The Passover

The Lord spoke to Moses in the Desert of Sinai in the first month(A) of the second year after they came out of Egypt.(B) He said, “Have the Israelites celebrate the Passover(C) at the appointed time.(D) Celebrate it at the appointed time, at twilight on the fourteenth day of this month,(E) in accordance with all its rules and regulations.(F)

So Moses told the Israelites to celebrate the Passover,(G) and they did so in the Desert of Sinai(H) at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month.(I) The Israelites did everything just as the Lord commanded Moses.(J)

But some of them could not celebrate the Passover on that day because they were ceremonially unclean(K) on account of a dead body.(L) So they came to Moses and Aaron(M) that same day and said to Moses, “We have become unclean because of a dead body, but why should we be kept from presenting the Lord’s offering with the other Israelites at the appointed time?(N)

Moses answered them, “Wait until I find out what the Lord commands concerning you.”(O)

Then the Lord said to Moses, 10 “Tell the Israelites: ‘When any of you or your descendants are unclean because of a dead body(P) or are away on a journey, they are still to celebrate(Q) the Lord’s Passover, 11 but they are to do it on the fourteenth day of the second month(R) at twilight. They are to eat the lamb, together with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.(S) 12 They must not leave any of it till morning(T) or break any of its bones.(U) When they celebrate the Passover, they must follow all the regulations.(V) 13 But if anyone who is ceremonially clean and not on a journey fails to celebrate the Passover, they must be cut off from their people(W) for not presenting the Lord’s offering at the appointed time. They will bear the consequences of their sin.

14 “‘A foreigner(X) residing among you is also to celebrate the Lord’s Passover in accordance with its rules and regulations. You must have the same regulations for both the foreigner and the native-born.’”

The Cloud Above the Tabernacle

15 On the day the tabernacle, the tent of the covenant law,(Y) was set up,(Z) the cloud(AA) covered it. From evening till morning the cloud above the tabernacle looked like fire.(AB) 16 That is how it continued to be; the cloud covered it, and at night it looked like fire.(AC) 17 Whenever the cloud lifted from above the tent, the Israelites set out;(AD) wherever the cloud settled, the Israelites encamped.(AE) 18 At the Lord’s command the Israelites set out, and at his command they encamped. As long as the cloud stayed over the tabernacle, they remained(AF) in camp. 19 When the cloud remained over the tabernacle a long time, the Israelites obeyed the Lord’s order(AG) and did not set out.(AH) 20 Sometimes the cloud was over the tabernacle only a few days; at the Lord’s command they would encamp, and then at his command they would set out. 21 Sometimes the cloud stayed only from evening till morning, and when it lifted in the morning, they set out. Whether by day or by night, whenever the cloud lifted, they set out. 22 Whether the cloud stayed over the tabernacle for two days or a month or a year, the Israelites would remain in camp and not set out; but when it lifted, they would set out. 23 At the Lord’s command they encamped, and at the Lord’s command they set out. They obeyed the Lord’s order, in accordance with his command through Moses.

The Silver Trumpets

10 The Lord said to Moses: “Make two trumpets(AI) of hammered silver, and use them for calling the community(AJ) together and for having the camps set out.(AK) When both are sounded, the whole community is to assemble before you at the entrance to the tent of meeting. If only one is sounded, the leaders(AL)—the heads of the clans of Israel—are to assemble before you. When a trumpet blast is sounded, the tribes camping on the east are to set out.(AM) At the sounding of a second blast, the camps on the south are to set out.(AN) The blast will be the signal for setting out. To gather the assembly, blow the trumpets,(AO) but not with the signal for setting out.(AP)

“The sons of Aaron, the priests, are to blow the trumpets. This is to be a lasting ordinance for you and the generations to come.(AQ) When you go into battle in your own land against an enemy who is oppressing you,(AR) sound a blast on the trumpets.(AS) Then you will be remembered(AT) by the Lord your God and rescued from your enemies.(AU) 10 Also at your times of rejoicing—your appointed festivals and New Moon feasts(AV)—you are to sound the trumpets(AW) over your burnt offerings(AX) and fellowship offerings,(AY) and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the Lord your God.(AZ)

The Israelites Leave Sinai

11 On the twentieth day of the second month of the second year,(BA) the cloud lifted(BB) from above the tabernacle of the covenant law.(BC) 12 Then the Israelites set out from the Desert of Sinai and traveled from place to place until the cloud came to rest in the Desert of Paran.(BD) 13 They set out, this first time, at the Lord’s command through Moses.(BE)

14 The divisions of the camp of Judah went first, under their standard.(BF) Nahshon son of Amminadab(BG) was in command. 15 Nethanel son of Zuar was over the division of the tribe(BH) of Issachar,(BI) 16 and Eliab son of Helon(BJ) was over the division of the tribe of Zebulun.(BK) 17 Then the tabernacle was taken down, and the Gershonites and Merarites, who carried it, set out.(BL)

18 The divisions of the camp of Reuben(BM) went next, under their standard.(BN) Elizur son of Shedeur(BO) was in command. 19 Shelumiel son of Zurishaddai was over the division of the tribe of Simeon,(BP) 20 and Eliasaph son of Deuel was over the division of the tribe of Gad.(BQ) 21 Then the Kohathites(BR) set out, carrying the holy things.(BS) The tabernacle was to be set up before they arrived.(BT)

22 The divisions of the camp of Ephraim(BU) went next, under their standard. Elishama son of Ammihud(BV) was in command. 23 Gamaliel son of Pedahzur was over the division of the tribe of Manasseh,(BW) 24 and Abidan son of Gideoni was over the division of the tribe of Benjamin.(BX)

25 Finally, as the rear guard(BY) for all the units, the divisions of the camp of Dan set out under their standard. Ahiezer son of Ammishaddai(BZ) was in command. 26 Pagiel son of Okran was over the division of the tribe of Asher,(CA) 27 and Ahira son of Enan was over the division of the tribe of Naphtali.(CB) 28 This was the order of march for the Israelite divisions as they set out.

29 Now Moses said to Hobab(CC) son of Reuel(CD) the Midianite, Moses’ father-in-law,(CE) “We are setting out for the place about which the Lord said, ‘I will give it to you.’(CF) Come with us and we will treat you well, for the Lord has promised good things to Israel.”

30 He answered, “No, I will not go;(CG) I am going back to my own land and my own people.(CH)

31 But Moses said, “Please do not leave us. You know where we should camp in the wilderness, and you can be our eyes.(CI) 32 If you come with us, we will share with you(CJ) whatever good things the Lord gives us.(CK)

33 So they set out(CL) from the mountain of the Lord and traveled for three days. The ark of the covenant of the Lord(CM) went before them during those three days to find them a place to rest.(CN) 34 The cloud of the Lord was over them by day when they set out from the camp.(CO)

35 Whenever the ark set out, Moses said,

“Rise up,(CP) Lord!
    May your enemies be scattered;(CQ)
    may your foes flee before you.(CR)(CS)

36 Whenever it came to rest, he said,

“Return,(CT) Lord,
    to the countless thousands of Israel.(CU)

Fire From the Lord

11 Now the people complained(CV) about their hardships in the hearing of the Lord,(CW) and when he heard them his anger was aroused.(CX) Then fire from the Lord burned among them(CY) and consumed(CZ) some of the outskirts of the camp. When the people cried out to Moses, he prayed(DA) to the Lord(DB) and the fire died down. So that place was called Taberah,[a](DC) because fire from the Lord had burned among them.(DD)

Quail From the Lord

The rabble with them began to crave other food,(DE) and again the Israelites started wailing(DF) and said, “If only we had meat to eat! We remember the fish we ate in Egypt at no cost—also the cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions and garlic.(DG) But now we have lost our appetite; we never see anything but this manna!(DH)

The manna was like coriander seed(DI) and looked like resin.(DJ) The people went around gathering it,(DK) and then ground it in a hand mill or crushed it in a mortar. They cooked it in a pot or made it into loaves. And it tasted like something made with olive oil. When the dew(DL) settled on the camp at night, the manna also came down.

10 Moses heard the people of every family wailing(DM) at the entrance to their tents. The Lord became exceedingly angry, and Moses was troubled. 11 He asked the Lord, “Why have you brought this trouble(DN) on your servant? What have I done to displease you that you put the burden of all these people on me?(DO) 12 Did I conceive all these people? Did I give them birth? Why do you tell me to carry them in my arms, as a nurse carries an infant,(DP) to the land you promised on oath(DQ) to their ancestors?(DR) 13 Where can I get meat for all these people?(DS) They keep wailing to me, ‘Give us meat to eat!’ 14 I cannot carry all these people by myself; the burden is too heavy for me.(DT) 15 If this is how you are going to treat me, please go ahead and kill me(DU)—if I have found favor in your eyes—and do not let me face my own ruin.”

16 The Lord said to Moses: “Bring me seventy of Israel’s elders(DV) who are known to you as leaders and officials among the people.(DW) Have them come to the tent of meeting,(DX) that they may stand there with you. 17 I will come down and speak with you(DY) there, and I will take some of the power of the Spirit that is on you and put it on them.(DZ) They will share the burden of the people with you so that you will not have to carry it alone.(EA)

18 “Tell the people: ‘Consecrate yourselves(EB) in preparation for tomorrow, when you will eat meat. The Lord heard you when you wailed,(EC) “If only we had meat to eat! We were better off in Egypt!”(ED) Now the Lord will give you meat,(EE) and you will eat it. 19 You will not eat it for just one day, or two days, or five, ten or twenty days, 20 but for a whole month—until it comes out of your nostrils and you loathe it(EF)—because you have rejected the Lord,(EG) who is among you, and have wailed before him, saying, “Why did we ever leave Egypt?”’”(EH)

21 But Moses said, “Here I am among six hundred thousand men(EI) on foot, and you say, ‘I will give them meat to eat for a whole month!’ 22 Would they have enough if flocks and herds were slaughtered for them? Would they have enough if all the fish in the sea were caught for them?”(EJ)

23 The Lord answered Moses, “Is the Lord’s arm too short?(EK) Now you will see whether or not what I say will come true for you.(EL)

24 So Moses went out and told the people what the Lord had said. He brought together seventy of their elders and had them stand around the tent. 25 Then the Lord came down in the cloud(EM) and spoke with him,(EN) and he took some of the power of the Spirit(EO) that was on him and put it on the seventy elders.(EP) When the Spirit rested on them, they prophesied(EQ)—but did not do so again.

26 However, two men, whose names were Eldad and Medad, had remained in the camp. They were listed among the elders, but did not go out to the tent. Yet the Spirit also rested on them,(ER) and they prophesied in the camp. 27 A young man ran and told Moses, “Eldad and Medad are prophesying in the camp.”

28 Joshua son of Nun,(ES) who had been Moses’ aide(ET) since youth, spoke up and said, “Moses, my lord, stop them!”(EU)

29 But Moses replied, “Are you jealous for my sake? I wish that all the Lord’s people were prophets(EV) and that the Lord would put his Spirit(EW) on them!”(EX) 30 Then Moses and the elders of Israel returned to the camp.

31 Now a wind went out from the Lord and drove quail(EY) in from the sea. It scattered them up to two cubits[b] deep all around the camp, as far as a day’s walk in any direction. 32 All that day and night and all the next day the people went out and gathered quail. No one gathered less than ten homers.[c] Then they spread them out all around the camp. 33 But while the meat was still between their teeth(EZ) and before it could be consumed, the anger(FA) of the Lord burned against the people, and he struck them with a severe plague.(FB) 34 Therefore the place was named Kibroth Hattaavah,[d](FC) because there they buried the people who had craved other food.

35 From Kibroth Hattaavah the people traveled to Hazeroth(FD) and stayed there.

Miriam and Aaron Oppose Moses

12 Miriam(FE) and Aaron began to talk against Moses because of his Cushite wife,(FF) for he had married a Cushite. “Has the Lord spoken only through Moses?” they asked. “Hasn’t he also spoken through us?”(FG) And the Lord heard this.(FH)

(Now Moses was a very humble man,(FI) more humble than anyone else on the face of the earth.)

At once the Lord said to Moses, Aaron and Miriam, “Come out to the tent of meeting, all three of you.” So the three of them went out. Then the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud;(FJ) he stood at the entrance to the tent and summoned Aaron and Miriam. When the two of them stepped forward, he said, “Listen to my words:

“When there is a prophet among you,
    I, the Lord, reveal(FK) myself to them in visions,(FL)
    I speak to them in dreams.(FM)
But this is not true of my servant Moses;(FN)
    he is faithful in all my house.(FO)
With him I speak face to face,
    clearly and not in riddles;(FP)
    he sees the form of the Lord.(FQ)
Why then were you not afraid
    to speak against my servant Moses?”(FR)

The anger of the Lord burned against them,(FS) and he left them.(FT)

10 When the cloud lifted from above the tent,(FU) Miriam’s skin was leprous[e]—it became as white as snow.(FV) Aaron turned toward her and saw that she had a defiling skin disease,(FW) 11 and he said to Moses, “Please, my lord, I ask you not to hold against us the sin we have so foolishly committed.(FX) 12 Do not let her be like a stillborn infant coming from its mother’s womb with its flesh half eaten away.”

13 So Moses cried out to the Lord, “Please, God, heal her!(FY)

14 The Lord replied to Moses, “If her father had spit in her face,(FZ) would she not have been in disgrace for seven days? Confine her outside the camp(GA) for seven days; after that she can be brought back.” 15 So Miriam was confined outside the camp(GB) for seven days,(GC) and the people did not move on till she was brought back.

16 After that, the people left Hazeroth(GD) and encamped in the Desert of Paran.(GE)

Exploring Canaan

13 The Lord said to Moses, “Send some men to explore(GF) the land of Canaan,(GG) which I am giving to the Israelites.(GH) From each ancestral tribe(GI) send one of its leaders.”

So at the Lord’s command Moses sent them out from the Desert of Paran. All of them were leaders of the Israelites.(GJ) These are their names:

from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua son of Zakkur;

from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat son of Hori;

from the tribe of Judah, Caleb son of Jephunneh;(GK)

from the tribe of Issachar, Igal son of Joseph;

from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea son of Nun;(GL)

from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti son of Raphu;

10 from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel son of Sodi;

11 from the tribe of Manasseh (a tribe of Joseph), Gaddi son of Susi;

12 from the tribe of Dan, Ammiel son of Gemalli;

13 from the tribe of Asher, Sethur son of Michael;

14 from the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi son of Vophsi;

15 from the tribe of Gad, Geuel son of Maki.

16 These are the names of the men Moses sent to explore(GM) the land. (Moses gave Hoshea son of Nun(GN) the name Joshua.)(GO)

17 When Moses sent them to explore Canaan,(GP) he said, “Go up through the Negev(GQ) and on into the hill country.(GR) 18 See what the land is like and whether the people who live there are strong or weak, few or many. 19 What kind of land do they live in? Is it good or bad? What kind of towns do they live in? Are they unwalled or fortified? 20 How is the soil? Is it fertile or poor? Are there trees in it or not? Do your best to bring back some of the fruit of the land.(GS)” (It was the season for the first ripe grapes.)(GT)

21 So they went up and explored the land from the Desert of Zin(GU) as far as Rehob,(GV) toward Lebo Hamath.(GW) 22 They went up through the Negev and came to Hebron,(GX) where Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai,(GY) the descendants of Anak,(GZ) lived. (Hebron had been built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.)(HA) 23 When they reached the Valley of Eshkol,[f](HB) they cut off a branch bearing a single cluster of grapes. Two of them carried it on a pole between them, along with some pomegranates(HC) and figs.(HD) 24 That place was called the Valley of Eshkol because of the cluster of grapes the Israelites cut off there. 25 At the end of forty days(HE) they returned from exploring the land.(HF)

Report on the Exploration

26 They came back to Moses and Aaron and the whole Israelite community at Kadesh(HG) in the Desert of Paran.(HH) There they reported to them(HI) and to the whole assembly and showed them the fruit of the land.(HJ) 27 They gave Moses this account: “We went into the land to which you sent us, and it does flow with milk and honey!(HK) Here is its fruit.(HL) 28 But the people who live there are powerful, and the cities are fortified and very large.(HM) We even saw descendants of Anak(HN) there.(HO) 29 The Amalekites(HP) live in the Negev; the Hittites,(HQ) Jebusites(HR) and Amorites(HS) live in the hill country;(HT) and the Canaanites(HU) live near the sea and along the Jordan.(HV)

30 Then Caleb(HW) silenced the people before Moses and said, “We should go up and take possession of the land, for we can certainly do it.”

31 But the men who had gone up with him said, “We can’t attack those people; they are stronger than we are.”(HX) 32 And they spread among the Israelites a bad report(HY) about the land they had explored. They said, “The land we explored devours(HZ) those living in it. All the people we saw there are of great size.(IA) 33 We saw the Nephilim(IB) there (the descendants of Anak(IC) come from the Nephilim). We seemed like grasshoppers(ID) in our own eyes, and we looked the same to them.”

The People Rebel

14 That night all the members of the community raised their voices and wept aloud.(IE) All the Israelites grumbled(IF) against Moses and Aaron, and the whole assembly said to them, “If only we had died in Egypt!(IG) Or in this wilderness!(IH) Why is the Lord bringing us to this land only to let us fall by the sword?(II) Our wives and children(IJ) will be taken as plunder.(IK) Wouldn’t it be better for us to go back to Egypt?(IL) And they said to each other, “We should choose a leader and go back to Egypt.(IM)

Then Moses and Aaron fell facedown(IN) in front of the whole Israelite assembly(IO) gathered there. Joshua son of Nun(IP) and Caleb son of Jephunneh, who were among those who had explored the land, tore their clothes(IQ) and said to the entire Israelite assembly, “The land we passed through and explored is exceedingly good.(IR) If the Lord is pleased with us,(IS) he will lead us into that land, a land flowing with milk and honey,(IT) and will give it to us.(IU) Only do not rebel(IV) against the Lord. And do not be afraid(IW) of the people of the land,(IX) because we will devour them. Their protection is gone, but the Lord is with(IY) us.(IZ) Do not be afraid of them.”(JA)

10 But the whole assembly talked about stoning(JB) them. Then the glory of the Lord(JC) appeared at the tent of meeting to all the Israelites. 11 The Lord said to Moses, “How long will these people treat me with contempt?(JD) How long will they refuse to believe in me,(JE) in spite of all the signs(JF) I have performed among them? 12 I will strike them down with a plague(JG) and destroy them, but I will make you into a nation(JH) greater and stronger than they.”(JI)

13 Moses said to the Lord, “Then the Egyptians will hear about it! By your power you brought these people up from among them.(JJ) 14 And they will tell the inhabitants of this land about it. They have already heard(JK) that you, Lord, are with these people(JL) and that you, Lord, have been seen face to face,(JM) that your cloud stays over them,(JN) and that you go before them in a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night.(JO) 15 If you put all these people to death, leaving none alive, the nations who have heard this report about you will say, 16 ‘The Lord was not able to bring these people into the land he promised them on oath,(JP) so he slaughtered them in the wilderness.’(JQ)

17 “Now may the Lord’s strength be displayed, just as you have declared: 18 ‘The Lord is slow to anger, abounding in love and forgiving sin and rebellion.(JR) Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he punishes the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation.’(JS) 19 In accordance with your great love, forgive(JT) the sin of these people,(JU) just as you have pardoned them from the time they left Egypt until now.”(JV)

20 The Lord replied, “I have forgiven them,(JW) as you asked. 21 Nevertheless, as surely as I live(JX) and as surely as the glory of the Lord(JY) fills the whole earth,(JZ) 22 not one of those who saw my glory and the signs(KA) I performed in Egypt and in the wilderness but who disobeyed me and tested me ten times(KB) 23 not one of them will ever see the land I promised on oath(KC) to their ancestors. No one who has treated me with contempt(KD) will ever see it.(KE) 24 But because my servant Caleb(KF) has a different spirit and follows me wholeheartedly,(KG) I will bring him into the land he went to, and his descendants will inherit it.(KH) 25 Since the Amalekites(KI) and the Canaanites(KJ) are living in the valleys, turn(KK) back tomorrow and set out toward the desert along the route to the Red Sea.[g](KL)

26 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron: 27 “How long will this wicked community grumble against me? I have heard the complaints of these grumbling Israelites.(KM) 28 So tell them, ‘As surely as I live,(KN) declares the Lord, I will do to you(KO) the very thing I heard you say: 29 In this wilderness your bodies will fall(KP)—every one of you twenty years old or more(KQ) who was counted in the census(KR) and who has grumbled against me. 30 Not one of you will enter the land(KS) I swore with uplifted hand(KT) to make your home, except Caleb son of Jephunneh(KU) and Joshua son of Nun.(KV) 31 As for your children that you said would be taken as plunder, I will bring them in to enjoy the land you have rejected.(KW) 32 But as for you, your bodies will fall(KX) in this wilderness. 33 Your children will be shepherds here for forty years,(KY) suffering for your unfaithfulness, until the last of your bodies lies in the wilderness. 34 For forty years(KZ)—one year for each of the forty days you explored the land(LA)—you will suffer for your sins and know what it is like to have me against you.’ 35 I, the Lord, have spoken, and I will surely do these things(LB) to this whole wicked community, which has banded together against me. They will meet their end in this wilderness; here they will die.(LC)

36 So the men Moses had sent(LD) to explore the land, who returned and made the whole community grumble(LE) against him by spreading a bad report(LF) about it— 37 these men who were responsible for spreading the bad report(LG) about the land were struck down and died of a plague(LH) before the Lord. 38 Of the men who went to explore the land,(LI) only Joshua son of Nun and Caleb son of Jephunneh survived.(LJ)

39 When Moses reported this(LK) to all the Israelites, they mourned(LL) bitterly. 40 Early the next morning they set out for the highest point in the hill country,(LM) saying, “Now we are ready to go up to the land the Lord promised. Surely we have sinned!(LN)

41 But Moses said, “Why are you disobeying the Lord’s command? This will not succeed!(LO) 42 Do not go up, because the Lord is not with you. You will be defeated by your enemies,(LP) 43 for the Amalekites(LQ) and the Canaanites(LR) will face you there. Because you have turned away from the Lord, he will not be with you(LS) and you will fall by the sword.”

44 Nevertheless, in their presumption they went up(LT) toward the highest point in the hill country, though neither Moses nor the ark of the Lord’s covenant moved from the camp.(LU) 45 Then the Amalekites and the Canaanites(LV) who lived in that hill country(LW) came down and attacked them and beat them down all the way to Hormah.(LX)


  1. Numbers 11:3 Taberah means burning.
  2. Numbers 11:31 That is, about 3 feet or about 90 centimeters
  3. Numbers 11:32 That is, possibly about 1 3/4 tons or about 1.6 metric tons
  4. Numbers 11:34 Kibroth Hattaavah means graves of craving.
  5. Numbers 12:10 The Hebrew for leprous was used for various diseases affecting the skin.
  6. Numbers 13:23 Eshkol means cluster; also in verse 24.
  7. Numbers 14:25 Or the Sea of Reeds

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