Jesus Teaches the People(A)
5 When Jesus saw the crowds of people there, he went up on a hill and sat down. His followers came and sat next to him. 2 Then Jesus began teaching the people. He said,
3 “Great blessings belong to those who know they are spiritually in need.[a]
God’s kingdom belongs to them.
4 Great blessings belong to those who are sad now.
God will comfort them.
5 Great blessings belong to those who are humble.
They will be given the land God promised.[b]
6 Great blessings belong to those who want to do right more than anything else.[c]
God will fully satisfy them.
7 Great blessings belong to those who show mercy to others.
Mercy will be given to them.
8 Great blessings belong to those whose thoughts are pure.
They will be with God.
9 Great blessings belong to those who work to bring peace.
God will call them his sons and daughters.
10 Great blessings belong to those who suffer persecution for doing what is right.
God’s kingdom belongs to them.
11 “People will insult you and hurt you. They will lie and say all kinds of evil things about you because you follow me. But when they do that, know that great blessings belong to you. 12 Be happy about it. Be very glad because you have a great reward waiting for you in heaven. People did these same bad things to the prophets who lived before you.
You Are Like Salt and Light(B)
13 “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its taste, it cannot be made salty again. Salt is useless if it loses its salty taste. It will be thrown out where people will just walk on it.
14 “You are the light that shines for the world to see. You are like a city built on a hill that cannot be hidden. 15 People don’t hide a lamp under a bowl. They put it on a lampstand. Then the light shines for everyone in the house. 16 In the same way, you should be a light for other people. Live so that they will see the good things you do and praise your Father in heaven.
Jesus and the Old Testament Writings
17 “Don’t think that I have come to destroy the Law of Moses or the teaching of the prophets. I have come not to destroy their teachings but to give full meaning to them. 18 I assure you that nothing will disappear from the law until heaven and earth are gone. The law will not lose even the smallest letter or the smallest part of a letter until it has all been done.
19 “A person should obey every command in the law, even one that does not seem important. Whoever refuses to obey any command and teaches others not to obey it will be the least important in God’s kingdom. But whoever obeys the law and teaches others to obey it will be great in God’s kingdom. 20 I tell you that you must do better than the teachers of the law and the Pharisees. If you are not more pleasing to God than they are, you will never enter God’s kingdom.
Jesus Teaches About Anger
21 “You have heard that it was said to our people long ago, ‘You must not murder anyone.[d] Any person who commits murder will be judged.’ 22 But I tell you, don’t be angry with anyone. If you are angry with others, you will be judged. And if you insult someone, you will be judged by the high court. And if you call someone a fool, you will be in danger of the fire of hell.
23 “So, what if you are offering your gift at the altar and remember that someone has something against you? 24 Leave your gift there and go make peace with that person. Then come and offer your gift.
25 “If anyone wants to take you to court, make friends with them quickly. Try to do that before you get to the court. If you don’t, they might hand you over to the judge. And the judge will hand you over to a guard, who will throw you into jail. 26 I assure you that you will not leave there until you have paid everything you owe.
Jesus Teaches About Sexual Sin
27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You must not commit adultery.’[e] 28 But I tell you that if a man looks at a woman and wants to sin sexually with her, he has already committed that sin with her in his mind. 29 If your right eye makes you sin, take it out and throw it away. It is better to lose one part of your body than to have your whole body thrown into hell. 30 If your right hand makes you sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is better to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell.
Jesus Teaches About Divorce(C)
31 “It was also said, ‘Any man who divorces his wife must give her a written notice of divorce.’[f] 32 But I tell you that any man who divorces his wife, except for the problem of sexual sin, is causing his wife to be guilty of adultery. And whoever marries a divorced woman is guilty of adultery.
Jesus Teaches About Making Promises
33 “You have heard that it was said to our people long ago, ‘When you make a vow, you must not break your promise. Keep the vows that you make to the Lord.’[g] 34 But I tell you, when you make a promise, don’t try to make it stronger with a vow. Don’t make a vow using the name of heaven, because heaven is God’s throne. 35 Don’t make a vow using the name of the earth, because the earth belongs to him.[h] Don’t make a vow using the name of Jerusalem, because it also belongs to him, the great King. 36 And don’t even say that your own head is proof that you will keep your promise. You cannot make one hair on your head white or black. 37 Say only ‘yes’ if you mean ‘yes,’ and say only ‘no’ if you mean ‘no.’ If you say more than that, it is from the Evil One.
Jesus Teaches About Fighting Back(D)
38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’[i] 39 But I tell you, don’t fight back against someone who wants to do harm to you. If they hit you on the right cheek, let them hit the other cheek too. 40 If anyone wants to sue you in court and take your shirt, let them have your coat too. 41 If a soldier forces you to walk with him one mile,[j] go with him two. 42 Give to anyone who asks you for something. Don’t refuse to give to anyone who wants to borrow from you.
Love Your Enemies(E)
43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor[k] and hate your enemy.’ 44 But I tell you, love your enemies. Pray for those who treat you badly. 45 If you do this, you will be children who are truly like your Father in heaven. He lets the sun rise for all people, whether they are good or bad. He sends rain to those who do right and to those who do wrong. 46 If you love only those who love you, why should you get a reward for that? Even the tax collectors do that. 47 And if you are nice only to your friends, you are no better than anyone else. Even the people who don’t know God are nice to their friends. 48 What I am saying is that you must be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.
- Matthew 5:3 those … in need Literally, “the poor in spirit.”
- Matthew 5:5 They will … promised This is the meaning of these words in Ps. 37:11. Here, they probably refer to a spiritual “promised land,” but they can also mean “The earth will belong to them.”
- Matthew 5:6 want … more than anything else Literally, “hunger and thirst for righteousness.”
- Matthew 5:21
Quote from Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17.
- Matthew 5:27
Quote from Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18.
- Matthew 5:31
Quote from Deut. 24:1.
- Matthew 5:33 See Lev. 19:12; Num. 30:2; Deut. 23:21.
- Matthew 5:35 the earth … him Literally, “it is the footstool of his feet.”
- Matthew 5:38
Quote from Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20.
- Matthew 5:41 one mile Literally, “one milion,” about 1.5 km.
- Matthew 5:43
Quote from Lev. 19:18.
New International Version
Introduction to the Sermon on the Mount
5 Now when Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. His disciples came to him, 2 and he began to teach them.
3 “Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.(B)
4 Blessed are those who mourn,
for they will be comforted.(C)
5 Blessed are the meek,
for they will inherit the earth.(D)
6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
for they will be filled.(E)
7 Blessed are the merciful,
for they will be shown mercy.(F)
8 Blessed are the pure in heart,(G)
for they will see God.(H)
9 Blessed are the peacemakers,(I)
for they will be called children of God.(J)
10 Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness,(K)
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.(L)
11 “Blessed are you when people insult you,(M) persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me.(N) 12 Rejoice and be glad,(O) because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.(P)
Salt and Light
13 “You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt loses its saltiness, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled underfoot.(Q)
14 “You are the light of the world.(R) A town built on a hill cannot be hidden. 15 Neither do people light a lamp and put it under a bowl. Instead they put it on its stand, and it gives light to everyone in the house.(S) 16 In the same way, let your light shine before others,(T) that they may see your good deeds(U) and glorify(V) your Father in heaven.
The Fulfillment of the Law
17 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.(W) 18 For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished.(X) 19 Therefore anyone who sets aside one of the least of these commands(Y) and teaches others accordingly will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever practices and teaches these commands will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 For I tell you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the Pharisees and the teachers of the law, you will certainly not enter the kingdom of heaven.(Z)
21 “You have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘You shall not murder,[a](AB) and anyone who murders will be subject to judgment.’ 22 But I tell you that anyone who is angry(AC) with a brother or sister[b][c] will be subject to judgment.(AD) Again, anyone who says to a brother or sister, ‘Raca,’[d] is answerable to the court.(AE) And anyone who says, ‘You fool!’ will be in danger of the fire of hell.(AF)
23 “Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother or sister has something against you, 24 leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to them; then come and offer your gift.
25 “Settle matters quickly with your adversary who is taking you to court. Do it while you are still together on the way, or your adversary may hand you over to the judge, and the judge may hand you over to the officer, and you may be thrown into prison. 26 Truly I tell you, you will not get out until you have paid the last penny.
27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’[e](AG) 28 But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart.(AH) 29 If your right eye causes you to stumble,(AI) gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to stumble,(AJ) cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to go into hell.
31 “It has been said, ‘Anyone who divorces his wife must give her a certificate of divorce.’[f](AK) 32 But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, makes her the victim of adultery, and anyone who marries a divorced woman commits adultery.(AL)
33 “Again, you have heard that it was said to the people long ago, ‘Do not break your oath,(AM) but fulfill to the Lord the vows you have made.’(AN) 34 But I tell you, do not swear an oath at all:(AO) either by heaven, for it is God’s throne;(AP) 35 or by the earth, for it is his footstool; or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the Great King.(AQ) 36 And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make even one hair white or black. 37 All you need to say is simply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’;(AR) anything beyond this comes from the evil one.[g](AS)
Eye for Eye
38 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’[h](AT) 39 But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also.(AU) 40 And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well. 41 If anyone forces you to go one mile, go with them two miles. 42 Give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.(AV)
Love for Enemies
43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘Love your neighbor[i](AW) and hate your enemy.’(AX) 44 But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,(AY) 45 that you may be children(AZ) of your Father in heaven. He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.(BA) 46 If you love those who love you, what reward will you get?(BB) Are not even the tax collectors doing that? 47 And if you greet only your own people, what are you doing more than others? Do not even pagans do that? 48 Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.(BC)
- Matthew 5:21 Exodus 20:13
- Matthew 5:22 The Greek word for brother or sister (adelphos) refers here to a fellow disciple, whether man or woman; also in verse 23.
- Matthew 5:22 Some manuscripts brother or sister without cause
- Matthew 5:22 An Aramaic term of contempt
- Matthew 5:27 Exodus 20:14
- Matthew 5:31 Deut. 24:1
- Matthew 5:37 Or from evil
- Matthew 5:38 Exodus 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21
- Matthew 5:43 Lev. 19:18