New English Translation
The Plot Against Jesus
14 Two days before the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the chief priests and the experts in the law[a] were trying to find a way[b] to arrest Jesus[c] by stealth and kill him. 2 For they said, “Not during the feast, so there won’t be a riot among the people.”[d]
3 Now[e] while Jesus[f] was in Bethany at the house of Simon the leper,[g] reclining at the table,[h] a woman came with an alabaster jar[i] of costly aromatic oil[j] from pure nard. After breaking open the jar, she poured it on his head. 4 But some who were present indignantly said to one another, “Why this waste of expensive[k] ointment? 5 It[l] could have been sold for more than 300 silver coins[m] and the money[n] given to the poor!” So[o] they spoke angrily to her. 6 But Jesus said, “Leave her alone. Why are you bothering her? She has done a good service for me. 7 For you will always have the poor with you, and you can do good for them whenever you want. But you will not always have me![p] 8 She did what she could. She anointed my body beforehand for burial. 9 I tell you the truth,[q] wherever the gospel is proclaimed in the whole world, what she has done will also be told in memory of her.”
The Plan to Betray Jesus
10 Then[r] Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests to betray Jesus into their hands.[s] 11 When they heard this, they were delighted[t] and promised to give him money.[u] So[v] Judas[w] began looking for an opportunity to betray him.
12 Now[x] on the first day of the feast of[y] Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb is sacrificed,[z] Jesus’[aa] disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?”[ab] 13 He sent two of his disciples and told them, “Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar[ac] of water will meet you. Follow him. 14 Wherever he enters, tell the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher says, “Where is my guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 15 He will show you a large room upstairs, furnished and ready. Make preparations for us there.” 16 So[ad] the disciples left, went[ae] into the city, and found things just as he had told them,[af] and they prepared the Passover.
17 Then,[ag] when it was evening, he came to the house[ah] with the twelve. 18 While they were at the table[ai] eating, Jesus said, “I tell you the truth,[aj] one of you eating with me will betray me.”[ak] 19 They were distressed, and one by one said to him, “Surely not I?” 20 He said to them, “It is one of the twelve, one who dips his hand[al] with me into the bowl.[am] 21 For the Son of Man will go as it is written about him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would be better for him if he had never been born.”
The Lord’s Supper
22 While they were eating, he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to them, and said, “Take it. This is my body.” 23 And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, and they all drank from it. 24 He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood[an] of the covenant,[ao] that is poured out for many. 25 I tell you the truth,[ap] I will no longer drink of the fruit[aq] of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God.”[ar] 26 After singing a hymn,[as] they went out to the Mount of Olives.
The Prediction of Peter’s Denial
27 Then[at] Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away, for it is written,
‘I will strike the shepherd,
and the sheep will be scattered.’[au]
28 But after I am raised, I will go ahead of you into Galilee.” 29 Peter said to him, “Even if they all fall away, I will not!” 30 Jesus said to him, “I tell you the truth,[av] today—this very night—before a rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” 31 But Peter[aw] insisted emphatically,[ax] “Even if I must die with you, I will never deny you.” And all of them said the same thing.
32 Then[ay] they went to a place called Gethsemane, and Jesus[az] said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” 33 He took Peter, James,[ba] and John with him, and became very troubled and distressed. 34 He said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay alert.” 35 Going a little farther, he threw himself to the ground and prayed that if it were possible the hour would pass from him. 36 He said, “Abba,[bb] Father, all things are possible for you. Take this cup[bc] away from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 37 Then[bd] he came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn’t you stay awake for one hour? 38 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 39 He went away again and prayed the same thing. 40 When he came again he found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open.[be] And they did not know what to tell him. 41 He came a third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting?[bf] Enough of that![bg] The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer[bh] is approaching!”
Betrayal and Arrest
43 Right away, while Jesus[bi] was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived.[bj] With him came a crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and experts in the law[bk] and elders. 44 (Now the betrayer[bl] had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man. Arrest him and lead him away under guard.”)[bm] 45 When Judas[bn] arrived, he went up to Jesus[bo] immediately and said, “Rabbi!” and kissed[bp] him. 46 Then they took hold of him[bq] and arrested him. 47 One of the bystanders drew his sword and struck the high priest’s slave,[br] cutting off his ear. 48 Jesus said to them, “Have you come with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw?[bs] 49 Day after day I was with you, teaching in the temple courts, yet[bt] you did not arrest me. But this has happened so that[bu] the scriptures would be fulfilled.” 50 Then[bv] all the disciples[bw] left him and fled. 51 A young man was following him, wearing only a linen cloth. They tried to arrest him, 52 but he ran off naked,[bx] leaving his linen cloth behind.
Condemned by the Sanhedrin
53 Then[by] they led Jesus to the high priest, and all the chief priests and elders and experts in the law[bz] came together. 54 And Peter had followed him from a distance, up to the high priest’s courtyard. He[ca] was sitting with the guards[cb] and warming himself by the fire. 55 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find anything. 56 Many gave false testimony against him, but their testimony did not agree. 57 Some stood up and gave this false testimony against him:[cc] 58 “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands and in three days build another not made with hands.’” 59 Yet even on this point their testimony did not agree. 60 Then[cd] the high priest stood up before them[ce] and asked Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 61 But he was silent and did not answer. Again the high priest questioned him,[cf] “Are you the Christ,[cg] the Son of the Blessed One?” 62 “I am,” said Jesus, “and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand[ch] of the Power[ci] and coming with the clouds of heaven.”[cj] 63 Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, “Why do we still need witnesses? 64 You have heard the blasphemy! What is your verdict?”[ck] They all condemned him as deserving death. 65 Then[cl] some began to spit on him, and to blindfold him, and to strike him with their fists, saying, “Prophesy!” The guards also took him and beat[cm] him.
66 Now[cn] while Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the high priest’s slave girls[co] came by. 67 When she saw Peter warming himself, she looked directly at him and said, “You also were with that Nazarene, Jesus.” 68 But he denied it:[cp] “I don’t even understand what you’re talking about!”[cq] Then[cr] he went out to the gateway, and a rooster crowed.[cs] 69 When the slave girl saw him, she began again to say to the bystanders, “This man is one of them.” 70 But he denied it again. A short time later the bystanders again said to Peter, “You must be[ct] one of them, because you are also a Galilean.” 71 Then he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know this man you are talking about!” 72 Immediately a rooster[cu] crowed a second time. Then[cv] Peter remembered what Jesus had said to him: “Before a rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke down and wept.[cw]
Jesus Brought Before Pilate
15 Early in the morning, after forming a plan, the chief priests with the elders and the experts in the law[cx] and the whole Sanhedrin tied Jesus up, led him away, and handed him over to Pilate.[cy] 2 So[cz] Pilate asked him, “Are you the king[da] of the Jews?” He replied,[db] “You say so.”[dc] 3 Then[dd] the chief priests began to accuse him repeatedly. 4 So Pilate asked him again,[de] “Have you nothing to say? See how many charges they are bringing against you!” 5 But Jesus made no further reply, so that Pilate was amazed.
Jesus and Barabbas
6 During the feast it was customary to release one prisoner to the people,[df] whomever they requested. 7 A man named Barabbas was imprisoned with rebels who had committed murder during an insurrection. 8 Then the crowd came up and began to ask Pilate to release a prisoner for them, as was his custom.[dg] 9 So Pilate asked them,[dh] “Do you want me to release the king of the Jews for you?” 10 (For he knew that the chief priests had handed him over because of envy.)[di] 11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have him release[dj] Barabbas instead. 12 So Pilate spoke to them again,[dk] “Then what do you want me to do[dl] with the one you call king of the Jews?” 13 They shouted back, “Crucify[dm] him!” 14 Pilate asked them, “Why? What has he done wrong?” But they shouted more insistently, “Crucify him!” 15 Because he wanted to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas for them. Then,[dn] after he had Jesus flogged,[do] he handed him over[dp] to be crucified.
Jesus is Mocked
16 So[dq] the soldiers led him into the palace (that is, the governor’s residence)[dr] and called together the whole cohort.[ds] 17 They put a purple cloak[dt] on him and after braiding[du] a crown of thorns,[dv] they put it on him. 18 They began to salute him: “Hail, king of the Jews!”[dw] 19 Again and again[dx] they struck him on the head with a staff[dy] and spit on him. Then they knelt down and paid homage to him. 20 When they had finished mocking[dz] him, they stripped him of the purple cloak and put his own clothes back on him. Then[ea] they led him away to crucify him.[eb]
21 The soldiers[ec] forced[ed] a passerby to carry his cross,[ee] Simon of Cyrene, who was coming in from the country[ef] (he was the father of Alexander and Rufus). 22 They brought Jesus[eg] to a place called Golgotha[eh] (which is translated, “Place of the Skull”).[ei] 23 They offered him wine mixed with myrrh,[ej] but he did not take it. 24 Then[ek] they crucified[el] him and divided his clothes, throwing dice[em] for them, to decide what each would take. 25 It was nine o’clock in the morning[en] when they crucified him. 26 The inscription[eo] of the charge against him read, “The king of the Jews.” 27 And they crucified two outlaws with him, one on his right and one on his left.[ep] 29 Those who passed by defamed him, shaking their heads and saying, “Aha! You who can destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days, 30 save yourself and come down from the cross!”[eq] 31 In the same way even the chief priests—together with the experts in the law[er]—were mocking him among themselves:[es] “He saved others, but he cannot save himself! 32 Let the Christ,[et] the king of Israel, come down from the cross now, that we may see and believe!” Those who were crucified with him also spoke abusively to him.[eu]
33 Now[ev] when it was noon,[ew] darkness came over the whole land[ex] until three in the afternoon.[ey] 34 Around three o’clock[ez] Jesus cried out with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”[fa] 35 When some of the bystanders heard it they said, “Listen, he is calling for Elijah!”[fb] 36 Then someone ran, filled a sponge with sour wine,[fc] put it on a stick,[fd] and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Leave him alone! Let’s see if Elijah will come to take him down!” 37 But Jesus cried out with a loud voice and breathed his last. 38 And the temple curtain[fe] was torn in two, from top to bottom. 39 Now when the centurion,[ff] who stood in front of him, saw how he died,[fg] he said, “Truly this man was God’s Son!” 40 There were also women, watching from a distance. Among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses,[fh] and Salome. 41 When he was in Galilee, they had followed him and given him support.[fi] Many other women who had come up with him to Jerusalem were there too.
42 Now[fj] when evening had already come, since it was the day of preparation (that is, the day before the Sabbath),[fk] 43 Joseph of Arimathea, a highly regarded member of the council,[fl] who was himself looking forward to[fm] the kingdom of God,[fn] went boldly to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus.[fo] 44 Pilate was surprised that he was already dead. He[fp] called the centurion[fq] and asked him if he had been dead for some time. 45 When Pilate[fr] was informed by the centurion, he gave the body to Joseph. 46 After Joseph[fs] bought a linen cloth[ft] and took down the body, he wrapped it in the linen and placed it in a tomb cut out of the rock.[fu] Then[fv] he rolled a stone across the entrance[fw] of the tomb. 47 Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where the body[fx] was placed.
16 When the Sabbath was over, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought aromatic spices[fy] so that they might go and anoint him. 2 And very early on the first day of the week, at sunrise, they went to the tomb. 3 They had been asking each other, “Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance to the tomb?” 4 But[fz] when they looked up, they saw that the stone, which was very large, had been rolled back. 5 Then[ga] as they went into the tomb, they saw a young man dressed in a white robe[gb] sitting on the right side; and they were alarmed. 6 But he said to them, “Do not be alarmed. You are looking for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified.[gc] He has been raised![gd] He is not here. Look, there is the place where they laid him. 7 But go, tell his disciples, even Peter, that he is going ahead of you into Galilee. You will see him there, just as he told you.” 8 Then[ge] they went out and ran from the tomb, for terror and bewilderment had seized them.[gf] And they said nothing to anyone, because they were afraid.
The Longer Ending of Mark[gg]
9 [[Early on the first day of the week, after he arose, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had driven out seven demons. 10 She went out and told those who were with him, while they were mourning and weeping. 11 And when they heard that he was alive and had been seen by her, they did not believe.
12 After this he appeared in a different form to two of them while they were on their way to the country. 13 They went back and told the rest, but they did not believe them. 14 Then he appeared to the eleven themselves, while they were eating, and he rebuked them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they did not believe those who had seen him resurrected. 15 He said to them, “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. 16 The one who believes and is baptized will be saved, but the one who does not believe will be condemned. 17 These signs will accompany those who believe: In my name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new languages;[gh] 18 they will pick up snakes with their hands, and whatever poison they drink will not harm them;[gi] they will place their hands on the sick and they will be well.” 19 After the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, he was taken up into heaven and sat down at the right hand of God. 20 They went out and proclaimed everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the word through the accompanying signs.]]
- Mark 14:1 tn Or “the chief priests and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
- Mark 14:1 tn Grk “were seeking how.”
- Mark 14:1 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:2 sn The suggestion here is that Jesus was too popular to openly arrest him. The verb were trying is imperfect. It suggests, in this context, that they were always considering the opportunities.
- Mark 14:3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Mark 14:3 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:3 sn See the note on leper in Mark 1:40.
- Mark 14:3 sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
- Mark 14:3 sn A jar made of alabaster stone was normally used for very precious substances like perfumes. It normally had a long neck which was sealed and had to be broken off so the contents could be used.
- Mark 14:3 tn Μύρον (muron) was usually made of myrrh (from which the English word is derived) but here it is used in the sense of ointment or perfumed oil (L&N 6.205). The adjective πιστικῆς (pistikēs) is difficult with regard to its exact meaning; some have taken it to derive from πίστις (pistis) and relate to the purity of the oil of nard. More probably it is something like a brand name, “pistic nard,” the exact significance of which has not been discovered.sn Nard or spikenard is a fragrant oil from the root and spike of the nard plant of northern India. This aromatic oil, if made of something like nard, would have been extremely expensive, costing up to a year’s pay for an average laborer.
- Mark 14:4 tn The word “expensive” is not in the Greek text but has been included to suggest a connection to the lengthy phrase “costly aromatic oil from pure nard” occurring earlier in v. 3. The author of Mark shortened this long phrase to just one word in Greek when repeated here, and the phrase “expensive ointment” used in the translation is intended as an abbreviated paraphrase.
- Mark 14:5 tn Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.
- Mark 14:5 tn Grk “three hundred denarii.” One denarius was the standard day’s wage, so the value exceeded what a laborer could earn in a year (taking in to account Sabbaths and feast days when no work was done).
- Mark 14:5 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied (as the proceeds from the sale of the perfumed oil).
- Mark 14:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
- Mark 14:7 tn In the Greek text of this clause, “me” is in emphatic position (the first word in the clause). To convey some impression of the emphasis, an exclamation point is used in the translation.
- Mark 14:9 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Mark 14:10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:10 tn Grk “betray him to them”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:11 sn The leaders were delighted when Judas contacted them about betraying Jesus, because it gave them the opportunity they had been looking for, and they could later claim that Jesus had been betrayed by one of his own disciples.
- Mark 14:11 sn Matt 26:15 states the amount of money they gave Judas was thirty pieces of silver (see also Matt 27:3-4; Zech 11:12-13).
- Mark 14:11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
- Mark 14:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Mark 14:12 tn The words “the feast of” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity.
- Mark 14:12 sn Generally the feast of Unleavened Bread would refer to Nisan 15 (Friday), but the following reference to the sacrifice of the Passover lamb indicates that Nisan 14 (Thursday) was what Mark had in mind (Nisan = March 27 to April 25). The celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread lasted eight days, beginning with the Passover meal. The celebrations were so close together that at times the names of both were used interchangeably.
- Mark 14:12 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:12 sn This required getting a suitable lamb and finding lodging in Jerusalem where the meal could be eaten. The population of the city swelled during the feast, so lodging could be difficult to find. The Passover was celebrated each year in commemoration of the Israelites’ deliverance from Egypt; thus it was a feast celebrating redemption (see Exod 12). The Passover lamb was roasted and eaten after sunset in a family group of at least ten people (m. Pesahim 7.13). People ate the meal while reclining (see the note on table in 14:18). It included, besides the lamb, unleavened bread and bitter herbs as a reminder of Israel’s bitter affliction at the hands of the Egyptians. Four cups of wine mixed with water were also used for the meal. For a further description of the meal and the significance of the wine cups, see E. Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 523-24.
- Mark 14:13 sn Since women usually carried these jars, it would have been no problem for the two disciples (Luke 22:8 states that they were Peter and John) to recognize the man Jesus was referring to.
- Mark 14:16 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the flow within the narrative.
- Mark 14:16 tn Grk “and came.”
- Mark 14:16 sn The author’s note that the disciples found things just as he had told them shows that Jesus’ word could be trusted.
- Mark 14:17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:17 tn The prepositional phrase “to the house” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for clarity.
- Mark 14:18 tn Grk “while they were reclined at the table.”sn 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.
- Mark 14:18 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Mark 14:18 tn Or “will hand me over”; Grk “one of you will betray me, the one who eats with me.”
- Mark 14:20 tn Grk “one who dips with me.” The phrase “his hand” has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:20 sn One who dips with me in the bowl. The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him—somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.
- Mark 14:24 tn Grk “this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many.” In order to avoid confusion about which is poured out, the translation supplies “blood” twice so that the following phrase clearly modifies “blood,” not “covenant.”
- Mark 14:24 tc Most mss (A ƒ1,13 M lat sy) have καινῆς (kainēs, “new”) before διαθήκης (diathēkēs, “covenant”), a reading that is almost surely influenced by the parallel passage in Luke 22:20. Further, the construction τὸ τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης (to tēs kainēs diathēkēs), in which the resumptive article τό (referring back to τὸ αἷμα [to |aima, “the blood”]) is immediately followed by the genitive article, is nowhere else used in Mark except for constructions involving a genitive of relationship (cf. Mark 2:14; 3:17, 18; 16:1). Thus, on both transcriptional and intrinsic grounds, this reading looks to be a later addition (which may have derived from τὸ τῆς διαθήκης of D* W). The most reliable mss, along with several others (א B C Dc L Θ Ψ 565), lack καινῆς. This reading is strongly preferred.sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.
- Mark 14:25 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Mark 14:25 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).
- Mark 14:25 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
- Mark 14:26 sn After singing a hymn. The Hallel Psalms (Pss 113-118) were sung during the meal. Psalms 113 and 114 were sung just before the second cup and 115-118 were sung at the end of the meal, after the fourth, or hallel cup.
- Mark 14:27 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:27 sn A quotation from Zech 13:7.
- Mark 14:30 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
- Mark 14:31 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Peter) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:31 tn Grk “said emphatically.”
- Mark 14:32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:32 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:33 tn Grk “and James,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
- Mark 14:36 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father.” Jesus used the term as a sign of his intimate relationship with God.sn This Aramaic word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated “father.” It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in English. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, “abbot.” Over the past fifty years a lot has been written about this term and Jesus’ use of it. Joachim Jeremias argued that Jesus routinely addressed God using this Aramaic word, and he also noted this was a “child’s word,” leading many to conclude its modern equivalent was “Daddy.” This conclusion Jeremias soon modified (the term on occasion is used of an adult son addressing his father) but the simplistic equation of abba with “Daddy” is still heard in some circles today. Nevertheless, the term does express a high degree of closeness with reverence, and in addition to the family circle could be used by disciples of a much loved and revered teacher.
- Mark 14:36 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Pss 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.
- Mark 14:37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:40 tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).
- Mark 14:41 tn Or “Sleep on, and get your rest.” This sentence can be taken either as a question or a sarcastic command.
- Mark 14:41 tc Codex D (with some support with minor variation from W Θ ƒ13 565 2542 it) reads, “Enough of that! It is the end and the hour has come.” Evidently, this addition highlights Jesus’ assertion that what he had predicted about his own death was now coming true (cf. Luke 22:37). Even though the addition highlights the accuracy of Jesus’ prediction, it should not be regarded as part of the text of Mark, since it receives little support from the rest of the witnesses and because D especially is prone to expand the wording of a text.
- Mark 14:42 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”
- Mark 14:43 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:43 tn Or “approached.” This is a different verb than the one translated “arrived” in Matt 26:47 and below in v. 45, although in this context the meanings probably overlap.
- Mark 14:43 tn Or “from the chief priests, scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
- Mark 14:44 tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”
- Mark 14:44 sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.
- Mark 14:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:45 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:45 sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.
- Mark 14:46 tn Grk “put their hands on him.”
- Mark 14:47 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.
- Mark 14:48 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist,” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).
- Mark 14:49 tn Grk “and”; καί (kai) is elastic enough to be used contrastively on occasion, as here.
- Mark 14:49 tn Grk “But so that”; the verb “has happened” is implied.
- Mark 14:50 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:50 tn Grk “they”; the referent (Jesus’ disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 14:52 sn The statement he ran off naked is probably a reference to Mark himself, traditionally assumed to be the author of this Gospel. Why he was wearing only an outer garment and not the customary tunic as well is not mentioned. W. L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 527-28, says that Mark probably mentioned this episode so as to make it clear that “all fled, leaving Jesus alone in the custody of the police.”
- Mark 14:53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:53 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
- Mark 14:54 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Mark 14:54 sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.
- Mark 14:57 tn Grk “Some standing up gave false testimony against him, saying.”
- Mark 14:60 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:60 tn Grk “in the middle.”
- Mark 14:61 tn Grk “questioned him and said to him.”
- Mark 14:61 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
- Mark 14:62 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.
- Mark 14:62 sn The expression the right hand of the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
- Mark 14:62 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13.
- Mark 14:64 tn Grk “What do you think?”
- Mark 14:65 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:65 tn For the translation of ῥάπισμα (rhapisma), see L&N 19.4.
- Mark 14:66 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Mark 14:66 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskē), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.
- Mark 14:68 tn Grk “he denied it, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
- Mark 14:68 tn Grk “I do not know or understand what you are saying.” In the translation this is taken as a hendiadys (a figure of speech where two terms express a single meaning, usually for emphatic reasons).
- Mark 14:68 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:68 tc Several significant witnesses (א B L W Ψ* 579 892) lack the words “and a rooster crowed.” The fact that such good and early Alexandrian witnesses lack these words makes this textual problem difficult to decide, especially because the words receive support from other witnesses, some of which are fairly decent (A C D Θ Ψc 067 ƒ1,13 33  M lat). The omission could have been intentional on the part of some Alexandrian scribes who wished to bring this text in line with the other Gospel accounts that only mention a rooster crowing once (Matt 26:74; Luke 22:60; John 18:27). The insertion could be an attempt to make the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy in 14:30 more explicit. Internally, the words “and a rooster crowed” fit Mark’s Gospel here, not only in view of 14:30, “before a rooster crows twice,” but also in view of the mention of “a second time” in 14:72 (a reading which is much more textually secure). Nevertheless, a decision is difficult.tn A real rooster crowing is probably in view here (rather than the Roman trumpet call known as gallicinium), in part due to the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice. See the discussion at Matt 26:74.
- Mark 14:70 tn Grk “Truly you are.”
- Mark 14:72 tn This occurrence of the word ἀλέκτωρ (alektōr, “rooster”) is anarthrous and consequently may not point back explicitly to the rooster which had crowed previously in v. 68. The reason for the anarthrous construction is most likely to indicate generically that some rooster crowed. Further, the translation of ἀλέκτωρ as an indefinite noun retains the subtlety of the Greek in only hinting at the Lord’s prediction v. 30. See also NAB, TEV, NASB.
- Mark 14:72 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 14:72 tn Grk “he wept deeply.”
- Mark 15:1 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
- Mark 15:1 sn The Jews most assuredly wanted to put Jesus to death, but they lacked the authority to do so. For this reason they handed him over to Pilate in hopes of securing a death sentence. The Romans kept close control of the death penalty in conquered territories to prevent it being used to execute Roman sympathizers.
- Mark 15:2 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action in the narrative.
- Mark 15:2 sn “Are you the king of the Jews?” Pilate was interested in this charge because of its political implications of sedition against Rome.
- Mark 15:2 tn Grk “answering, he said to him.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant, but the syntax of the phrase has been modified for clarity.
- Mark 15:2 sn The reply “You say so” is somewhat enigmatic, like Jesus’ earlier reply to the Jewish leadership (mentioned in Matt 26:64 and Luke 22:70).
- Mark 15:3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 15:4 tn Grk “Pilate asked him again, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.
- Mark 15:6 tn Grk “them”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.sn The custom of Pilate to release one prisoner to them is unknown outside the gospels in Jewish writings, but it was a Roman custom at the time and thus probably used in Palestine as well (cf. Matt 27:15; John 18:39); see W. W. Wessel, “Mark,” EBC 8:773-74.
- Mark 15:8 tn Grk “Coming up the crowd began to ask [him to do] as he was doing for them.”
- Mark 15:9 tn Grk “Pilate answered them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant and has not been translated.
- Mark 15:10 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
- Mark 15:11 tn Grk “to have him release for them.”
- Mark 15:12 tn Grk “answering, Pilate spoke to them again.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant and has not been translated.
- Mark 15:12 tc Instead of “what do you want me to do” several witnesses, including the most significant ones (א B C W Δ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 892), lack θέλετε (thelete, “you want”), turning the question into the more abrupt “what should I do?” Although the witnesses for the longer reading are not as significant (A D Θ 0250 M latt sy), the reading without θέλετε conforms to Matt 27:22 and thus is suspected of being a scribal emendation. The known scribal tendency to assimilate one synoptic passage to another parallel, coupled with the lack of such assimilation in mss that are otherwise known to do this most frequently (the Western and Byzantine texts), suggests that θέλετε is authentic. Further, Mark’s known style of being generally more verbose and redundant than Matthew’s argues that θέλετε is authentic here. That this is the longer reading, however, and that a good variety of witnesses omit the word, gives one pause. Perhaps the wording without θέλετε would have been perceived as having greater homiletical value, motivating scribes to move in this direction. A decision is difficult, but on the whole internal evidence leads toward regarding θέλετε as authentic.
- Mark 15:13 sn Crucifixion was the cruelest form of punishment practiced by the Romans. Roman citizens could not normally undergo it. It was reserved for the worst crimes, like treason and evasion of due process in a capital case. The Roman historian Cicero called it “a cruel and disgusting penalty” (Against Verres 2.5.63-66 §§163-70); Josephus (J. W. 7.6.4 [7.203]) called it the worst of deaths.
- Mark 15:15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 15:15 tn The Greek term φραγελλόω (phragelloō) refers to flogging. BDAG 1064 s.v. states, “flog, scourge, a punishment inflicted on slaves and provincials after a sentence of death had been pronounced on them. So in the case of Jesus before the crucifixion…Mt 27:26; Mk 15:15.”sn A Roman flogging (traditionally, “scourging”) was an excruciating punishment. The victim was stripped of his clothes and bound to a post with his hands fastened above him (or sometimes he was thrown to the ground). Guards standing on either side of the victim would incessantly beat him with a whip (flagellum) made out of leather with pieces of lead and bone inserted into its ends. While the Jews only allowed 39 lashes, the Romans had no such limit; many people who received such a beating died as a result. See C. Schneider, TDNT, 4:515-19.
- Mark 15:15 tn Or “delivered him up.”
- Mark 15:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to indicate that the soldiers’ action is in response to Pilate’s condemnation of the prisoner in v. 15.
- Mark 15:16 tn Grk “(that is, the praetorium).” sn The governor’s residence (Grk “praetorium”) was the Roman governor’s official residence. The one in Jerusalem may have been Herod’s palace in the western part of the city, or the fortress Antonia northwest of the temple area.
- Mark 15:16 sn A Roman cohort was a tenth of a legion, about 500-600 soldiers.
- Mark 15:17 sn The purple cloak probably refers to a military garment which had the color of royal purple, and thus resembled a king’s robe. The soldiers did this to Jesus as a form of mockery in view of the charges that he was a king (cf. 15:2).
- Mark 15:17 tn Or “weaving.”
- Mark 15:17 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.
- Mark 15:18 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).
- Mark 15:19 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.
- Mark 15:19 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.
- Mark 15:20 tn The aorist tense is taken consummatively here.
- Mark 15:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 15:20 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.
- Mark 15:21 tn Grk “They”; the referent (the soldiers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 15:21 tn Or “conscripted”; or “pressed into service.”
- Mark 15:21 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help (in all probability this was only the crossbeam, called in Latin the patibulum, since the upright beam usually remained in the ground at the place of execution). Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon.
- Mark 15:21 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).
- Mark 15:22 tn Grk “him.”
- Mark 15:22 tn Grk “a place, Golgotha.” This is an Aramaic name; see John 19:17.
- Mark 15:22 sn The place called Golgotha (which is translated “Place of the Skull”). This location is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for the Greek term κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” is derived (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
- Mark 15:23 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with myrrh (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.
- Mark 15:24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 15:24 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.
- Mark 15:24 tn Grk “by throwing the lot” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent, “throwing dice,” was chosen here because of its association with gambling. According to L&N 6.219 a term for “dice” is particularly appropriate.sn An allusion to Ps 22:18.
- Mark 15:25 tn Grk “It was the third hour.” This time would have been approximate, and could refer to the beginning of the process, some time before Jesus was lifted on the cross.
- Mark 15:26 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
- Mark 15:27 tc Most later mss add 15:28 “And the scripture was fulfilled that says, ‘He was counted with the lawless ones.’” Verse 28 is included in L Θ 083 0250 ƒ1,13 33 M lat, but is lacking in significant Alexandrian and Western mss and some others (א A B C D Ψ). The addition of the verse with its quotation from Isa 53:12 probably represents a scribal assimilation from Luke 22:37. It was almost certainly not an original part of Mark’s Gospel. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
- Mark 15:30 sn There is rich irony in the statement of those who were passing by, “Save yourself and come down from the cross!” In summary, they wanted Jesus to come down from the cross and save his physical life, but it was indeed his staying on the cross and giving his physical life that led to the fact that they could experience a resurrection from death to life. There is a similar kind of irony in the statement made by the chief priests and experts in the law in 15:31.
- Mark 15:31 tn Or “with the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22. Only “chief priests” is in the nominative case; this sentence structure attempts to capture this emphasis.
- Mark 15:31 tn Grk “Mocking him, the chief priests…said among themselves.”
- Mark 15:32 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
- Mark 15:32 sn Mark’s wording suggests that both of the criminals spoke abusively to him. If so, one of them quickly changed his attitude toward Jesus (see Luke 23:40-43).
- Mark 15:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
- Mark 15:33 tn Grk “When the sixth hour had come.”
- Mark 15:33 sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15.
- Mark 15:33 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”
- Mark 15:34 tn The repetition of the phrase “three o’clock” preserves the author’s rougher, less elegant style (cf. Matt 27:45-46; Luke 23:44). Although such stylistic matters are frequently handled differently in the translation, because the issue of synoptic literary dependence is involved here, it was considered important to reflect some of the stylistic differences among the synoptics in the translation, so that the English reader can be aware of them.
- Mark 15:34 sn A quotation from Ps 22:1.
- Mark 15:35 sn Perhaps the crowd thought Jesus was calling for Elijah because the exclamation “my God, my God” (i.e., in Aramaic, Eloi, Eloi) sounds like the name Elijah.
- Mark 15:36 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.
- Mark 15:36 tn Grk “a reed.”
- Mark 15:38 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
- Mark 15:39 sn A centurion was a noncommissioned officer in the Roman army or one of the auxiliary territorial armies, commanding a centuria of (nominally) 100 men. The responsibilities of centurions were broadly similar to modern junior officers, but there was a wide gap in social status between them and officers, and relatively few were promoted beyond the rank of senior centurion. The Roman troops stationed in Judea were auxiliaries, who would normally be rewarded with Roman citizenship after 25 years of service. Some of the centurions throughout the region may have served originally in the Roman legions (regular army) and thus gained their citizenship at enlistment. Others may have inherited it, like the apostle Paul did (cf. Acts 22:28).
- Mark 15:39 tn Grk “the way he breathed his last”; or “the way he expired”; or “that he thus breathed no more.”
- Mark 15:40 sn In Matt 27:56 the name Joses is written as Joseph.
- Mark 15:41 tn Grk “and ministered to him.”sn Cf. Luke 8:3.
- Mark 15:42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic and introduction of a new character.
- Mark 15:42 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.
- Mark 15:43 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.
- Mark 15:43 tn Or “waiting for.”sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
- Mark 15:43 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself.
- Mark 15:43 sn Asking for the body of Jesus was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Luke 23:51). He did this because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial.
- Mark 15:44 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Mark 15:44 sn See the note on the word centurion in 15:39.
- Mark 15:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Pilate) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 15:46 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Joseph of Arimathea) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 15:46 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
- Mark 15:46 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.25).
- Mark 15:46 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 15:46 tn Or “to the door,” “against the door.”
- Mark 15:47 tn Grk “it”; the referent (Jesus’ body) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Mark 16:1 tn On this term see BDAG 140 s.v. ἄρωμα. The Jews did not practice embalming, so these materials were used to cover the stench of decay and slow decomposition.sn Spices were used not to preserve the body, but as an act of love, and to mask the growing stench of a corpse.
- Mark 16:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
- Mark 16:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 16:5 sn Mark does not explicitly identify the young man dressed in a white robe as an angel (though the white robe suggests this), but Matthew does (Matt 28:2).
- Mark 16:6 sn See the note on Crucify in 15:13.
- Mark 16:6 tn The verb here is passive (ἠγέρθη, ēgerthē). This “divine passive” (see ExSyn 437-38) points to the fact that Jesus was raised by God.
- Mark 16:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Mark 16:8 tn Grk “trembling and bewilderment began to grip them.”
- Mark 16:9 tc The Gospel of Mark ends at this point in some witnesses (א B sys sams armmss geomss Eus Eusmss Hiermss), including two of the most respected mss (א B). This is known as the “short ending.” The following “intermediate” ending is found in some mss: “They reported briefly to those around Peter all that they had been commanded. After these things Jesus himself sent out through them, from the east to the west, the holy and imperishable preaching of eternal salvation. Amen.” This intermediate ending is usually included with the longer ending (L Ψ 083 099 579 pc); k, however, ends at this point. Most mss include the “long ending” (vv. 9-20) immediately after v. 8 (A C D W [which has unique material between vv. 14 and 15] Θ ƒ13 33 M lat syc,p,h bo); however, Eusebius (and presumably Jerome) knew of almost no Greek mss that had this ending. Several mss have marginal comments noting that earlier Greek mss lacked the verses. Internal evidence strongly suggests the secondary nature of both the intermediate and the long endings. Their vocabulary, syntax, and style are decidedly non-Markan (for further details, see TCGNT 102-6). All of this evidence indicates that as time went on scribes added the longer ending, either for the richness of its material or because of the abruptness of the ending at v. 8. (Indeed, the strange variety of dissimilar endings attests to the likelihood that early scribes had a copy of Mark that ended at v. 8, and they filled out the text with what seemed to be an appropriate conclusion. All of the witnesses for alternative endings to vv. 9-20 thus indirectly confirm the Gospel as ending at v. 8.) Because of such problems regarding the authenticity of these alternative endings, 16:8 is usually regarded today as the last verse of the Gospel of Mark. There are three possible explanations for Mark ending at 16:8: (1) The author intentionally ended the Gospel here in an open-ended fashion; (2) the Gospel was never finished; or (3) the last leaf of the ms was lost prior to copying. This first explanation is the most likely due to several factors, including (a) the probability that the Gospel was originally written on a scroll rather than a codex (only on a codex would the last leaf get lost prior to copying); (b) the unlikelihood of the ms not being completed; and (c) the literary power of ending the Gospel so abruptly that the readers are now drawn into the story itself. E. Best aptly states, “It is in keeping with other parts of his Gospel that Mark should not give an explicit account of a conclusion where this is already well known to his readers” (Mark, 73; note also his discussion of the ending of this Gospel on 132 and elsewhere). The readers must now ask themselves, “What will I do with Jesus? If I do not accept him in his suffering, I will not see him in his glory.” For further discussion and viewpoints, see Perspectives on the Ending of Mark: Four Views, ed. D. A. Black (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2008); Nicholas P. Lunn, The Original Ending of Mark: A New Case for the Authenticity of Mark 16:9-20 (London: Pickwick, 2014); Gregory P. Sapaugh, “An Appraisal of the Intrinsic Probability of the Longer Endings of the Gospel of Mark” (Ph.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 2012).sn Double brackets have been placed around this passage to indicate that most likely it was not part of the original text of the Gospel of Mark. In spite of this, the passage has an important role in the history of the transmission of the text, so it has been included in the translation.
- Mark 16:17 tn Grk “tongues,” though the word is used figuratively (perhaps as a metonymy of cause for effect). To “speak in tongues” meant to “speak in a foreign language,” though one that was new to the one speaking it and therefore due to supernatural causes. For a discussion concerning whether such was a human language, heavenly language, or merely ecstatic utterance, see BDAG 201-2 s.v. γλῶσσα 2, 3; BDAG 399 s.v. ἕτερος 2; L&N 33.2-4; ExSyn 698; C. M. Robeck Jr., “Tongues,” DPL, 939-43.
- Mark 16:18 tn For further comment on the nature of this statement, whether it is a promise or prediction, see ExSyn 403-6.