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The Sending of the Twelve Apostles

After[a] Jesus[b] called[c] the twelve[d] together, he gave them power and authority over all demons and to cure[e] diseases, and he sent[f] them out to proclaim[g] the kingdom of God[h] and to heal the sick.[i] He[j] said to them, “Take nothing for your[k] journey—no staff,[l] no bag,[m] no bread, no money, and do not take an extra tunic.[n] Whatever[o] house you enter, stay there[p] until you leave the area.[q] Wherever[r] they do not receive you,[s] as you leave that town,[t] shake the dust off[u] your feet as a testimony against them.” Then[v] they departed and went throughout[w] the villages, proclaiming the good news[x] and healing people everywhere.

Herod’s Confusion about Jesus

Now Herod[y] the tetrarch[z] heard about everything that was happening, and he was thoroughly perplexed,[aa] because some people were saying that John[ab] had been raised from the dead, while others were saying that Elijah[ac] had appeared, and still others that one of the prophets of long ago had risen.[ad] Herod said, “I had John[ae] beheaded, but who is this about whom I hear such things?” So Herod wanted to learn about Jesus.[af]

The Feeding of the Five Thousand

10 When[ag] the apostles returned,[ah] they told Jesus[ai] everything they had done. Then[aj] he took them with him and they withdrew privately to a town[ak] called Bethsaida.[al] 11 But when the crowds found out, they followed him. He[am] welcomed them, spoke to them about the kingdom of God,[an] and cured those who needed healing.[ao] 12 Now the day began to draw to a close,[ap] so[aq] the twelve came and said to Jesus,[ar] “Send the crowd away, so they can go into the surrounding villages and countryside and find lodging[as] and food, because we are in an isolated place.”[at] 13 But he said to them, “You[au] give them something to eat.” They[av] replied,[aw] “We have no more than five loaves and two fish—unless[ax] we go[ay] and buy food[az] for all these people.” 14 (Now about 5,000 men[ba] were there.)[bb] Then[bc] he said to his disciples, “Have[bd] them sit down in groups of about fifty each.” 15 So they did as Jesus directed,[be] and the people[bf] all sat down.

16 Then[bg] he took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven he gave thanks[bh] and broke them. He gave them to the disciples to set before the crowd. 17 They all ate and were satisfied, and what was left over[bi] was picked up—twelve baskets of broken pieces.

Peter’s Confession

18 Once[bj] when Jesus[bk] was praying[bl] by himself, and his disciples were nearby, he asked them,[bm] “Who do the crowds say that I am?”[bn] 19 They[bo] answered,[bp] “John the Baptist; others say Elijah;[bq] and still others that one of the prophets of long ago has risen.”[br] 20 Then[bs] he said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter[bt] answered,[bu] “The Christ[bv] of God.” 21 But he forcefully commanded[bw] them not to tell this to anyone,[bx] 22 saying, “The Son of Man must suffer[by] many things and be rejected by the elders,[bz] chief priests, and experts in the law,[ca] and be killed, and on the third day be raised.”[cb]

A Call to Discipleship

23 Then[cc] he said to them all,[cd] “If anyone wants to become my follower,[ce] he must deny[cf] himself, take up his cross daily,[cg] and follow me. 24 For whoever wants to save his life[ch] will lose it,[ci] but whoever loses his life because of me[cj] will save it. 25 For what does it benefit a person[ck] if he gains the whole world but loses or forfeits himself? 26 For whoever is ashamed[cl] of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of that person[cm] when he comes in his glory and in the glory[cn] of the Father and of the holy angels. 27 But I tell you most certainly,[co] there are some standing here who will not[cp] experience[cq] death before they see the kingdom of God.”[cr]

The Transfiguration

28 Now[cs] about eight days[ct] after these sayings, Jesus[cu] took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up the mountain to pray. 29 As[cv] he was praying,[cw] the appearance of his face was transformed,[cx] and his clothes became very bright, a brilliant white.[cy] 30 Then[cz] two men, Moses and Elijah,[da] began talking with him.[db] 31 They appeared in glorious splendor and spoke about his departure[dc] that he was about to carry out[dd] at Jerusalem. 32 Now Peter and those with him were quite sleepy,[de] but as they became fully awake,[df] they saw his glory and the two men standing with him. 33 Then[dg] as the men[dh] were starting to leave,[di] Peter said to Jesus, “Master, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters,[dj] one for you and one for Moses and one for Elijah”—not knowing what he was saying. 34 As[dk] he was saying this, a cloud[dl] came[dm] and overshadowed[dn] them, and they were afraid as they entered the cloud. 35 Then[do] a voice came from the cloud, saying, “This is my Son, my Chosen One.[dp] Listen to him!”[dq] 36 After[dr] the voice had spoken, Jesus was found alone. So[ds] they kept silent and told no one[dt] at that time[du] anything of what they had seen.

Healing a Boy with an Unclean Spirit

37 Now on[dv] the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, a large crowd met him. 38 Then[dw] a man from the crowd cried out,[dx] “Teacher, I beg you to look at[dy] my son—he is my only child! 39 A[dz] spirit seizes him, and he suddenly screams;[ea] it throws him into convulsions[eb] and causes him to foam at the mouth. It hardly ever leaves him alone, torturing[ec] him severely. 40 I[ed] begged[ee] your disciples to cast it out, but[ef] they could not do so.”[eg] 41 Jesus answered,[eh] “You[ei] unbelieving[ej] and perverse generation! How much longer[ek] must I be with you and endure[el] you?[em] Bring your son here.” 42 As[en] the boy[eo] was approaching, the demon threw him to the ground[ep] and shook him with convulsions.[eq] But Jesus rebuked[er] the unclean[es] spirit, healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 43 Then[et] they were all astonished at the mighty power[eu] of God.

Another Prediction of Jesus’ Suffering

But while the entire crowd[ev] was amazed at everything Jesus[ew] was doing, he said to his disciples, 44 “Take these words to heart,[ex] for the Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men.”[ey] 45 But they did not understand this statement; its meaning[ez] had been concealed[fa] from them, so that they could not grasp it. Yet[fb] they were afraid to ask him about this statement.

Concerning the Greatest

46 Now an argument started among the disciples[fc] as to which of them might be[fd] the greatest. 47 But when Jesus discerned their innermost thoughts,[fe] he took a child, had him stand by[ff] his side, 48 and said to them, “Whoever welcomes[fg] this child[fh] in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me, for the one who is least among you all is the one who is great.”[fi]

On the Right Side

49 John answered,[fj] “Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop[fk] him because he is not a disciple[fl] along with us.” 50 But Jesus said to him, “Do not stop him, for whoever is not against you is for you.”

Rejection in Samaria

51 Now when[fm] the days drew near[fn] for him to be taken up,[fo] Jesus[fp] set out resolutely[fq] to go to Jerusalem. 52 He[fr] sent messengers on ahead of him.[fs] As they went along,[ft] they entered a Samaritan village to make things ready in advance[fu] for him, 53 but the villagers[fv] refused to welcome[fw] him, because he was determined to go to Jerusalem.[fx] 54 Now when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, “Lord, do you want us to call fire to come down from heaven and consume[fy] them?”[fz] 55 But Jesus[ga] turned and rebuked them,[gb] 56 and they went on to another village.

Challenging Professed Followers

57 As[gc] they were walking[gd] along the road, someone said to him, “I will follow you wherever you go.”[ge] 58 Jesus said to him, “Foxes have dens and the birds in the sky[gf] have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head.”[gg] 59 Jesus[gh] said to another, “Follow me.” But he replied,[gi] “Lord, first let me go and bury my father.” 60 But Jesus[gj] said to him, “Let the dead bury their own dead,[gk] but as for you, go and proclaim the kingdom of God.”[gl] 61 Yet[gm] another said, “I will follow you, Lord, but first let me say goodbye to my family.”[gn] 62 Jesus[go] said to him, “No one who puts his[gp] hand to the plow and looks back[gq] is fit for the kingdom of God.”[gr]

The Mission of the Seventy-Two

10 After this[gs] the Lord appointed seventy-two[gt] others and sent them on ahead of him two by two into every town[gu] and place where he himself was about to go. He[gv] said to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the workers are few. Therefore ask the Lord of the harvest[gw] to send out[gx] workers into his harvest. Go! I[gy] am sending you out like lambs[gz] surrounded by wolves.[ha] Do not carry[hb] a money bag,[hc] a traveler’s bag,[hd] or sandals, and greet no one on the road.[he] Whenever[hf] you enter a house,[hg] first say, ‘May peace[hh] be on this house!’ And if a peace-loving person[hi] is there, your peace will remain on him, but if not, it will return to you.[hj] Stay[hk] in that same house, eating and drinking what they give you,[hl] for the worker deserves his pay.[hm] Do not move around from house to house. Whenever[hn] you enter a town[ho] and the people[hp] welcome you, eat what is set before you. Heal[hq] the sick in that town[hr] and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God[hs] has come upon[ht] you!’ 10 But whenever[hu] you enter a town[hv] and the people[hw] do not welcome[hx] you, go into its streets[hy] and say, 11 ‘Even the dust of your town[hz] that clings to our feet we wipe off[ia] against you.[ib] Nevertheless know this: The kingdom of God has come.’[ic] 12 I tell you, it will be more bearable on that day for Sodom[id] than for that town![ie]

13 “Woe to you, Chorazin![if] Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if[ig] the miracles[ih] done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon,[ii] they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.[ij] 14 But it will be more bearable for Tyre and Sidon[ik] in the judgment than for you! 15 And you, Capernaum,[il] will you be exalted to heaven?[im] No, you will be thrown down to Hades![in]

16 “The one who listens[io] to you listens to me,[ip] and the one who rejects you rejects me, and the one who rejects me rejects[iq] the one who sent me.”[ir]

17 Then[is] the seventy-two[it] returned with joy, saying, “Lord, even the demons submit to[iu] us in your name!”[iv] 18 So[iw] he said to them, “I saw[ix] Satan fall[iy] like lightning[iz] from heaven. 19 Look, I have given you authority to tread[ja] on snakes and scorpions[jb] and on the full force of the enemy,[jc] and nothing will[jd] hurt you. 20 Nevertheless, do not rejoice that[je] the spirits submit to you, but rejoice[jf] that your names stand written[jg] in heaven.”

21 On that same occasion[jh] Jesus[ji] rejoiced[jj] in the Holy Spirit and said, “I praise[jk] you, Father, Lord[jl] of heaven and earth, because[jm] you have hidden these things from the wise[jn] and intelligent, and revealed them to little children.[jo] Yes, Father, for this was your gracious will.[jp] 22 All things have been given to me by my Father.[jq] No one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son decides[jr] to reveal him.”

23 Then[js] Jesus[jt] turned[ju] to his[jv] disciples and said privately, “Blessed[jw] are the eyes that see what you see! 24 For I tell you that many prophets and kings longed to see[jx] what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.”

The Parable of the Good Samaritan

25 Now[jy] an expert in religious law[jz] stood up to test Jesus,[ka] saying, “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?”[kb] 26 He said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you understand it?”[kc] 27 The expert[kd] answered, “Love[ke] the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind,[kf] and love your neighbor as yourself.”[kg] 28 Jesus[kh] said to him, “You have answered correctly;[ki] do this, and you will live.”

29 But the expert,[kj] wanting to justify[kk] himself, said to Jesus, “And who is my neighbor?” 30 Jesus replied,[kl] “A man was going down[km] from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell into the hands of robbers, who stripped him, beat[kn] him up, and went off, leaving him half dead.[ko] 31 Now by chance[kp] a priest was going down that road, but[kq] when he saw the injured man[kr] he passed by[ks] on the other side.[kt] 32 So too a Levite, when he came up to[ku] the place and saw him,[kv] passed by on the other side. 33 But[kw] a Samaritan[kx] who was traveling[ky] came to where the injured man[kz] was, and when he saw him, he felt compassion for him.[la] 34 He[lb] went up to him[lc] and bandaged his wounds, pouring olive oil[ld] and wine on them. Then[le] he put him on[lf] his own animal,[lg] brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35 The[lh] next day he took out two silver coins[li] and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, ‘Take care of him, and whatever else you spend, I will repay you when I come back this way.’[lj] 36 Which of these three do you think became a neighbor[lk] to the man who fell into the hands of the robbers?” 37 The expert in religious law[ll] said, “The one who showed mercy[lm] to him.” So[ln] Jesus said to him, “Go and do[lo] the same.”

Jesus and Martha

38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus[lp] entered a certain village where a woman named Martha welcomed him as a guest.[lq] 39 She[lr] had a sister named Mary, who sat[ls] at the Lord’s feet[lt] and listened to what he said. 40 But Martha was distracted[lu] with all the preparations she had to make,[lv] so[lw] she came up to him and said, “Lord, don’t you care[lx] that my sister has left me to do all the work[ly] alone? Tell[lz] her to help me.” 41 But the Lord[ma] answered her,[mb] “Martha, Martha,[mc] you are worried and troubled[md] about many things, 42 but one thing[me] is needed. Mary has chosen the best[mf] part; it will not be taken away from her.”

Footnotes

  1. Luke 9:1 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  2. Luke 9:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Luke 9:1 tn An aorist participle preceding an aorist main verb may indicate either contemporaneous (simultaneous) action (“When he called…he gave”) or antecedent (prior) action (“After he called…he gave”). The participle συγκαλεσάμενος (sunkalesamenos) has been translated here as indicating antecedent action.
  4. Luke 9:1 tc Some mss add ἀποστόλους (apostolous, “apostles”; א C* L Θ Ψ 070 0291 ƒ13 33 579 892 1241 1424 2542 lat) or μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ (mathētas autou, “his disciples”; C3 al it) here, but such clarifying notes are clearly secondary.
  5. Luke 9:1 sn Note how Luke distinguishes between exorcisms (authority over all demons) and diseases here.
  6. Luke 9:2 sn “To send out” is often a term of divine commission in Luke: 1:19; 4:18, 43; 7:27; 9:48; 10:1, 16; 11:49; 13:34; 24:49.
  7. Luke 9:2 tn Or “to preach.”
  8. Luke 9:2 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  9. Luke 9:2 sn As Jesus’ own ministry (Luke 4:16-44) involved both word (to proclaim) and deed (to heal) so also would that of the disciples.
  10. Luke 9:3 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  11. Luke 9:3 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  12. Luke 9:3 sn Mark 6:8 allows one staff. It might be that Luke’s summary (cf. Matt 10:9-10) means not taking an extra staff or that the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.
  13. Luke 9:3 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).
  14. Luke 9:3 tn Grk “have two tunics.” See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.
  15. Luke 9:4 tn Grk “And whatever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  16. Luke 9:4 sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay there in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging.
  17. Luke 9:4 tn Grk “and depart from there.” The literal wording could be easily misunderstood; the meaning is that the disciples were not to move from house to house in the same town or locality, but remain at the same house as long as they were in that place.
  18. Luke 9:5 tn Grk “And wherever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  19. Luke 9:5 tn Grk “all those who do not receive you.”
  20. Luke 9:5 tn Or “city.”
  21. Luke 9:5 sn To shake the dust off represented shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. It was a sign of rejection.
  22. Luke 9:6 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  23. Luke 9:6 tn This is a distributive use of κατά (kata); see L&N 83:12 where this verse is cited as an example of the usage.
  24. Luke 9:6 tn Or “preaching the gospel.” sn This verse is similar to Luke 9:2, except for good news at this point. The change means that to “preach the kingdom” is to “preach the good news.” The ideas are interchangeable as summaries for the disciples’ message. They are combined in Luke 8:1.
  25. Luke 9:7 sn Herod refers here to Herod Antipas. See the note on Herod Antipas in 3:1.
  26. Luke 9:7 sn See the note on tetrarch in 3:1.
  27. Luke 9:7 tn Or “was very confused.” See L&N 32.10 where this verse is given as an example of the usage.
  28. Luke 9:7 sn John refers to John the Baptist, whom Herod had beheaded (v. 9).
  29. Luke 9:8 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.
  30. Luke 9:8 sn The phrase had risen could be understood to mean “had been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. The three options of vv. 7-8 will be repeated in v. 19.
  31. Luke 9:9 tn Grk “John I beheaded”; John’s name is in emphatic position in the Greek text. The verb is causative, since Herod would not have personally carried out the execution.
  32. Luke 9:9 tn The expression ἐζήτει ἰδεῖν αὐτόν (ezētei idein auton, “was seeking to see him”) probably indicates that Herod, for curiosity’s sake or more likely for evil purposes, wanted to get to know Jesus, i.e., who he was and what he was doing. See I. H. Marshall, Luke (NIGTC), 357. Herod finally got his wish in Luke 23:6-12, with inconclusive results from his point of view.
  33. Luke 9:10 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  34. Luke 9:10 tn The participle ὑποστρέψαντες (hupostrepsantes) has been taken temporally.
  35. Luke 9:10 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  36. Luke 9:10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  37. Luke 9:10 tc There is a seeming myriad of variants for this text. Many mss read εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (eis topon erēmon, “to a deserted place”; א*,2 [1241]) or εἰς τόπον ἔρημον πόλεως καλουμένης Βηθσαϊδά (eis topon erēmon poleōs kaloumenēs Bēthsaida, “to a deserted place of a town called Bethsaida”; [A] C W Ξmg1,13] [565] M) here, while others have εἰς κώμην λεγομένην Βηδσαϊδά (eis kōmēn legomenēn Bēdsaida, “to a village called Bedsaida”; D), εἰς κώμην καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά εἰς τόπον ἔρημον (eis kōmēn kaloumenēn Bēthsaida eis topon erēmon, “to a village called Bethsaida to a deserted place”; Θ), or εἰς τόπον καλουμένον Βηθσαϊδά (eis topon kaloumenon Bēthsaida, “to a place called Bethsaida”; Ψ). The Greek behind the translation (εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαϊδά, eis polin kaloumenēn Bēthsaida) is supported by (P75) א1 B L Ξ* 33 2542 co. The variants can be grouped generally into those that speak of a “deserted place” and those that speak of a place/city/town called Bethsaida. The Byzantine reading is evidently a conflation of the earlier texts, and should be dismissed as secondary. The variants that speak of a deserted place are an assimilation to Mark 6:32, as well a harmonization with v. 12, and should also be regarded as secondary. The reading that best explains the rise of the others—both internally and externally—is the one that stands behind the translation and is found in the text of NA28.tn Or “city.”
  38. Luke 9:10 sn Bethsaida was a town on the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee. Probably this should be understood to mean a place in the vicinity of the town. It represents an attempt to reconcile the location with the place of the miraculous feeding that follows.
  39. Luke 9:11 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  40. Luke 9:11 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  41. Luke 9:11 sn Again the combination of word (spoke to them) and healing (cured, compassionate deed) is what summarizes Jesus’ ministry: See Luke 4:38-44; 6:17-19; 7:22 (as also the disciples, 9:6).
  42. Luke 9:12 tn Grk “the day began to decline,” looking to the approach of sunset.
  43. Luke 9:12 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ request was related to the approach of sunset.
  44. Luke 9:12 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  45. Luke 9:12 tn That is, find someone to show them hospitality. L&N 34.61 has “find lodging,” using this verse as an example.
  46. Luke 9:12 tn Or “in a desert” (meaning a deserted or desolate area with sparse vegetation). Here ὧδε (hōde) has not been translated.
  47. Luke 9:13 tn Here the pronoun ὑμεῖς (humeis) is used, making “you” in the translation emphatic.
  48. Luke 9:13 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  49. Luke 9:13 tn Grk “said.”
  50. Luke 9:13 tn This possibility is introduced through a conditional clause, but it is expressed with some skepticism (BDF §376).
  51. Luke 9:13 tn The participle πορευθέντες (poreuthentes) has been taken as indicating attendant circumstance.
  52. Luke 9:13 sn Not only would going and buying food have been expensive and awkward at this late time of day, it would have taken quite a logistical effort to get the food back out to this isolated location.
  53. Luke 9:14 tn The Greek text reads here ἄνδρες (andres)—that is, adult males. The actual count would be larger, since the use of this Greek term suggests that women and children were not included in this number (see the parallel in Matt 14:21).
  54. Luke 9:14 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  55. Luke 9:14 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  56. Luke 9:14 tn Or “Make” (depending on how the force of the imperative verb is understood). Grk “cause them to recline” (the verb has causative force here).
  57. Luke 9:15 tn Grk “And they did thus.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the disciples’ action was a result of Jesus’ instructions. The adverb οὕτως (houtōs, “thus”) has been expanded in the translation to “as Jesus directed” to clarify what was done.
  58. Luke 9:15 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  59. Luke 9:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  60. Luke 9:16 sn Gave thanks adds a note of gratitude to the setting. The scene is like two other later meals: Luke 22:19 and 24:30. Jesus gives thanks to God “with respect to” the provision of food. The disciples learn how Jesus is the mediator of blessing. John 6 speaks of him in this scene as picturing the “Bread of Life.”
  61. Luke 9:17 sn There was more than enough for everybody, as indicated by the gathering of what was left over.
  62. Luke 9:18 tn Grk “And it happened that.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  63. Luke 9:18 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  64. Luke 9:18 sn Prayer is a favorite theme of Luke and he is the only one of the gospel authors to mention it in the following texts (with the exception of 22:41): Luke 3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 9:28-29; 11:1; 22:41; 23:34, 46.
  65. Luke 9:18 tn Grk “the disciples were with him, and he asked them, saying.”
  66. Luke 9:18 snWho do the crowds say that I am?” The question of who Jesus is occurs frequently in this section of Luke: 7:49; 8:25; 9:9. The answer resolves a major theme of Luke’s Gospel.
  67. Luke 9:19 tn Grk “And they.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  68. Luke 9:19 tn Grk “And answering, they said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “They answered.”
  69. Luke 9:19 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.
  70. Luke 9:19 sn The phrase has risen could be understood to mean “has been resurrected,” but this is only a possible option, not a necessary one, since the phrase could merely mean that a figure had appeared on the scene who mirrored an earlier historical figure. Note that the three categories in the reply match the ones in Luke 9:7-8.
  71. Luke 9:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  72. Luke 9:20 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  73. Luke 9:20 tn Grk “Peter answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Peter answered.”
  74. Luke 9:20 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.” sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  75. Luke 9:21 tn The combination of the participle and verb ἐπιτιμήσας and παρήγγειλεν (epitimēsas and parēngeilen, “commanding, he ordered”) is a hendiadys that makes the instruction emphatic.
  76. Luke 9:21 sn No explanation for the command not to tell this to anyone is given, but the central section of Luke, chapters 9-19, appears to reveal a reason. The disciples needed to understand who the Messiah really was and exactly what he would do before they were ready to proclaim Jesus as such. But they and the people had an expectation that needed some instruction to be correct.
  77. Luke 9:22 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis, since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.
  78. Luke 9:22 sn Rejection in Luke is especially by the Jewish leadership (here elders, chief priests, and experts in the law), though in Luke 23 almost all will join in.
  79. Luke 9:22 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  80. Luke 9:22 sn The description of the Son of Man being rejected…killed, and…raised is the first of six passion summaries in Luke: 9:44; 17:25; 18:31-33; 24:7; 24:46-47.
  81. Luke 9:23 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  82. Luke 9:23 sn Here them all could be limited to the disciples, since Jesus was alone with them in v. 18. It could also be that by this time the crowd had followed and found him, and he addressed them, or this could be construed as a separate occasion from the discussion with the disciples in 9:18-22. The cost of discipleship is something Jesus was willing to tell both insiders and outsiders about. The rejection he felt would also fall on his followers.
  83. Luke 9:23 tn Grk “to come after me.”
  84. Luke 9:23 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.
  85. Luke 9:23 sn Only Luke mentions taking up one’s cross daily. To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.
  86. Luke 9:24 tn Grk “his soul.” The Greek ψυχή (psuchē) has many different meanings depending on the context. The two primary meanings here are the earthly life (animate life, sometimes called “physical life”) and the inner life (the life that transcends the earthly life, sometimes called “the soul”). The fact that the Greek term can have both meanings creates in this verse both a paradox and a wordplay. The desire to preserve both aspects of ψυχή (psuchē) for oneself creates the tension here (cf. BDAG 1099 s.v. 1.a; 2.d,e). Translation of the Greek term ψυχή (psuchē) presents a particularly difficult problem in this verse. Most English versions since the KJV have translated the term “life.” This preserves the paradox of finding one’s “life” (in the sense of earthly life) while at the same time really losing it (in the sense of “soul” or transcendent inner life) and vice versa, but at the same time it obscures the wordplay that results from the same Greek word having multiple meanings. To translate as “soul,” however, gives the modern English reader the impression of the immortal soul at the expense of the earthly life. On the whole it is probably best to use the translation “life” and retain the paradox at the expense of the wordplay.
  87. Luke 9:24 sn The point of the saying whoever wants to save his life will lose it is that if one comes to Jesus then rejection by many will certainly follow. If self-protection is a key motivation, then one will not respond to Jesus and will not be saved. One who is willing to risk rejection will respond and find true life.
  88. Luke 9:24 tn Or “for my sake.” The traditional rendering “for my sake” can be understood in the sense of “for my benefit,” but the Greek term ἕνεκα (heneka) indicates the cause or reason for something (BDAG 334 s.v. 1).
  89. Luke 9:25 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos) is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.
  90. Luke 9:26 sn How one responds now to Jesus and his teaching is a reflection of how Jesus, as the Son of Man who judges, will respond then in the final judgment.
  91. Luke 9:26 tn This pronoun (τοῦτον, touton) is in emphatic position in its own clause in the Greek text: “of that person the Son of Man will be ashamed…”
  92. Luke 9:26 tn Grk “in the glory of him and of the Father and of the holy angels.” “Glory” is repeated here in the translation for clarity and smoothness because the literal phrase is unacceptably awkward in contemporary English.
  93. Luke 9:27 tn Grk “I tell you truly” (λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ἀληθῶς, legō de humin alēthōs).
  94. Luke 9:27 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mē) is the strongest possible.
  95. Luke 9:27 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).
  96. Luke 9:27 sn The meaning of the statement that some will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God is clear at one level, harder at another. Jesus predicts some will experience the kingdom before they die. When does this happen? (1) An initial fulfillment is the next event, the transfiguration. (2) It is also possible in Luke’s understanding that all but Judas experience the initial fulfillment of the coming of God’s presence and rule in the work of Acts 2. In either case, the “kingdom of God” referred to here would be the initial rather than the final phase.
  97. Luke 9:28 tn Grk “Now it happened that about.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  98. Luke 9:28 tn Matt 17:1 and Mark 9:2 specify the interval more exactly, saying it was the sixth day. Luke uses ὡσεί (hōsei, “about”) to give an approximate reference.
  99. Luke 9:28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  100. Luke 9:29 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  101. Luke 9:29 tn Here the preposition ἐν (en) plus the dative articular aorist infinitive has been translated as a temporal clause (ExSyn 595).
  102. Luke 9:29 tn Or “the appearance of his face became different.”sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw the appearance of his face transformed, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).
  103. Luke 9:29 tn Or “became bright as a flash of lightning” (cf. BDAG 346 s.v. ἐξαστράπτω); or “became brilliant as light” (cf. BDAG 593 s.v. λευκός 1).
  104. Luke 9:30 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  105. Luke 9:30 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).
  106. Luke 9:30 tn Grk “two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah.” The relative clause has been simplified to an appositive and transposed in keeping with contemporary English style.
  107. Luke 9:31 tn Grk “his exodus,” which refers to Jesus’ death in Jerusalem and journey back to glory. Here is the first lesson that the disciples must learn. The wondrous rule comes only after suffering.
  108. Luke 9:31 tn Or “accomplish,” “bring to completion.”
  109. Luke 9:32 tn Grk “weighed down with sleep” (an idiom).
  110. Luke 9:32 tn Or “after they became fully awake,” “but they became fully awake and saw.”
  111. Luke 9:33 tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  112. Luke 9:33 tn Grk “as they”; the referent (“the men,” referring to Moses and Elijah) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  113. Luke 9:33 tn Grk “to leave from him.”
  114. Luke 9:33 tn Or “booths,” “dwellings” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).sn By making three shelters Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals. It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the remark at the end of the verse makes it clear that it was not enough honor.
  115. Luke 9:34 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  116. Luke 9:34 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.
  117. Luke 9:34 tn Or “appeared.”
  118. Luke 9:34 tn Or “surrounded.”
  119. Luke 9:35 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  120. Luke 9:35 tc Most mss, especially the later ones, have ἀγαπητός (agapētos, “the one I love”; A C* W ƒ13 33 M it), or ἀγαπητὸς ἐν ᾧ ()υδόκησα (agapētos en hō (ē)udokēsa, “the one I love, in whom I am well pleased”; C3 D Ψ) here, instead of ἐκλελεγμένος (eklelegmenos, “the Chosen One”), but these variants are probably assimilations to Matt 17:5 and Mark 9:7. The text behind the translation also enjoys excellent support from P45,75 א B L Ξ (579) 892 1241 co.tn The participle ὁ ἐκλελεγμένος (ho eklelegmenos), which could be translated “the One who has been chosen,” is best understood as a title rather than a descriptive phrase, probably deriving from Isa 42:1 (LXX) which uses the similar ὁ ἐκλεκτός (ho eklektos) which also appears in Luke 23:35.sn This divine endorsement is like Luke 3:22 at Jesus’ baptism. One difference here is the mention of the Chosen One, a reference to the unique and beloved role of the regal, messianic Son.
  121. Luke 9:35 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.
  122. Luke 9:36 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  123. Luke 9:36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary of the account.
  124. Luke 9:36 sn Although the disciples told no one at the time, later they did recount this. The commentary on this scene is 2 Pet 1:17-18.
  125. Luke 9:36 tn Grk “in those days.”
  126. Luke 9:37 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  127. Luke 9:38 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the somewhat unexpected appearance of the man. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  128. Luke 9:38 tn Grk “cried out, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  129. Luke 9:38 tn This verb means “to have regard for”; see Luke 1:48.
  130. Luke 9:39 tn Grk “and behold, a.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  131. Luke 9:39 tn The Greek here is slightly ambiguous; the subject of the verb “screams” could be either the son or the spirit.
  132. Luke 9:39 sn The reaction is like an epileptic fit (see L&N 14.27). See the parallel in Matt 17:14-20.
  133. Luke 9:39 tn Or “bruising,” or “crushing.” This verb appears to allude to the damage caused when it throws him to the ground. According to L&N 19.46 it is difficult to know from this verb precisely what the symptoms caused by the demon were, but it is clear they must have involved severe pain. The multiple details given in the account show how gruesome the condition of the boy was.
  134. Luke 9:40 tn Grk “And I.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated here; instead a new sentence was started in the translation.
  135. Luke 9:40 sn Note the repetition of the verb from v. 38, an indication of the father’s desperation.
  136. Luke 9:40 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  137. Luke 9:40 tn The words “do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.
  138. Luke 9:41 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  139. Luke 9:41 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, (ō), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”
  140. Luke 9:41 tn Or “faithless.”sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 20; Isa 59:8.
  141. Luke 9:41 tn Grk “how long.”
  142. Luke 9:41 tn Or “and put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.
  143. Luke 9:41 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.
  144. Luke 9:42 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  145. Luke 9:42 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  146. Luke 9:42 sn At this point the boy was thrown down in another convulsion by the demon. See L&N 23.168.
  147. Luke 9:42 tn See L&N 23.167-68, where the second verb συσπαράσσω (susparassō) is taken to mean the violent shaking associated with the convulsions, thus the translation here “and shook him with convulsions.”
  148. Luke 9:42 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).
  149. Luke 9:42 sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33.
  150. Luke 9:43 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the response at the conclusion of the account.
  151. Luke 9:43 sn The revelation of the mighty power of God was the manifestation of God’s power shown through Jesus. See Acts 10:38.
  152. Luke 9:43 tn Grk “all”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  153. Luke 9:43 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C W Θ Ψ 0115 ƒ13 33 892 M al), actually supply ὁ ᾿Ιησοῦς (ho Iēsous, “Jesus”) here. Since the earliest and best witnesses, along with many others (P75 א B D L Ξ ƒ1 579 700 1241 2542 lat), lack the name, and since scribes were unlikely to intentionally omit it, the shorter reading is preferred as the reading of the initial text.tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some mss have done the same.
  154. Luke 9:44 tn Grk “Place these words into your ears,” an idiom. The meaning is either “do not forget these words” (L&N 29.5) or “Listen carefully to these words” (L&N 24.64). See also Exod 17:14. For a variation of this expression, see Luke 8:8.
  155. Luke 9:44 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; TEV, “to the power of human beings”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.
  156. Luke 9:45 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the meaning of the statement) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  157. Luke 9:45 sn The passive verb had been concealed probably indicates that some force was preventing them from responding. It is debated whether God or Satan is meant here. By 24:25 it is clear that their lack of response is their own responsibility. The only way to reverse this is to pay careful attention as v. 44a urges.
  158. Luke 9:45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate that in spite of their lack of understanding, the disciples were afraid to ask about it. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  159. Luke 9:46 tn Grk “among them”; the referent (the disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  160. Luke 9:46 tn The use of the optative mood means the answer is not clear (BDF §§267.2.2; 385.2.2).
  161. Luke 9:47 tn Grk “knowing the thoughts of their hearts” (an idiom).
  162. Luke 9:47 tn On this use of παρά (para), see BDF §238.
  163. Luke 9:48 tn This verb, δέχομαι (dechomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).
  164. Luke 9:48 sn Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.
  165. Luke 9:48 tn Grk “among you all, this one is great.” The absence of a comparative term here makes the point that comparison should not be done.
  166. Luke 9:49 tn Grk “And answering, John said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “John answered.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  167. Luke 9:49 tc The translation follows the reading that has Luke’s normal imperfect here (ἐκωλύομεν, ekōluomen; found in P75vid א B L Ξ 579 892 1241). Most mss, however, have an aorist (ἐκωλύσαμεν, ekōlusamen; found in A C D W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M co), which would be translated “we forbade him.” The imperfect enjoys the best external and internal support.
  168. Luke 9:49 tn Grk “does not follow with us.” BDAG 36 s.v. ἀκολουθέω 2 indicates that the pronoun σοι (soi, “you”) is to be supplied after the verb in this particular instance; the translation in the text best represents this nuance.
  169. Luke 9:51 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  170. Luke 9:51 tn Grk “the days were being fulfilled.” There is literary design here. This starts what has been called in the Gospel of Luke the “Jerusalem Journey.” It is not a straight-line trip, but a journey to meet his fate (Luke 13:31-35).
  171. Luke 9:51 sn Taken up is a reference to Jesus’ upcoming return to heaven by crucifixion and resurrection (compare Luke 9:31). This term was used in the LXX of Elijah’s departure in 2 Kgs 2:9.
  172. Luke 9:51 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  173. Luke 9:51 tn Grk “he set his face,” a Semitic idiom that speaks of a firm, unshakable resolve to do something (Gen 31:21; Isa 50:7).
  174. Luke 9:52 tn Grk “And he.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  175. Luke 9:52 tn Grk “sent messengers before his face,” an idiom.
  176. Luke 9:52 tn Grk “And going along, they entered.” The aorist passive participle πορευθέντες (poreuthentes) has been taken temporally. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  177. Luke 9:52 tn Or “to prepare (things) for him.”
  178. Luke 9:53 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the villagers) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  179. Luke 9:53 tn Or “did not receive”; this verb, δέχομαι (dechomai), is a term of hospitality or welcome (L&N 34.53).
  180. Luke 9:53 tn Grk “because his face was set toward Jerusalem.”sn Jerusalem is to be the place of rejection, as Luke 9:44 suggested. Jesus had resolved to meet his fate in Jerusalem, so the rejection was no surprise.
  181. Luke 9:54 tn Or “destroy.”
  182. Luke 9:54 tc Most mss, especially the later ones (A C D W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M it), read here “as also Elijah did,” making the allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14 more explicit. The shorter reading has better and earlier support (P45,75 א B L Ξ 579 700* 1241 lat sa). It is difficult to explain how the shorter reading could have arisen from the longer, especially since it is well represented early on. However, the longer reading looks to have been a marginal note originally, incorporated into the text of Luke by early scribes.sn An allusion to 2 Kgs 1:10, 12, 14.
  183. Luke 9:55 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  184. Luke 9:55 tc Many mss ([D] K Γ Θ ƒ1,13 [579] 700 2542 pm it) have at the end of the verse (with slight variations) “and he said, ‘You do not know what sort of spirit you are of, for the Son of Man did not come to destroy people’s lives, but to save [them].’” This variant is clearly secondary, as it gives some content to the rebuke. Further, it is difficult to explain how such rich material would have been omitted by the rest of the witnesses, including the earliest and best mss. sn The point of the rebuke is that now was not the time for judgment but patience; see 2 Pet 3:9.
  185. Luke 9:57 tn Grk “And as.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  186. Luke 9:57 tn Grk “going,” but “walking” is an accurate description of how they traveled about.
  187. Luke 9:57 tc Most mss (A C W Θ Ψ ƒ13 33 M) add κύριε (kurie, “Lord”) here, but scribes were prone to add to the text, especially appellations for the Lord. The shorter reading also enjoys significant ms support (P45,75 א B D L Ξ ƒ1 lat co).sn The statement “I will follow you wherever you go” is an offer to follow Jesus as a disciple, no matter what the cost.
  188. Luke 9:58 tn Or “the wild birds”; Grk “the birds of the sky” or “the birds of the heaven”; the Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated either “sky” or “heaven,” depending on the context. The idiomatic expression “birds of the sky” refers to wild birds as opposed to domesticated fowl (cf. BDAG 809 s.v. πετεινόν).
  189. Luke 9:58 sn Jesus’ reply is simply this: Does the man understand the rejection he will be facing? Jesus has no home in the world (the Son of Man has no place to lay his head).
  190. Luke 9:59 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  191. Luke 9:59 tn Grk “said.”
  192. Luke 9:60 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  193. Luke 9:60 sn There are several options for the meaning of Jesus’ reply Let the dead bury their own dead: (1) Recent research suggests that burial customs in the vicinity of Jerusalem from about 20 b.c. to a.d. 70 involved a reinterment of the bones a year after the initial burial, once the flesh had rotted away. At that point the son would have placed his father’s bones in a special box known as an ossuary to be set into the wall of the tomb. (See, e.g., C. A. Evans, Jesus and the Ossuaries, 26-30.) Thus Jesus could well be rebuking the man for wanting to wait around for as much as a year before making a commitment to follow him. In 1st century Jewish culture, to have followed Jesus rather than burying one’s father would have seriously dishonored one’s father (cf. Tobit 4:3-4). (2) The remark is an idiom (possibly a proverbial saying) that means, “The matter in question is not the real issue,” in which case Jesus was making a wordplay on the wording of the man’s (literal) request (see L&N 33.137). (3) This remark could be a figurative reference to various kinds of people, meaning, “Let the spiritually dead bury the dead.” (4) It could also be literal and designed to shock the hearer by the surprise of the contrast. Whichever option is preferred, it is clear that the most important priority is to preach the gospel (proclaim the kingdom of God).
  194. Luke 9:60 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  195. Luke 9:61 tn Grk “And another also said.”
  196. Luke 9:61 tn Grk “to those in my house.”
  197. Luke 9:62 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  198. Luke 9:62 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  199. Luke 9:62 sn Jesus warns that excessive concern for family ties (looks back) will make the kingdom a lesser priority, which is not appropriate for discipleship. The image is graphic, for who can plow straight ahead toward a goal while looking back? Discipleship cannot be double-minded.
  200. Luke 9:62 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. See the note on this phrase in v. 60.
  201. Luke 10:1 tn Grk “And after these things.” Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  202. Luke 10:1 tc There is a difficult textual problem here and in v. 17, where the number is either “seventy” (א A C L W Θ Ξ Ψ ƒ1,13 M and several church fathers and early versions) or “seventy-two” (P75 B D 0181 lat as well as other versions and fathers). The more difficult reading is “seventy-two,” since scribes would be prone to assimilate this passage to several OT passages that refer to groups of seventy people (Num 11:13-17; Deut 10:22; Judg 8:30; 2 Kgs 10:1 et al.); this reading also has slightly better ms support. “Seventy” could be the preferred reading if scribes drew from the tradition of the number of translators of the LXX, which the Letter of Aristeas puts at seventy-two (TCGNT 127), although this is far less likely. All things considered, “seventy-two” is a much more difficult reading and accounts for the rise of the other. Only Luke notes a second larger mission like the one in 9:1-6.
  203. Luke 10:1 tn Or “city.”
  204. Luke 10:2 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  205. Luke 10:2 sn The phrase Lord of the harvest recognizes God’s sovereignty over the harvest process.
  206. Luke 10:2 tn Grk “to thrust out.”
  207. Luke 10:3 tn Grk “Behold I.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  208. Luke 10:3 sn On the imagery of lambs see Isa 40:11, Ezek 34:11-31, and John 10:1-18. For more on sheep imagery see H. Preisker and S. Schulz, TDNT 6:690.
  209. Luke 10:3 sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism (see Pss. Sol. 8:23, 30; also 1 Enoch 89:55). The imagery of lambs surrounded by wolves suggests violence, and may hint at coming persecution of disciples.
  210. Luke 10:4 sn On the command Do not carry see Luke 9:3. The travel instructions communicate a note of urgency and stand in contrast to philosophical teachers, who often took a bag. There is no ostentation in this ministry.
  211. Luke 10:4 tn Traditionally, “a purse.”
  212. Luke 10:4 tn Or possibly “a beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).
  213. Luke 10:4 tn Or “no one along the way.”
  214. Luke 10:5 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  215. Luke 10:5 tn Grk “Into whatever house you enter.” This acts as a distributive, meaning every house they enter; this is expressed more naturally in English as “whenever you enter a house.”
  216. Luke 10:5 sn The statement ‘May peace be on this house!’ is really a benediction, asking for God’s blessing. The requested shalom (peace) is understood as coming from God.
  217. Luke 10:6 tn Grk “a son of peace,” a Hebrew idiom for a person of a certain class or kind, as specified by the following genitive construction (in this case, “of peace”). Such constructions are discussed further in L&N 9.4. Here the expression refers to someone who responds positively to the disciples’ message, like “wisdom’s child” in Luke 7:35.
  218. Luke 10:6 sn The response to these messengers determines how God’s blessing is bestowed—if they are not welcomed with peace, their blessing will return to them. Jesus shows just how important their mission is by this remark.
  219. Luke 10:7 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  220. Luke 10:7 tn Grk “eating and drinking the things from them” (an idiom for what the people in the house provide the guests).
  221. Luke 10:7 sn On the phrase the worker deserves his pay see 1 Tim 5:18 and 1 Cor 9:14.
  222. Luke 10:8 tn Grk “And whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  223. Luke 10:8 tn Or “city.” Jesus now speaks of the town as a whole, as he will in vv. 10-12.
  224. Luke 10:8 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  225. Luke 10:9 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.sn Ministry (heal the sick) is to take place where it is well received (note welcome in the preceding verse).
  226. Luke 10:9 tn Grk “in it”; the referent (that town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  227. Luke 10:9 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  228. Luke 10:9 tn Or “come near to you,” suggesting the approach (but not arrival) of the kingdom. But the combination of the perfect tense of ἐγγίζω (engizō) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) most likely suggests that the sense is “has come upon” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2; W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91; and D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1000; cf. also NAB “is at hand for you”). These passages argue that a key element of the kingdom is its ability to overcome the power of Satan and those elements in the creation that oppose humanity. Confirmation of this understanding comes in v. 18 and in Luke 11:14-23, especially the parable of vv. 21-23.
  229. Luke 10:10 tn Grk “whatever town you enter,” but this is more often expressed in English as “whenever you enter a town.”
  230. Luke 10:10 tn Or “city.”
  231. Luke 10:10 tn Grk “and they”; the referent (the people who live in the town) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  232. Luke 10:10 sn More discussion takes place concerning rejection (the people do not welcome you), as these verses lead into the condemnation of certain towns for their rejection of God’s kingdom.
  233. Luke 10:10 tn The term πλατεῖα (plateia) refers to the “broad street,” so this refers to the main roads of the town.
  234. Luke 10:11 tn Or “city.”
  235. Luke 10:11 sn See Luke 9:5, where the verb is different but the meaning is the same. This was a sign of rejection.
  236. Luke 10:11 tn Here ὑμῖν (humin) has been translated as a dative of disadvantage.
  237. Luke 10:11 tn Or “has come near.” As in v. 9 (see above), the combination of ἐγγίζω (engizō) with the preposition ἐπί (epi) is decisive in showing that the sense is “has come” (see BDAG 270 s.v. ἐγγίζω 2, and W. R. Hutton, “The Kingdom of God Has Come,” ExpTim 64 [Dec 1952]: 89-91).
  238. Luke 10:12 tn The noun “Sodom” is in emphatic position in the Greek text.sn Sodom (and Gomorrah) were widely regarded as the most wicked of OT cities from the actions described in Gen 19:1-29; even in OT times their wickedness had become proverbial (Isa 1:9-10). The allusion to God’s judgment on these cities is not intended to indicate that they might be shown mercy on the day of judgment, but to warn that rejecting the messengers with their current message about the coming kingdom is even more serious than the worst sins of Sodom and Gomorrah and will result in even more severe punishment.
  239. Luke 10:12 tn Or “city.”
  240. Luke 10:13 sn Chorazin was a town of Galilee that was probably fairly small in contrast to Bethsaida and is otherwise unattested. Bethsaida was more significant; it was declared a polis (“city”) by the tetrarch Herod Philip, sometime after a.d. 30.
  241. Luke 10:13 tn This introduces a second class (contrary to fact) condition in the Greek text.
  242. Luke 10:13 tn Or “powerful deeds.”
  243. Luke 10:13 sn Tyre and Sidon are two other notorious OT cities (Isa 23; Jer 25:22; 47:4). The remark is a severe rebuke, in effect: “Even the hardened sinners of the old era would have responded to the proclamation of the kingdom and repented, unlike you!”
  244. Luke 10:13 sn To clothe oneself in sackcloth and ashes was a public sign of mourning or lament, in this case for past behavior and associated with repentance.
  245. Luke 10:14 sn Jesus’ general point is that in the day of judgment the Gentile cities will come off better than the cities of Galilee. This is not to indicate toleration for the sins of the Gentile cities, but to show how badly the judgment will go for the Galilean ones. In the OT prophetic oracles were pronounced repeatedly against Tyre and Sidon: Isa 23:1-18; Ezek 26:1-28:26; Joel 4:4; Zech 9:2-4.
  246. Luke 10:15 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (204 m) below sea level. It existed since Hasmonean times and was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region. The population in the first century is estimated to be around 1,500. Capernaum became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry (Matt 4:13; Mark 2:1). In modern times the site was discovered in 1838 by the American explorer E. Robinson, and major excavations began in 1905 by German archaeologists H. Kohl and C. Watzinger. Not until 1968, however, were remains from the time of Jesus visible; in that year V. Corbo and S. Loffreda began a series of annual archaeological campaigns that lasted until 1985. This work uncovered what is thought to be the house of Simon Peter as well as ruins of the first century synagogue beneath the later synagogue from the fourth or fifth century A.D. Today gently rolling hills and date palms frame the first century site, a favorite tourist destination of visitors to the Galilee.
  247. Luke 10:15 tn The interrogative particle introducing this question expects a negative reply.
  248. Luke 10:15 sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14).
  249. Luke 10:16 tn Grk “hears you,” but as the context of vv. 8-9 makes clear, it is response that is the point. In contemporary English, “listen to” is one way to express this function (L&N 31.56).
  250. Luke 10:16 sn Jesus linked himself to the disciples’ message: Responding to the disciples (listens to you) counts as responding to him.
  251. Luke 10:16 tn The double mention of rejection in this clause—ἀθετῶν ἀθετεῖ (athetōn athetei) in the Greek text—keeps up the emphasis of the section.
  252. Luke 10:16 sn The one who sent me refers to God.
  253. Luke 10:17 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  254. Luke 10:17 tc See the tc note on the number “seventy-two” in Luke 10:1.
  255. Luke 10:17 tn Or “the demons obey”; see L&N 36.18.
  256. Luke 10:17 tn The prepositional phrase “in your name” indicates the sphere of authority for the messengers’ work of exorcism.
  257. Luke 10:18 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that Jesus’ reply in vv. 18-20 follows from the positive report of the messengers in v. 17.
  258. Luke 10:18 tn This is an imperfect tense verb.
  259. Luke 10:18 tn In Greek, this is a participle and comes at the end of the verse, making it somewhat emphatic.
  260. Luke 10:18 tn This is probably best taken as allusion to Isa 14:12; the phrase in common is ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (ek tou ouranou). These exorcisms in Jesus’ name are a picture of Satan’s greater defeat at Jesus’ hands (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1006-7).
  261. Luke 10:19 tn Or perhaps, “trample on” (which emphasizes the impact of the feet on the snakes). See L&N 15.226.
  262. Luke 10:19 sn Snakes and scorpions are examples of the hostility in the creation that is defeated by Jesus. The use of battle imagery shows who the kingdom fights against. See Acts 28:3-6.
  263. Luke 10:19 tn Or “I have given you authority to tread on snakes and scorpions, and [authority] over the full force of the enemy.” The second prepositional phrase can be taken either as modifying the infinitive πατεῖν (patein, “to tread”) or the noun ἐξουσίαν (exousian, “power”). The former is to be preferred and has been represented in the translation.sn The enemy is a reference to Satan (mentioned in v. 18).
  264. Luke 10:19 tn This is an emphatic double negative in the Greek text.
  265. Luke 10:20 tn Grk “do not rejoice in this, that.” This is awkward in contemporary English and has been simplified to “do not rejoice that.”
  266. Luke 10:20 tn The verb here is a present imperative, so the call is to an attitude of rejoicing.
  267. Luke 10:20 tn The verb here, a perfect tense, stresses a present reality of that which was a completed action, that is, their names were etched in the heavenly stone, as it were.
  268. Luke 10:21 tn Grk “In that same hour” (L&N 67.1).
  269. Luke 10:21 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  270. Luke 10:21 sn Jesus rejoiced. The account of the mission in 10:1-24 ends with several remarks about joy.
  271. Luke 10:21 tn Or “thank.”
  272. Luke 10:21 sn The title Lord is an important name for God, showing his sovereignty, but it is interesting that it comes next to a reference to the Father, a term indicative of God’s care. The two concepts are often related in the NT; see Eph 1:3-6.
  273. Luke 10:21 tn Or “that.”
  274. Luke 10:21 sn See 1 Cor 1:26-31, where Paul states that not many of the wise, powerful, or privileged had responded to the gospel.
  275. Luke 10:21 tn Or “to the childlike,” or “the innocent” (BDAG 671 s.v. νήπιος 1.b.β).
  276. Luke 10:21 tn Grk “for (to do) thus was well pleasing before you,” BDAG 325 s.v. ἔμπροσθεν 1.b.δ states: “as a reverential way of expressing oneself, when one is speaking of an eminent pers., and esp. of God, not to connect the subject directly w. what happens, but to say that it took place ‘before someone.’”
  277. Luke 10:22 sn This verse, frequently referred to as the “bolt from the Johannine blue,” has been noted for its conceptual similarity to statements in John’s Gospel (10:15; 17:2). The authority of the Son and the Father are totally intertwined. The statement here also occurs in Matt 11:27, and serves as a warning against drawing a simplistic dichotomy between Jesus’ teaching in the synoptic gospels and Jesus’ teaching in the Gospel of John.
  278. Luke 10:22 tn Or “wishes”; or “intends”; or “plans” (cf. BDAG 182 s.v. βούλομαι 2.b). Here it is the Son who has sovereignty.
  279. Luke 10:23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  280. Luke 10:23 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  281. Luke 10:23 tn Grk “turning to the disciples, he said.” The participle στραφείς (strapheis) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  282. Luke 10:23 tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  283. Luke 10:23 sn This beatitude highlights the great honor bestowed on the disciples to share in this salvation, as v. 20 also noted. See also Luke 2:30.
  284. Luke 10:24 sn This is what past prophets and kings had wanted very much to see, yet the fulfillment had come to the disciples. This remark is like 1 Pet 1:10-12 or Heb 1:1-2.
  285. Luke 10:25 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  286. Luke 10:25 tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law (see also Luke 7:30, where the same term occurs).
  287. Luke 10:25 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  288. Luke 10:25 sn The combination of inherit with eternal life asks, in effect, “What must I do to be saved?”
  289. Luke 10:26 tn Grk “How do you read?” The pronoun “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  290. Luke 10:27 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  291. Luke 10:27 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).
  292. Luke 10:27 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The fourfold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.
  293. Luke 10:27 tn This portion of the reply is a quotation from Lev 19:18. The verb is repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  294. Luke 10:28 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  295. Luke 10:28 sn Jesus commends the reply (you have answered correctly). What is assumed here, given the previous context, is that he will respond to Jesus’ message, as to love God is to respond to his Son; see v. 22.
  296. Luke 10:29 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law, shortened here to “the expert”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  297. Luke 10:29 tn Or “vindicate.”sn The expert in religious law picked up on the remark about the neighbor and sought to limit his responsibility for loving. Some believed this obligation would only be required toward the righteous (Sir 12:1-4). The lawyer was trying to see if that was right and thus confidently establish his righteousness (wanting to justify himself).
  298. Luke 10:30 tn Grk “answering, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “replied.”
  299. Luke 10:30 sn The journey from Jerusalem to Jericho was 17 mi (27 km), descending some 3425 ft (1044 m) in altitude. It was known for its danger because the road ran through areas of desert and caves where the robbers hid.
  300. Luke 10:30 tn Grk “and beat,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  301. Luke 10:30 sn That is, in a state between life and death; severely wounded.
  302. Luke 10:31 sn The phrase by chance adds an initial note of hope and fortune to the expectation in the story.
  303. Luke 10:31 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the priest’s expected action (helping the victim) and what he really did.
  304. Luke 10:31 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  305. Luke 10:31 sn It is not said why the priest passed by and refused to help. It is not relevant to the point of the parable that no help was given in the emergency situation.
  306. Luke 10:31 sn The text suggests that the priest went out of his way (on the other side) not to get too close to the scene.
  307. Luke 10:32 tn Here κατά (kata) has been translated “up to”; it could also be translated “upon.”
  308. Luke 10:32 tn The clause containing the aorist active participle ἐλθών (elthōn) suggests that the Levite came up to the place, took a look, and then moved on.
  309. Luke 10:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context between the previous characters (considered by society to be examples of piety and religious duty) and a hated Samaritan.
  310. Luke 10:33 tn This is at the beginning of the clause, in emphatic position in the Greek text.
  311. Luke 10:33 tn The participle ὁδεύων (hodeuōn) has been translated as an adjectival participle (cf. NAB, NASB, TEV); it could also be taken temporally (“while he was traveling,” cf. NRSV, NIV).
  312. Luke 10:33 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the injured man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  313. Luke 10:33 tn “Him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The verb means “to feel compassion for,” and the object of the compassion is understood.sn Here is what made the Samaritan different: He felt compassion for him. In the story, compassion becomes the concrete expression of love. The next verse details explicitly six acts of compassion.
  314. Luke 10:34 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. Instead, because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  315. Luke 10:34 tn The words “to him” are not in the Greek text but are implied. The participle προσελθών (proselthōn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
  316. Luke 10:34 sn The ancient practice of pouring olive oil on wounds was designed to ease pain and provide cleansing for the wounds (Isa 1:6).
  317. Luke 10:34 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. Because of the length and complexity of this Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  318. Luke 10:34 tn It is not clear whether the causative nuance of the verb included actual assistance or not (“helped him on” versus “had him get on”; see L&N 15.98), but in light of the severity of the man’s condition as described in the preceding verses, some degree of assistance was almost certainly needed.
  319. Luke 10:34 sn His own animal refers to a riding animal, presumably a donkey, but not specified.
  320. Luke 10:35 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  321. Luke 10:35 tn Grk “two denarii.”sn The two silver coins were denarii. A denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s pay for a laborer; this would be an amount worth about two days’ pay.
  322. Luke 10:35 tn Grk “when I come back”; the words “this way” are part of an English idiom used to translate the phrase.
  323. Luke 10:36 sn Jesus reversed the question the expert in religious law asked in v. 29 to one of becoming a neighbor by loving. “Do not think about who they are, but who you are,” was his reply.
  324. Luke 10:37 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (the expert in religious law) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  325. Luke 10:37 sn The neighbor did not do what was required (that is why his response is called mercy) but had compassion and out of kindness went the extra step that shows love. See Mic 6:8. Note how the expert in religious law could not bring himself to admit that the example was a Samaritan, someone who would have been seen as a racial half-breed and one not worthy of respect. So Jesus makes a second point that neighbors may appear in surprising places.
  326. Luke 10:37 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding summary.
  327. Luke 10:37 tn This recalls the verb of the earlier reply in v. 28.
  328. Luke 10:38 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  329. Luke 10:38 tc Most mss have “into the house” (P3vid א C L Ξ 33 579) or “into her house” (א1 A C2 D W Θ Ψ 070 ƒ1,13 M lat) at the end of the sentence. But the English translation masks the multitude of variants: Different forms of “house” (οἰκίαν [oikian], οἶκον [oikon]) and “her” occur (see TCGNT 129). These variations argue against authenticity; they no doubt arose because of the abrupt ending of the sentence (the Greek is more literally translated simply as “Martha received him”), prompting copyists to add the location. The shorter reading is found in P45,75 B sa. tn For the meaning “to welcome, to have as a guest” see L&N 34.53.
  330. Luke 10:39 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  331. Luke 10:39 tn This reflexive makes it clear that Mary took the initiative in sitting by Jesus.
  332. Luke 10:39 sn The description of Mary sitting at the Lord’s feet and listening to him makes her sound like a disciple (compare Luke 8:35).
  333. Luke 10:40 sn The term distracted means “to be pulled away” by something (L&N 25.238). It is a narrative comment that makes clear who is right in the account.
  334. Luke 10:40 tn Grk “with much serving.”
  335. Luke 10:40 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the following was a result of Martha’s distraction.
  336. Luke 10:40 tn The negative οὐ (ou) used with the verb expects a positive reply. Martha expected Jesus to respond and rebuke Mary.
  337. Luke 10:40 tn Grk “has left me to serve alone.”
  338. Luke 10:40 tn The conjunction οὖν (oun, “then, therefore”) has not been translated here.
  339. Luke 10:41 tc Most mss (A B* C D W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M it) read “Jesus” instead of “the Lord” here, but κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) has the support of some weighty papyri, majuscules, and other witnesses (P3,[45],75 א B2 L 579 892 lat sa).
  340. Luke 10:41 tn Grk “answering, said to her.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “answered her.”
  341. Luke 10:41 sn The double vocative Martha, Martha communicates emotion.
  342. Luke 10:41 tn Or “upset.” Here the meanings of μεριμνάω (merimnaō) and θορυβάζομαι (thorubazomai) reinforce each other (L&N 25.234).
  343. Luke 10:42 tc Or, with some mss (P3 [א] B C2 L 070vid ƒ1 33 [579]), “few things are needed—or only one” (as well as other variants). The textual problem here is a difficult one to decide. The shorter reading is normally preferred, but it is not altogether clear how the variants would arise from it. However, the reading followed in the translation has good support (with some internal variations) from a number of witnesses (P45,75 A C* W Θ Ψ ƒ13 M lat sa).
  344. Luke 10:42 tn Or “better”; Grk “good.” This is an instance of the positive adjective used in place of the superlative adjective. According to ExSyn 298, this could also be treated as a positive for comparative (“better”).

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