 2:9 The name: “Lord” (Phil 2:11), revealing the true nature of the one who is named.
- 2:10–11 Every knee should bend…every tongue confess: into this language of Is 45:23 there has been inserted a reference to the three levels in the universe, according to ancient thought, heaven, earth, under the earth.
- 2:11 Jesus Christ is Lord: a common early Christian acclamation; cf. 1 Cor 12:3; Rom 10:9. But doxology to God the Father is not overlooked here (Phil 2:11c) in the final version of the hymn.
- 2:12–18 Paul goes on to draw out further ethical implications for daily life (Phil 2:14–18) from the salvation God works in Christ.