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The Plot Against Jesus

26 When[a] Jesus had finished saying all these things, he told his disciples, “You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man will be handed over[b] to be crucified.”[c] Then the chief priests and the elders of the people met together in the palace of the high priest, who was named Caiaphas. They[d] planned to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. But they said, “Not during the feast, so that there won’t be a riot among the people.”[e]

Jesus’ Anointing

Now while Jesus was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper,[f] a woman came to him with an alabaster jar[g] of expensive perfumed oil,[h] and she poured it on his head as he was at the table.[i] When[j] the disciples saw this, they became indignant and said, “Why this waste? It[k] could have been sold at a high price and the money[l] given to the poor!” 10 When[m] Jesus learned of this, he said to them, “Why are you bothering this woman? She[n] has done a good service for me. 11 For you will always have the poor with you, but you will not always have me![o] 12 When[p] she poured this oil on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial. 13 I tell you the truth,[q] wherever this gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her.”

The Plan to Betray Jesus

14 Then one of the twelve, the one named Judas Iscariot, went to the chief priests 15 and said, “What will you give me to betray him into your hands?”[r] So they set out thirty silver coins for him. 16 From that time[s] on, Judas[t] began looking for an opportunity to betray him.

The Passover

17 Now on the first day of the feast of[u] Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus and said,[v] “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”[w] 18 He[x] said, “Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is near. I will observe the Passover with my disciples at your house.”’” 19 So[y] the disciples did as Jesus had instructed them, and they prepared the Passover. 20 When[z] it was evening, he took his place at the table[aa] with the twelve.[ab] 21 And while they were eating he said, “I tell you the truth,[ac] one of you will betray me.”[ad] 22 They[ae] became greatly distressed[af] and each one began to say to him, “Surely not I, Lord?” 23 He[ag] answered, “The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me[ah] will betray me. 24 The Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.” 25 Then[ai] Judas, the one who would betray him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?” Jesus[aj] replied, “You have said it yourself.”

The Lord’s Supper

26 While[ak] they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” 27 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, 28 for this is my blood, the blood[al] of the covenant,[am] that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 I[an] tell you, from now on I will not drink of this fruit[ao] of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 30 After[ap] singing a hymn,[aq] they went out to the Mount of Olives.

The Prediction of Peter’s Denial

31 Then Jesus said to them, “This night you will all fall away because of me, for it is written:

I will strike the shepherd,
and the sheep of the flock will be scattered.[ar]

32 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 33 Peter[as] said to him, “If they all fall away because of you, I will never fall away!” 34 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth,[at] on this night, before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” 35 Peter said to him, “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all the disciples said the same thing.

Gethsemane

36 Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane, and he said to the disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.” 37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and became anguished and distressed. 38 Then he said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay awake with me.” 39 Going a little farther, he threw himself down with his face to the ground and prayed,[au] “My Father, if possible,[av] let this cup[aw] pass from me! Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 40 Then he came to the disciples and found them sleeping. He[ax] said to Peter, “So, couldn’t you stay awake with me for one hour? 41 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 42 He went away a second time and prayed,[ay] “My Father, if this cup[az] cannot be taken away unless I drink it, your will must be done.” 43 He came again and found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open.[ba] 44 So leaving them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same thing once more. 45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? Look, the hour is approaching, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 46 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer[bb] is approaching!”

Betrayal and Arrest

47 While he was still speaking, Judas,[bc] one of the twelve, arrived. With him was a large crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and elders of the people. 48 (Now the betrayer[bd] had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man.[be] Arrest him!”)[bf] 49 Immediately[bg] he went up to Jesus and said, “Greetings, Rabbi,” and kissed him.[bh] 50 Jesus[bi] said to him, “Friend, do what you are here to do.” Then they came and took hold[bj] of Jesus and arrested him. 51 But[bk] one of those with Jesus grabbed[bl] his sword, drew it out, and struck the high priest’s slave,[bm] cutting off his ear. 52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back in its place![bn] For all who take hold of the sword will die by the sword. 53 Or do you think that I cannot call on my Father, and that he would send me more than twelve legions[bo] of angels right now? 54 How then would the scriptures that say it must happen this way be fulfilled?” 55 At that moment Jesus said to the crowd, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw?[bp] Day after day I sat teaching in the temple courts, yet[bq] you did not arrest me. 56 But this has happened so that the scriptures of the prophets would be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples left him and fled.

Condemned by the Sanhedrin

57 Now the ones who had arrested Jesus led him to Caiaphas, the high priest, in whose house[br] the experts in the law[bs] and the elders had gathered. 58 But Peter was following him from a distance, all the way to the high priest’s courtyard. After[bt] going in, he sat with the guards[bu] to see the outcome. 59 The[bv] chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were trying to find false testimony against Jesus so that they could put him to death. 60 But they did not find anything, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally[bw] two came forward 61 and declared, “This man[bx] said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and rebuild it in three days.’” 62 So[by] the high priest stood up and said to him, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 63 But Jesus was silent. The[bz] high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God, tell us if you are the Christ,[ca] the Son of God.” 64 Jesus said to him, “You have said it yourself. But I tell you, from now on you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand[cb] of the Power[cc] and coming on the clouds of heaven.”[cd] 65 Then the high priest tore his clothes and declared,[ce] “He has blasphemed! Why do we still need witnesses? Now[cf] you have heard the blasphemy! 66 What is your verdict?”[cg] They[ch] answered, “He is guilty and deserves[ci] death.” 67 Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. And some slapped him, 68 saying, “Prophesy for us, you Christ![cj] Who hit you?”[ck]

Peter’s Denials

69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A[cl] slave girl[cm] came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.” 70 But he denied it in front of them all:[cn] “I don’t know what you’re talking about!” 71 When[co] he went out to the gateway, another slave girl[cp] saw him and said to the people there, “This man was with Jesus the Nazarene.” 72 He denied it again with an oath, “I do not know the man!” 73 After[cq] a little while, those standing there came up to Peter and said, “You really are one of them too—even your accent[cr] gives you away!” 74 At that he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know the man!” At that moment a rooster crowed.[cs] 75 Then Peter remembered what Jesus had said: “Before the rooster crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went outside and wept bitterly.[ct]

Jesus Brought Before Pilate

27 When[cu] it was early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people plotted against Jesus to execute him. They[cv] tied him up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate[cw] the governor.[cx]

Judas’ Suicide

Now when[cy] Judas, who had betrayed him, saw that Jesus[cz] had been condemned, he regretted what he had done and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders, saying, “I have sinned by betraying innocent blood!” But they said, “What is that to us? You take care of it yourself!” So[da] Judas threw the silver coins into the temple and left. Then he went out and hanged himself. The[db] chief priests took the silver and said, “It is not lawful to put this into the temple treasury, since it is blood money.” After[dc] consulting together they bought the Potter’s Field with it, as a burial place for foreigners. For this reason that field has been called the “Field of Blood” to this day. Then what was spoken by Jeremiah[dd] the prophet was fulfilled: “They took the thirty silver coins, the price of the one whose price had been set by the people of Israel,[de] 10 and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”[df]

Jesus and Pilate

11 Then[dg] Jesus stood before the governor, and the governor asked him,[dh] “Are you the king[di] of the Jews?” Jesus[dj] said, “You say so.”[dk] 12 But when he was accused by the chief priests and the elders, he did not respond. 13 Then Pilate said to him, “Don’t you hear how many charges they are bringing against you?” 14 But he did not answer even one accusation, so that the governor was quite amazed.

15 During the feast the governor was accustomed to release one prisoner to the crowd,[dl] whomever they wanted. 16 At that time they had in custody a notorious prisoner named Jesus[dm] Barabbas. 17 So after they had assembled, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus[dn] Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Christ?”[do] 18 (For he knew that they had handed him over because of envy.)[dp] 19 As[dq] he was sitting on the judgment seat,[dr] his wife sent a message[ds] to him:[dt] “Have nothing to do with that innocent man;[du] I have suffered greatly as a result of a dream[dv] about him today.” 20 But the chief priests and the elders persuaded the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed. 21 The[dw] governor asked them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?” And they said, “Barabbas!” 22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Christ?”[dx] They all said, “Crucify him!”[dy] 23 He asked, “Why? What wrong has he done?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!”

Jesus is Condemned and Mocked

24 When[dz] Pilate saw that he could do nothing, but that instead a riot was starting, he took some water, washed his hands before the crowd and said, “I am innocent of this man’s blood. You take care of it yourselves!”[ea] 25 In[eb] reply all the people said, “Let his blood be on us and on our children!” 26 Then he released Barabbas for them. But after he had Jesus flogged,[ec] he handed him over[ed] to be crucified.[ee] 27 Then the governor’s soldiers took Jesus into the governor’s residence[ef] and gathered the whole cohort[eg] around him. 28 They[eh] stripped him and put a scarlet robe[ei] around him, 29 and after braiding[ej] a crown of thorns,[ek] they put it on his head. They[el] put a staff[em] in his right hand, and kneeling down before him, they mocked him:[en] “Hail, king of the Jews!”[eo] 30 They[ep] spat on him and took the staff[eq] and struck him repeatedly[er] on the head. 31 When[es] they had mocked him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes back on him. Then[et] they led him away to crucify him.

The Crucifixion

32 As[eu] they were going out, they found a man from Cyrene named Simon, whom they forced[ev] to carry his cross.[ew] 33 They[ex] came to a place called Golgotha[ey] (which means “Place of the Skull”)[ez] 34 and offered Jesus[fa] wine mixed with gall to drink.[fb] But after tasting it, he would not drink it. 35 When[fc] they had crucified[fd] him, they divided his clothes by throwing dice.[fe] 36 Then they sat down and kept guard over him there. 37 Above[ff] his head they put the charge against him,[fg] which read:[fh] “This is Jesus, the king of the Jews.” 38 Then two outlaws were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left. 39 Those[fi] who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads 40 and saying, “You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, save yourself![fj] If you are God’s Son, come down[fk] from the cross!” 41 In[fl] the same way even the chief priests—together with the experts in the law[fm] and elders[fn]—were mocking him:[fo] 42 “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! He is the king of Israel! If he comes down[fp] now from the cross, we will believe in him! 43 He trusts in God—let God, if he wants to, deliver him now[fq] because he said, ‘I am God’s Son’!” 44 The[fr] robbers who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him.[fs]

Jesus’ Death

45 Now from noon until three,[ft] darkness came over all the land.[fu] 46 At[fv] about three o’clock Jesus shouted with a loud voice,[fw]Eli, Eli, lema sabachthani?” that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”[fx] 47 When[fy] some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “This man is calling for Elijah.” 48 Immediately[fz] one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine,[ga] put it on a stick,[gb] and gave it to him to drink. 49 But the rest said, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to save him.”[gc] 50 Then Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and gave up his spirit. 51 Just then[gd] the temple curtain[ge] was torn in two, from top to bottom. The[gf] earth shook and the rocks were split apart. 52 And tombs were opened, and the bodies of many saints who had died[gg] were raised. 53 (They[gh] came out of the tombs after his resurrection and went into the holy city and appeared to many people.) 54 Now when the centurion[gi] and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and what took place, they were extremely terrified and said, “Truly this one was God’s Son!” 55 Many[gj] women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and given him support[gk] were also there, watching from a distance. 56 Among them were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

Jesus’ Burial

57 Now when it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also a disciple of Jesus.[gl] 58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.[gm] Then Pilate ordered that it be given to him. 59 Joseph[gn] took the body, wrapped it in a clean linen cloth,[go] 60 and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut in the rock.[gp] Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance[gq] of the tomb and went away. 61 (Now Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were sitting there, opposite the tomb.)

The Guard at the Tomb

62 The[gr] next day (which is after the day of preparation) the chief priests and the Pharisees[gs] assembled before Pilate 63 and said, “Sir, we remember that while that deceiver was still alive he said, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 64 So give orders to secure the tomb until the third day. Otherwise his disciples may come and steal his body[gt] and say to the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deception will be worse than the first.” 65 Pilate said to them, “Take[gu] a guard of soldiers. Go and make it as secure as you can.” 66 So[gv] they went with the soldiers[gw] of the guard and made the tomb secure by sealing the stone.

The Resurrection

28 Now after the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb. Suddenly there was a severe earthquake, for an angel of the Lord[gx] descending from heaven came and rolled away the stone and sat on it. His[gy] appearance was like lightning, and his clothes were white as snow. The[gz] guards were shaken and became like dead men because they were so afraid of him. But the angel said[ha] to the women, “Do not be afraid; I know[hb] that you are looking for Jesus, who was crucified.[hc] He is not here, for he has been raised,[hd] just as he said. Come and see the place where he[he] was lying. Then go quickly and tell his disciples, ‘He has been raised from the dead. He[hf] is going ahead of you into Galilee. You will see him there.’ Listen, I have told you!” So[hg] they left the tomb quickly, with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples. But[hh] Jesus met them, saying, “Greetings!” They[hi] came to him, held on to his feet and worshiped him. 10 Then Jesus said to them, “Do not be afraid. Go and tell my brothers to go to Galilee. They will see me there.”

The Guards’ Report

11 While[hj] they were going, some[hk] of the guard went into the city and told the chief priests everything that had happened. 12 After[hl] they had assembled with the elders and formed a plan, they gave a large sum of money to the soldiers, 13 telling them, “You are to say, ‘His disciples came at night and stole his body[hm] while we were asleep.’ 14 If[hn] this matter is heard before the governor,[ho] we will satisfy him[hp] and keep you out of trouble.”[hq] 15 So they took the money and did as they were instructed. And this story is told among the Jews to this day.[hr]

The Great Commission

16 So[hs] the eleven disciples went to Galilee to the mountain Jesus had designated. 17 When[ht] they saw him, they worshiped him,[hu] but some doubted.[hv] 18 Then Jesus came up and said to them,[hw] “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Therefore go[hx] and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,[hy] 20 teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember,[hz] I am with you[ia] always, to the end of the age.”[ib]

Footnotes

  1. Matthew 26:1 tn Grk “And it happened when.” The introductory phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  2. Matthew 26:2 tn Or “will be delivered up.”
  3. Matthew 26:2 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  4. Matthew 26:4 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  5. Matthew 26:5 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him.
  6. Matthew 26:6 sn See the note on leper in Matt 8:2.
  7. Matthew 26:7 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.
  8. Matthew 26:7 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205).sn Mark specifies that the perfumed oil was Nard or spikenard, which is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India (Mark 14:3). This perfumed oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.
  9. Matthew 26:7 tn Grk “as he was reclining.”sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  10. Matthew 26:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  11. Matthew 26:9 tn Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  12. Matthew 26:9 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (as the proceeds from the sale of the perfumed oil).
  13. Matthew 26:10 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  14. Matthew 26:10 tn Grk “For she.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  15. Matthew 26:11 tn In the Greek text of this clause, “me” is in emphatic position (the first word in the clause). To convey some impression of the emphasis, an exclamation point is used in the translation.
  16. Matthew 26:12 tn Grk “For when.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 26:13 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  18. Matthew 26:15 tn Grk “What will you give to me, and I will deliver him over to you?”
  19. Matthew 26:16 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  20. Matthew 26:16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  21. Matthew 26:17 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.
  22. Matthew 26:17 tn Grk “the disciples came to Jesus, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
  23. Matthew 26:17 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 26:20). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.
  24. Matthew 26:18 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  25. Matthew 26:19 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  26. Matthew 26:20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  27. Matthew 26:20 tn Grk “he was reclining at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
  28. Matthew 26:20 tc Many witnesses, some of them quite significant, have μαθητῶν (mathētōn, “disciples”; א A L W Δ Θ 33 892 1241 1424 pm lat) or μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ (mathētōn autou, “his disciples”; 0281 it) after δώδεκα (dōdeka, “twelve”). However, such clarifications are typical scribal expansions to the text. Further, the shorter reading (the one that ends with δώδεκα) has strong support in P37vid,45vid B D K Γ ƒ1,13 565 579 700 pm. Thus both internally and externally the reading that ends the verse with “the twelve” is to be preferred.
  29. Matthew 26:21 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  30. Matthew 26:21 tn Or “will hand me over.”
  31. Matthew 26:22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  32. Matthew 26:22 tn The participle λυπούμενοι (lupoumenoi) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
  33. Matthew 26:23 tn Grk “answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  34. Matthew 26:23 sn The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him—somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.
  35. Matthew 26:25 tn Grk “answering, Judas.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to reflect the sequence of events in the narrative.
  36. Matthew 26:25 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  37. Matthew 26:26 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  38. Matthew 26:28 tn Grk “for this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”
  39. Matthew 26:28 tc Most witnesses, including several significant ones, read καινῆς (kainēs, “new”) here. Homoioteleuton is a possible reason for the omission, since the article, adjective, and noun are all first declension genitive singulars (τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης, tēs kainēs diathēkēs, “the new covenant”), but the likelihood of excellent, early, and sufficiently diverse witnesses all making the same mistake is remote. A much more probable scenario is that the addition of καινῆς was motivated by the parallel in Luke 22:20. It is a natural expansion on the text. Coupled with the fact that the shorter reading is found in such good and diverse witnesses (e.g., P37,45vid א B L Z Θ 0298vid 33 mae), it most likely is the initial text.sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.
  40. Matthew 26:29 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  41. Matthew 26:29 tn Grk “produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).
  42. Matthew 26:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  43. Matthew 26:30 sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.
  44. Matthew 26:31 sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.
  45. Matthew 26:33 tn Grk “answering, Peter said to him.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  46. Matthew 26:34 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  47. Matthew 26:39 tn Grk “ground, praying and saying.” Here the participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  48. Matthew 26:39 tn Grk “if it is possible.”
  49. Matthew 26:39 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Pss 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.
  50. Matthew 26:40 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  51. Matthew 26:42 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  52. Matthew 26:42 tn Grk “this”; the referent (the cup) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  53. Matthew 26:43 tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).
  54. Matthew 26:46 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”
  55. Matthew 26:47 tn Grk “behold, Judas.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  56. Matthew 26:48 tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”
  57. Matthew 26:48 tn Grk “The one I kiss is he.”
  58. Matthew 26:48 sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.
  59. Matthew 26:49 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  60. Matthew 26:49 sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.
  61. Matthew 26:50 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  62. Matthew 26:50 tn Grk “and put their hands on Jesus.”
  63. Matthew 26:51 tn Grk “And behold one.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  64. Matthew 26:51 tn Grk “extending his hand, drew out his sword, and struck.” Because rapid motion is implied in the circumstances, the translation “grabbed” was used.
  65. Matthew 26:51 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
  66. Matthew 26:52 tn The translation “put your sword back in its place” for this phrase is given in L&N 85.52.
  67. Matthew 26:53 sn A legion was a Roman army unit of about 6,000 soldiers, so twelve legions would be 72,000.
  68. Matthew 26:55 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist, guerrilla” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).
  69. Matthew 26:55 tn Grk “and” (καί, kai), a conjunction that is elastic enough to be used to indicate a contrast, as here.
  70. Matthew 26:57 tn Grk “where.”
  71. Matthew 26:57 tn Or “where the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
  72. Matthew 26:58 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  73. Matthew 26:58 sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.
  74. Matthew 26:59 tn Grk “Now the.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  75. Matthew 26:60 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  76. Matthew 26:61 tn Grk “This one.”
  77. Matthew 26:62 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the false testimony.
  78. Matthew 26:63 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  79. Matthew 26:63 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  80. Matthew 26:64 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.
  81. Matthew 26:64 sn The expression the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
  82. Matthew 26:64 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13 (see also Matt 24:30).
  83. Matthew 26:65 tn Grk “the high priest tore his clothes, saying.”
  84. Matthew 26:65 tn Grk “Behold now.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  85. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “What do you think?”
  86. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “answering, they said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  87. Matthew 26:66 tn Grk “he is guilty of death.” L&N 88.313 states, “pertaining to being guilty and thus deserving some particular penalty—‘guilty and deserving, guilty and punishable by.’ οἱ δὲ ἀποκριθέντες εἶπαν, ᾿Ενοχος θανάτου ἐστίν ‘they answered, He is guilty and deserves death’ Mt 26:66.”
  88. Matthew 26:68 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  89. Matthew 26:68 tn Grk “Who is the one who hit you?”sn Who hit you? This is a variation of one of three ancient games that involved blindfolds.
  90. Matthew 26:69 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  91. Matthew 26:69 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskē), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.
  92. Matthew 26:70 tn Grk “he denied it…saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  93. Matthew 26:71 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  94. Matthew 26:71 tn The words “slave girl” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the feminine singular form ἄλλη (allē).
  95. Matthew 26:73 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  96. Matthew 26:73 tn Grk “your speech.”
  97. Matthew 26:74 tn It seems most likely that this refers to a real rooster crowing, although a number of scholars have suggested that “cockcrow” is a technical term referring to the trumpet call which ended the third watch of the night (from midnight to 3 a.m.). This would then be a reference to the Roman gallicinium (ἀλεκτοροφωνία, alektorophōnia; the term is used in Mark 13:35 and is found in some mss [P37vid,45 ƒ1] in Matt 26:34) which would have been sounded at 3 a.m.; in this case Jesus would have prophesied a precise time by which the denials would have taken place. For more details see J. H. Bernard, St. John (ICC), 2:604. However, in light of the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice (Mark 14:72) and in Luke 22:60 the words are reversed (ἐφώνησεν ἀλέκτωρ, ephōnēsen alektōr), it is more probable that a real rooster is in view. In any event natural cockcrow would have occurred at approximately 3 a.m. in Palestine at this time of year (March-April) anyway.
  98. Matthew 26:75 sn When Peter went out and wept bitterly it shows he really did not want to fail here and was deeply grieved that he had.
  99. Matthew 27:1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  100. Matthew 27:2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  101. Matthew 27:2 tc Most mss (A C W Γ Δ Θ 0250 ƒ1,13 565 579 700 1241 1424 M latt) have Ποντίῳ (Pontiō, “Pontius”) before Πιλάτῳ (Pilatō, “Pilate”), but there seems to be no reason for omitting the tribal name, either intentionally or unintentionally. Adding “Pontius,” however, is a natural expansion on the text, and is in keeping with several other NT and patristic references to the Roman governor (cf. Luke 3:1; Acts 4:27; 1 Tim 6:13; Ign. Magn. 11.1; Ign. Trall. 9.1; Ign. Smyrn. 1.2; Justin Martyr, passim). See TCGNT 52-53. The shorter reading, supported by א B L 0281 33 co, is thus strongly preferred.
  102. Matthew 27:2 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it from being used to execute Roman sympathizers.
  103. Matthew 27:3 tn Grk “Then when.” Here τότε (tote) has been translated as “now” to indicate a somewhat parenthetical interlude in the sequence of events.
  104. Matthew 27:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  105. Matthew 27:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the leaders’ response to Judas.
  106. Matthew 27:6 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  107. Matthew 27:7 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  108. Matthew 27:9 tc The problematic citing of Jeremiah for a text which appears to come from Zechariah has prompted certain scribes to alter it. Codex 22 has Ζαχαρίου (Zachariou, “Zechariah”) while Φ 33 and several versional witnesses omit the prophet’s name altogether. And codex 21 and the Latin ms l change the prophet’s name to “Isaiah,” in accordance with natural scribal proclivities to alter the text toward the most prominent OT prophet. But unquestionably the name Jeremiah is the wording of the original here, because it is supported by virtually all witnesses and because it is the harder reading. See D. A. Carson, “Matthew,” EBC 8:562-63, for a discussion of the textual and especially hermeneutical problem.
  109. Matthew 27:9 tn Grk “the sons of Israel,” an idiom referring to the people of Israel as an ethnic entity (L&N 11.58).
  110. Matthew 27:10 sn The source of this citation is debated (see the tc note on Jeremiah in v. 9 above for a related discussion). The quotation is most closely related to Zech 11:12-13, but the reference to Jeremiah in v. 9 as the source leads one to look there as well. There is no exact match for this text in Jeremiah, but there are some conceptual parallels: In Jer 18:2-6 the prophet visits a potter, and in Jer 32:6-15 he buys a field. D. A. Carson argues that Jer 19:1-13 is the source of the quotation augmented with various phrases drawn from Zech 11:12-13 (“Matthew,” EBC 8:563). W. D. Davies and D. C. Allison argue that the reference to Jeremiah is not meant to refer to one specific text from that prophet, but instead to signal that his writings as a whole are a source from which the quotation is drawn (Matthew [ICC], 3:568-69). Although the exact source of the citation is uncertain, it is reasonable to see texts from the books of Jeremiah and Zechariah both coming into play here.
  111. Matthew 27:11 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  112. Matthew 27:11 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  113. Matthew 27:11 snAre you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested in this charge because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.
  114. Matthew 27:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  115. Matthew 27:11 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership in 26:64.
  116. Matthew 27:15 sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39).
  117. Matthew 27:16 tc Although the external evidence for the inclusion of “Jesus” before “Barabbas” (in vv. 16 and 17) is rather sparse, being restricted virtually to mss of what was formally labeled the “Caesarean” text (Θ ƒ1 700* sys arm geo2; Ormss), the omission of the Lord’s name in apposition to “Barabbas” is such a strongly motivated reading that it can hardly be original. There is no good explanation for a scribe unintentionally adding ᾿Ιησοῦν (Iēsoun) before Βαραββᾶν (Barabban), especially since Barabbas is mentioned first in each verse (thus dittography is ruled out). Further, the addition of τὸν λεγόμενον Χριστόν (ton legomenon Christon, “who is called Christ”) to ᾿Ιησοῦν in v. 17 makes better sense if Barabbas is also called “Jesus” (otherwise, a mere “Jesus” would have been a sufficient appellation to distinguish the two). Metzger notes that codex S, a tenth-century majuscule, along with a score of minuscules, have a marginal comment on this verse as follows: “In many ancient copies which I have met with I found Barabbas himself likewise called ‘Jesus.’” The attribution of this scholium is variously given as Anastasius, Chrysostom, or even Origen (TCGNT 56).
  118. Matthew 27:17 tc Again, as in v. 16, the name “Jesus” is supplied before “Barabbas” in Θ ƒ1 700* sys Ormss (Θ 700* lack the article τόν [ton] before Βαραββᾶν [Barabban]). The same argument for accepting the inclusion of “Jesus” as the earlier reading in the previous verse applies here as well.
  119. Matthew 27:17 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  120. Matthew 27:18 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  121. Matthew 27:19 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  122. Matthew 27:19 tn Or “the judge’s seat.”sn The judgment seat (βῆμα, bēma) was a raised platform mounted by steps and usually furnished with a seat. It was used by officials in addressing an assembly or making official pronouncements, often of a judicial nature.
  123. Matthew 27:19 tn The word “message” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  124. Matthew 27:19 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγουσα (legousa) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  125. Matthew 27:19 tn The Greek particle γάρ (gar, “for”) has not been translated here.
  126. Matthew 27:19 tn Or “suffered greatly in a dream.” See the discussion on the construction κατ᾿ ὄναρ (katonar) in BDAG 710 s.v. ὄναρ.
  127. Matthew 27:21 tn Grk “answering, the governor said to them.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  128. Matthew 27:22 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  129. Matthew 27:22 tn Grk “Him—be crucified!” The third person imperative is difficult to translate because English has no corresponding third person form for the imperative. The traditional translation “Let him be crucified” sounds as if the crowd is giving consent or permission. “He must be crucified” is closer, but it is more natural in English to convert the passive to active and simply say “Crucify him.”sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  130. Matthew 27:24 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  131. Matthew 27:24 sn You take care of it yourselves! Compare the response of the chief priests and elders to Judas in 27:4. The expression is identical except that in 27:4 it is singular and here it is plural.
  132. Matthew 27:25 tn Grk “answering, all the people said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  133. Matthew 27:26 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (phragelloō) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 4:515-19.
  134. Matthew 27:26 tn Or “delivered him up.”
  135. Matthew 27:26 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  136. Matthew 27:27 tn Or “into their headquarters”; Grk “into the praetorium.” sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.
  137. Matthew 27:27 sn A Roman cohort was a tenth of a legion, about 500-600 soldiers.
  138. Matthew 27:28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  139. Matthew 27:28 sn The scarlet robe probably refers to a military garment that was cheaply dyed in contrast to expensive royal purple, but it resembled a king’s robe (BDAG 554 s.v. κόκκινος). The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king.
  140. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “weaving.”
  141. Matthew 27:29 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.
  142. Matthew 27:29 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  143. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.
  144. Matthew 27:29 tn Grk “they mocked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.
  145. Matthew 27:29 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).
  146. Matthew 27:30 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  147. Matthew 27:30 tn Or “the reed.”
  148. Matthew 27:30 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.
  149. Matthew 27:31 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  150. Matthew 27:31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  151. Matthew 27:32 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  152. Matthew 27:32 tn Or “conscripted”; or “pressed into service.”
  153. Matthew 27:32 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.
  154. Matthew 27:33 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  155. Matthew 27:33 tn This is an Aramaic name; see John 19:17.
  156. Matthew 27:33 sn A place called Golgotha (which means “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
  157. Matthew 27:34 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  158. Matthew 27:34 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with gall (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.
  159. Matthew 27:35 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  160. Matthew 27:35 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  161. Matthew 27:35 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.
  162. Matthew 27:37 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  163. Matthew 27:37 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
  164. Matthew 27:37 tn Grk “was written.”
  165. Matthew 27:39 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  166. Matthew 27:40 sn There is rich irony in the statements of those who were passing by, “save yourself!” and “come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life.
  167. Matthew 27:40 tc ‡ Many significant witnesses (א* A D it sy[s],p) read καί (kai, here with the force of “then”) before κατάβηθι (katabēthi, “come down”). The shorter reading may well be due to homoioarcton, but judging by the diverse external evidence (א2 B L W Γ Δ Θ 0250 ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M lat) it is equally possible that the shorter reading is the wording of the initial text (and is so considered for this translation). NA28 puts the καί in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
  168. Matthew 27:41 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  169. Matthew 27:41 tn Or “with the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
  170. Matthew 27:41 tn Only “chief priests” is in the nominative case; this sentence structure attempts to capture this emphasis.
  171. Matthew 27:41 tn Grk “Mocking him, the chief priests…said.”
  172. Matthew 27:42 tn Here the aorist imperative καταβάτω (katabatō) has been translated as a conditional imperative. This fits the pattern of other conditional imperatives (imperative + καί + future indicative) outlined by ExSyn 489.
  173. Matthew 27:43 sn An allusion to Ps 22:8.
  174. Matthew 27:44 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  175. Matthew 27:44 sn Matthew’s wording suggests that both of the criminals spoke abusively to him. If so, one of them quickly changed his attitude toward Jesus (see Luke 23:40-43).
  176. Matthew 27:45 tn Grk “from the sixth hour to the ninth hour.”
  177. Matthew 27:45 sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15.
  178. Matthew 27:46 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  179. Matthew 27:46 tn Grk “with a loud voice, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  180. Matthew 27:46 sn A quotation from Ps 22:1.
  181. Matthew 27:47 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  182. Matthew 27:48 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  183. Matthew 27:48 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.
  184. Matthew 27:48 tn Grk “a reed.”
  185. Matthew 27:49 tc Early and significant witnesses, including the chief Alexandrian mss (א B C L Γ 1010 and some versional witnesses) add a sentence at the end of this verse: “And another [soldier] took a spear and pierced him in the side, and water and blood flowed out.” This comment finds such a strong parallel in John 19:34 that it was undoubtedly lifted from the Fourth Gospel by some early, well-meaning scribe and inserted into Matt 27:49. The alternative—that this sentence was part of Matthew’s Ausgangstext—has serious difficulties, as Metzger notes: “It might be thought that the words were omitted because they represent the piercing as preceding Jesus’ death, whereas John makes it follow; but that difference would have only been a reason for moving the passage to a later position (perhaps at the close of ver. 50 or 54 or 56), or else there would have been some tampering with the passage in John, which is not the case. It is probable that the Johannine passage was written by some reader in the margin of Matthew from memory (there are several minor differences, such as the sequence of ‘water and blood’), and a later copyist awkwardly introduced it into the text” (TCGNT, 59). Consequently, even though the support for the shorter reading (A D W Θ ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M lat sy sa bo) is not as impressive, internal considerations on its behalf are compelling.
  186. Matthew 27:51 tn Grk “And behold.”
  187. Matthew 27:51 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up.
  188. Matthew 27:51 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  189. Matthew 27:52 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaō) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.
  190. Matthew 27:53 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  191. Matthew 27:54 sn See the note on the word centurion in Matt 8:5.
  192. Matthew 27:55 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  193. Matthew 27:55 tn Grk “and ministered to him.”sn Cf. Luke 8:3.
  194. Matthew 27:57 sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
  195. Matthew 27:58 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43, Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.
  196. Matthew 27:59 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  197. Matthew 27:59 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
  198. Matthew 27:60 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.25).
  199. Matthew 27:60 tn Or “to the door,” “against the door.”
  200. Matthew 27:62 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  201. Matthew 27:62 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  202. Matthew 27:64 tn Grk “him.”
  203. Matthew 27:65 tn Grk “You have a guard.”
  204. Matthew 27:66 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Pilate’s order.
  205. Matthew 27:66 tn Grk “with the guard.” The words “soldiers of the” have been supplied in the translation to prevent “guard” from being misunderstood as a single individual.
  206. Matthew 28:2 tn Or “the angel of the Lord.” See the note on the word “Lord” in 1:20.
  207. Matthew 28:3 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  208. Matthew 28:4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  209. Matthew 28:5 tn Grk “But answering, the angel said.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  210. Matthew 28:5 tn Grk “for I know.”
  211. Matthew 28:5 sn See the note on crucified in 20:19.
  212. Matthew 28:6 tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, ēgerthē). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God.
  213. Matthew 28:6 tc Expansions on the text, especially when the Lord is the subject, are a common scribal activity. In this instance, since the subject is embedded in the verb, three major variants have emerged to make the subject explicit: ὁ κύριος (ho kurios, “the Lord”; A C D L W Γ 0148 ƒ1,13 565 579 700 1241 M lat), τὸ σῶμα τοῦ κυρίου (to sōma tou kuriou, “the body of the Lord”; 1424), and ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (ho Iēsous, “Jesus”; Φ). The reading with no explicit subject, however, is superior on both internal and external grounds, being supported by א B Θ 33 892* co.
  214. Matthew 28:7 tn Grk “And behold he.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  215. Matthew 28:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s instructions to tell the disciples.
  216. Matthew 28:9 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate that the return of the women from the tomb was interrupted by this appearance of Jesus. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  217. Matthew 28:9 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  218. Matthew 28:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  219. Matthew 28:11 tn Grk “behold, some of the guard.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  220. Matthew 28:12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  221. Matthew 28:13 tn Grk “him.”
  222. Matthew 28:14 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  223. Matthew 28:14 tn Here ἐπί (epi) followed by the genitive = “before,” especially in the language of lawsuits (BDAG 363 s.v. 3).
  224. Matthew 28:14 tcαὐτόν (auton, “him”) is found after πείσομεν (peisomen, “we will satisfy”) in the majority of witnesses, though it seems to be motivated by a need for clarification and cannot therefore easily explain the rise of the shorter reading (which is found in א B Θ 33 pc). Nevertheless, English style requires the pronoun. NA28 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
  225. Matthew 28:14 tn Grk “and make you free from care” = “we will keep you out of trouble.”
  226. Matthew 28:15 tc ‡ The word ἡμέρας (hēmeras, “day”) is found after σήμερον (sēmeron, “today, this [day]”) in some early and significant witnesses (B D L Θ lat, as well as other versions and fathers), but may be added for emphasis (cf. Acts 20:26; 27:33; Rom 11:8; 2 Cor 3:14). But since the idiom with “day” is unquestionably found only in Paul’s speeches in Acts or his letters, intrinsic evidence is against the addition. The shorter reading (found in א A W 0148vid ƒ1,13 33 565 579 700 1241 1424 M) is thus preferred. NA28 includes the word in brackets, indicating reservations about its authenticity. Whether authentic or not, the translation is not affected.
  227. Matthew 28:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions in v. 10.
  228. Matthew 28:17 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  229. Matthew 28:17 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  230. Matthew 28:17 tn The Greek text reads here οἱ δὲ ἐδίστασαν (hoi de edistasan). Some scholars argue that the article is functioning like a personal pronoun, thus “they doubted” (e.g., D. A. Hagner, Matthew [WBC], 2:884). If so, then all the disciples would be in view. The translation of the text takes οἱ as an alternative pronoun which has a partitive notion (i.e., some of the disciples doubted, but not all). The difficulty with the personal pronoun view is that there are no examples of it in Matthew in which the same subject immediately precedes with its own verb (as would be the case in “they worshiped…they doubted”). Such, in fact, would be quite awkward, for the article would be unnecessary since the pronominal referent is already embedded in the verb. The only reason for the article here would be to distinguish the subject in some way; but if the same subject is in view, no distinction is being made.
  231. Matthew 28:18 tn Grk “coming, Jesus spoke to them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn, “saying”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  232. Matthew 28:19 tn “Go…baptize…teach” are participles modifying the imperative verb “make disciples.” According to ExSyn 645 the first participle (πορευθέντες, poreuthentes, “Go”) fits the typical structural pattern for the attendant circumstance participle (aorist participle preceding aorist main verb, with the mood of the main verb usually imperative or indicative) and thus picks up the mood (imperative in this case) from the main verb (μαθητεύσατε, mathēteusate, “make disciples”). This means that semantically the action of “going” is commanded, just as “making disciples” is. As for the two participles that follow the main verb (βαπτίζοντες, baptizontes, “baptizing”; and διδάσκοντες, didaskontes, “teaching”), these do not fit the normal pattern for attendant circumstance participles, since they are present participles and follow the aorist main verb. However, some interpreters do see them as carrying additional imperative force in context. Others regard them as means, manner, or even result.
  233. Matthew 28:19 tc Although some scholars have denied that the trinitarian baptismal formula in the Great Commission was a part of the autographic text of Matthew, there is no ms support for their contention. F. C. Conybeare, “The Eusebian Form of the Text of Mt. 28:19, ” ZNW 2 (1901): 275-88, based his view on a faulty reading of Eusebius’ quotations of this text. The shorter reading has also been accepted, on other grounds, by a few other scholars. For discussion (and refutation of the conjecture that removes this baptismal formula), see B. J. Hubbard, The Matthean Redaction of a Primitive Apostolic Commissioning (SBLDS 19), 163-64, 167-75; and Jane Schaberg, The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit (SBLDS 61), 27-29.
  234. Matthew 28:20 tn The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has been translated here as “remember” (BDAG 468 s.v. 1.c).
  235. Matthew 28:20 sn I am with you. Matthew’s Gospel begins with the prophecy that the Savior’s name would be “Emmanuel, that is, ‘God with us,’” (1:23, in which the author has linked Isa 7:14 and 8:8, 10 together) and it ends with Jesus’ promise to be with his disciples forever. The Gospel of Matthew thus forms an inclusio about Jesus in his relationship to his people that suggests his deity.
  236. Matthew 28:20 tc Most mss (Ac Γ Δ Θ ƒ13 565 579 700 1241 1424 M it sy) have ἀμήν (amēn, “amen”) at the end of v. 20. Such a conclusion is routinely added by scribes to NT books because a few of these books originally had such an ending (cf. Rom 16:27; Gal 6:18; Jude 25). A majority of Greek witnesses have the concluding ἀμήν in every NT book except Acts, James, and 3 John (and even in these books, ἀμήν is found in some witnesses). It is thus a predictable variant. Further, no good reason exists for the omission of the particle in significant and early witnesses such as א A* B D W ƒ1 33 al lat sa.

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