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Departure From Judea

Now when Jesus[a] knew that the Pharisees[b] had heard that he[c] was winning[d] and baptizing more disciples than John (although Jesus himself was not baptizing, but his disciples were),[e] he left Judea and set out once more for Galilee.[f]

Conversation With a Samaritan Woman

But he had[g] to pass through Samaria.[h] Now he came to a Samaritan town[i] called Sychar,[j] near the plot of land that Jacob had given to his son Joseph.[k] Jacob’s well was there, so Jesus, since he was tired from the journey, sat right down beside[l] the well. It was about noon.[m]

A Samaritan woman[n] came to draw water. Jesus said to her, “Give me some water[o] to drink.” (For his disciples had gone off into the town to buy supplies.[p])[q] So the Samaritan woman said to him, “How can you—a Jew[r]—ask me, a Samaritan woman, for water[s] to drink?” (For Jews use nothing in common[t] with Samaritans.)[u]

10 Jesus answered[v] her, “If you had known[w] the gift of God and who it is who said to you, ‘Give me some water[x] to drink,’ you would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.”[y] 11 “Sir,”[z] the woman[aa] said to him, “you have no bucket and the well[ab] is deep; where then do you get this[ac] living water?[ad] 12 Surely you’re not greater than our ancestor[ae] Jacob, are you? For he gave us this well and drank from it himself, along with his sons and his livestock.”[af]

13 Jesus replied,[ag] “Everyone who drinks some of this water will be thirsty[ah] again. 14 But whoever drinks some of the water that I will give him will never be thirsty again,[ai] but the water that I will give him will become in him a fountain[aj] of water springing up[ak] to eternal life.” 15 The woman said to him, “Sir, give me this water, so that I will not be thirsty or have to come here to draw[al] water.”[am] 16 He[an] said to her, “Go call your husband and come back here.”[ao] 17 The woman replied,[ap] “I have no husband.” Jesus said to her, “Right you are when you said,[aq] ‘I have no husband,’[ar] 18 for you have had five husbands, and the man you are living with[as] now is not your husband. This you said truthfully!”

19 The woman said to him, “Sir, I see[at] that you are a prophet. 20 Our fathers worshiped on this mountain,[au] and you people[av] say that the place where people must worship is in Jerusalem.” 21 Jesus said to her, “Believe me, woman,[aw] a time[ax] is coming when you will worship[ay] the Father neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem. 22 You people[az] worship what you do not know. We worship what we know, because salvation is from the Jews.[ba] 23 But a time[bb] is coming—and now is here[bc]—when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks[bd] such people to be[be] his worshipers.[bf] 24 God is spirit,[bg] and the people who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” 25 The woman said to him, “I know that Messiah is coming” (the one called Christ);[bh] “whenever he[bi] comes, he will tell[bj] us everything.”[bk] 26 Jesus said to her, “I, the one speaking to you, am he.”

The Disciples Return

27 Now at that very moment his disciples came back.[bl] They were shocked[bm] because he was speaking[bn] with a woman. However, no one said, “What do you want?”[bo] or “Why are you speaking with her?” 28 Then the woman left her water jar, went off into the town and said to the people,[bp] 29 “Come, see a man who told me everything I ever did. Surely he can’t be the Messiah,[bq] can he?”[br] 30 So[bs] they left the town and began coming[bt] to him.

Workers for the Harvest

31 Meanwhile the disciples were urging him,[bu] “Rabbi, eat something.”[bv] 32 But he said to them, “I have food to eat that you know nothing about.” 33 So the disciples began to say[bw] to one another, “No one brought him anything[bx] to eat, did they?”[by] 34 Jesus said to them, “My food is to do the will of the one who sent me[bz] and to complete[ca] his work.[cb] 35 Don’t you say,[cc] ‘There are four more months and then comes the harvest?’ I tell you, look up[cd] and see that the fields are already white[ce] for harvest! 36 The one who reaps receives pay[cf] and gathers fruit for eternal life, so that the one who sows and the one who reaps can rejoice together. 37 For in this instance the saying is true,[cg] ‘One sows and another reaps.’ 38 I sent you to reap what you did not work for; others have labored and you have entered into their labor.”

The Samaritans Respond

39 Now many Samaritans from that town believed in him because of the report of the woman who testified,[ch] “He told me everything I ever did.” 40 So when the Samaritans came to him, they began asking[ci] him to stay with them.[cj] He stayed there two days, 41 and because of his word many more[ck] believed. 42 They said to the woman, “No longer do we believe because of your words, for we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this one[cl] really is the Savior of the world.”[cm]

Onward to Galilee

43 After the two days he departed from there to Galilee. 44 (For Jesus himself had testified that a prophet has no honor in his own country.)[cn] 45 So when he came to Galilee, the Galileans welcomed him because they had seen all the things he had done in Jerusalem[co] at the feast[cp] (for they themselves had gone to the feast).[cq]

Healing the Royal Official’s Son

46 Now he came again to Cana in Galilee where he had made the water wine.[cr] In[cs] Capernaum[ct] there was a certain royal official[cu] whose son was sick. 47 When he heard that Jesus had come back from Judea to Galilee, he went to him and begged him[cv] to come down and heal his son, who was about to die. 48 So Jesus said to him, “Unless you people[cw] see signs and wonders you will never believe!”[cx] 49 “Sir,” the official said to him, “come down before my child dies.” 50 Jesus told him, “Go home;[cy] your son will live.” The man believed the word that Jesus spoke to him, and set off for home.[cz]

51 While he was on his way down,[da] his slaves[db] met him and told him that his son was going to live. 52 So he asked them the time[dc] when his condition began to improve,[dd] and[de] they told him, “Yesterday at one o’clock in the afternoon[df] the fever left him.” 53 Then the father realized that it was the very time[dg] Jesus had said to him, “Your son will live,” and he himself believed along with his entire household. 54 Jesus did this as his second miraculous sign[dh] when he returned from Judea to Galilee.


  1. John 4:1 tc Several early and significant witnesses, along with the majority of later ones (P66c,75 A B C L Ws Ψ 083 ƒ13 33 M sa), have κύριος (kurios, “Lord”) here instead of ᾿Ιησοῦς (Iēsous, “Jesus”). As significant as this external support is, the internal evidence seems to be on the side of ᾿Ιησοῦς. “Jesus” is mentioned two more times in the first two verses of chapter four in a way that is stylistically awkward (so much so that the translation has substituted the pronoun for the first one; see tn note below). This seems to be sufficient reason to motivate scribes to change the wording to κύριος. Further, the reading ᾿Ιησοῦς is not without decent support, though admittedly not as strong as that for κύριος (P66* א D Θ 086 ƒ1 565 1241 al lat bo). On the other hand, this Gospel speaks of Jesus as Lord in the evangelist’s narrative descriptions elsewhere only in 11:2; 20:18, 20; 21:12; and probably 6:23, preferring ᾿Ιησοῦς most of the time. This fact could be used to argue that scribes, acquainted with John’s style, changed κύριος to ᾿Ιησοῦς. But the immediate context generally is weighed more heavily than an author’s style. It is possible that neither word was in the autographic text and scribes supplied what they thought most appropriate (see TCGNT 176). But without ms evidence to this effect coupled with the harder reading ᾿Ιησοῦς, this conjecture must remain doubtful. All in all, it is best to regard ᾿Ιησοῦς as the original reading here.
  2. John 4:1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 1:24.
  3. John 4:1 tn Grk “Jesus”; the repetition of the proper name is somewhat redundant in English (see the beginning of the verse) and so the pronoun (“he”) has been substituted here.
  4. John 4:1 tn Grk “was making.”
  5. John 4:2 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  6. John 4:3 sn The author doesn’t tell why Jesus chose to set out once more for Galilee. Some have suggested that the Pharisees turned their attention to Jesus because John the Baptist had now been thrown into prison. But the text gives no hint of this. In any case, perhaps Jesus simply did not want to provoke a confrontation at this time (knowing that his “hour” had not yet come).
  7. John 4:4 sn Travel through Samaria was not geographically necessary; the normal route for Jews ran up the east side of the Jordan River (Transjordan). Although some take the impersonal verb had to (δεῖ, dei) here to indicate logical necessity only, normally in John’s Gospel its use involves God’s will or plan (3:7, 14, 30; 4:4, 20, 24; 9:4; 10:16; 12:34; 20:9).
  8. John 4:4 sn Samaria. The Samaritans were descendants of 2 groups: (1) The remnant of native Israelites who were not deported after the fall of the Northern Kingdom in 722 b.c.; (2) Foreign colonists brought in from Babylonia and Media by the Assyrian conquerors to settle the land with inhabitants who would be loyal to Assyria. There was theological opposition between the Samaritans and the Jews because the former refused to worship in Jerusalem. After the exile the Samaritans put obstacles in the way of the Jewish restoration of Jerusalem, and in the 2nd century b.c. the Samaritans helped the Syrians in their wars against the Jews. In 128 b.c. the Jewish high priest retaliated and burned the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim.
  9. John 4:5 tn Grk “town of Samaria.” The noun Σαμαρείας (Samareias) has been translated as an attributive genitive.
  10. John 4:5 sn Sychar was somewhere in the vicinity of Shechem, possibly the village of Askar, 1.5 km northeast of Jacob’s well.
  11. John 4:5 sn Perhaps referred to in Gen 48:22.
  12. John 4:6 tn Grk “on (ἐπί, epi) the well.” There may have been a low stone rim encircling the well, or the reading of P66 (“on the ground”) may be correct.
  13. John 4:6 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”sn It was about noon. The suggestion has been made by some that time should be reckoned from midnight rather than sunrise. This would make the time 6 a.m. rather than noon. That would fit in this passage but not in John 19:14 which places the time when Jesus is condemned to be crucified at “the sixth hour.”
  14. John 4:7 tn Grk “a woman from Samaria.” According to BDAG 912 s.v. Σαμάρεια, the prepositional phrase is to be translated as a simple attributive: “γυνὴ ἐκ τῆς Σαμαρείας a Samaritan woman J 4:7.”
  15. John 4:7 tn The phrase “some water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
  16. John 4:8 tn Grk “buy food.”
  17. John 4:8 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author, indicating why Jesus asked the woman for a drink.
  18. John 4:9 tn Or “a Judean.” Here BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαίος 2.a states, “Judean (with respect to birth, nationality, or cult).” The same term occurs in the plural later in this verse. In one sense “Judean” would work very well in the translation here, since the contrast is between residents of the two geographical regions. However, since in the context of this chapter the discussion soon becomes a religious rather than a territorial one (cf. vv. 19-26), the translation “Jew” has been retained here and in v. 22.
  19. John 4:9 tn “Water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
  20. John 4:9 tn D. Daube (“Jesus and the Samaritan Woman: the Meaning of συγχράομαι [Jn 4:7ff],” JBL 69 [1950]: 137-47) suggests this The background to the statement use nothing in common is the general assumption among Jews that the Samaritans were ritually impure or unclean. Thus a Jew who used a drinking vessel after a Samaritan had touched it would become ceremonially unclean.
  21. John 4:9 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  22. John 4:10 tn Grk “answered and said to her.”
  23. John 4:10 tn Or “if you knew.”
  24. John 4:10 tn The phrase “some water” is supplied as the understood direct object of the infinitive πεῖν (pein).
  25. John 4:10 tn This is a second class conditional sentence in The word translated living is used in Greek of flowing water, which leads to the woman’s misunderstanding in the following verse. She thought Jesus was referring to some unknown source of drinkable water.
  26. John 4:11 tn Or “Lord.” The Greek term κύριος (kurios) means both “Sir” and “Lord.” In this passage there is probably a gradual transition from one to the other as the woman’s respect for Jesus grows throughout the conversation (4:11, 15, 19).
  27. John 4:11 tc ‡ Two early and significant Greek mss along with two versional witnesses (P75 B sys ac2) lack ἡ γυνή (hē gunē, “the woman”) here; א* has ἐκείνη (ekeinē, “that one” or possibly “she”) instead of ἡ γυνή. It is possible that no explicit subject was in the autographic text and scribes added either ἡ γυνή or ἐκείνη to make the meaning clear. It is also possible that the archetype of P75 א B expunged the subject because it was not altogether necessary, with the scribe of א later adding the pronoun. However, ἡ γυνή is not in doubt in any other introduction to the woman’s words in this chapter (cf. vv. 9, 15, 17, 19, 25), suggesting that intentional deletion was not the motive for the shorter reading in v. 11 (or else why would they delete the words only here?). Thus, the fact that virtually all witnesses (P66 א2 A C D L Ws Θ Ψ 050 083 086 ƒ1,13 M latt syc,p,h sa bo) have ἡ γυνή here may suggest that it is a motivated reading, conforming this verse to the rest of the pericope. Although a decision is difficult, it is probably best to regard the shorter reading as authentic. NA28 has ἡ γυνή in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity. For English stylistic reasons, the translation also includes “the woman” here.
  28. John 4:11 tn The word for “well” has now shifted to φρέαρ (phrear, “cistern”); earlier in the passage it was πηγή (pēgē).
  29. John 4:11 tn The anaphoric article has been translated “this.”
  30. John 4:11 sn Where then do you get this living water? The woman’s reply is an example of the “misunderstood statement,” a technique appearing frequently in John’s Gospel. Jesus was speaking of living water which was spiritual (ultimately a Johannine figure for the Holy Spirit, see John 7:38-39), but the woman thought he was speaking of flowing (fresh drinkable) water. Her misunderstanding gave Jesus the opportunity to explain what he really meant.
  31. John 4:12 tn Or “our forefather”; Grk “our father.”
  32. John 4:12 tn Questions prefaced with μή () in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end. In this instance all of v. 12 is one question. It has been broken into two sentences for the sake of English style (instead of “for he” the Greek reads “who”).
  33. John 4:13 tn Grk “answered and said to her.”
  34. John 4:13 tn Grk “will thirst.”
  35. John 4:14 tn Grk “will never be thirsty forever.” The possibility of a later thirst is emphatically denied.
  36. John 4:14 tn Or “well.” “Fountain” is used as the translation for πηγή (pēgē) here since the idea is that of an artesian well that flows freely, but the term “artesian well” is not common in contemporary English.
  37. John 4:14 tn The verb ἁλλομένου (hallomenou) is used of quick movement (like jumping) on the part of living beings. This is the only instance of its being applied to the action of water. However, in the LXX it is used to describe the “Spirit of God” as it falls on Samson and Saul. See Judg 14:6, 19; 15:14; 1 Kgdms 10:2, 10 LXX (= 1 Sam 10:6, 10 ET); and Isa 35:6 (note context).
  38. John 4:15 tn Grk “or come here to draw.”
  39. John 4:15 tn The direct object of the infinitive ἀντλεῖν (antlein) is understood in Greek but supplied for clarity in the English translation.
  40. John 4:16 tc Most witnesses have “Jesus” here, either with the article (אc C2 D L Ws Ψ 086 M lat) or without (א* A Θ ƒ1,13 al), while several significant and early witnesses lack the name (P66,75 B C* 33vid). It is unlikely that scribes would have deliberately expunged the name of Jesus from the text here, especially since it aids the reader with the flow of the dialogue. Further, that the name occurs both anarthrously and with the article suggests that it was a later addition. (For similar arguments, see the tc note on “woman” in 4:11).
  41. John 4:16 tn Grk “come here” (“back” is implied).
  42. John 4:17 tn Grk “answered and said to him.”
  43. John 4:17 tn Grk “Well have you said.”
  44. John 4:17 tn The word order in Jesus’ reply is reversed from the woman’s original statement. The word “husband” in Jesus’ reply is placed in an emphatic position.
  45. John 4:18 tn Grk “the one you have.”
  46. John 4:19 tn Grk “behold” or “perceive,” but these are not as common in contemporary English usage.
  47. John 4:20 sn This mountain refers to Mount Gerizim, where the Samaritan shrine was located.
  48. John 4:20 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “say” is second person plural and thus refers to more than Jesus alone.
  49. John 4:21 sn Woman was a polite form of address (see BDAG 208-9 s.v. γυνή 1), similar to “Madam” or “Ma’am” used in English in different regions.
  50. John 4:21 tn Grk “an hour.”
  51. John 4:21 tn The verb is plural.
  52. John 4:22 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the Greek verb translated “worship” is second person plural and thus refers to more than the woman alone.
  53. John 4:22 tn Or “from the Judeans.” See the note on “Jew” in v. 9.
  54. John 4:23 tn Grk “an hour.”
  55. John 4:23 tn “Here” is not in the Greek text but is supplied to conform to contemporary English idiom.
  56. John 4:23 sn See also John 4:27.
  57. John 4:23 tn Or “as.” The object-complement construction implies either “as” or “to be.”
  58. John 4:23 tn This is a double accusative construction of object and complement with τοιούτους (toioutous) as the object and the participle προσκυνοῦντας (proskunountas) as the The Father wants such people as his worshipers. Note how the woman has been concerned about where people ought to worship, while Jesus is concerned about who people ought to worship.
  59. John 4:24 tn Here πνεῦμα (pneuma) is understood as a qualitative predicate nominative while the articular θεός (theos) is the subject.
  60. John 4:25 tn Both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “the one who has been anointed.”sn The one called Christ. This is a parenthetical statement by the author. See the note on Christ in 1:20.
  61. John 4:25 tn Grk “that one.”
  62. John 4:25 tn Or “he will announce to us.”
  63. John 4:25 tn Grk “all things.”
  64. John 4:27 tn Or “his disciples returned”; Grk “came” (“back” is supplied in keeping with English usage). Because of the length of the Greek sentence it is better to divide here and begin a new English sentence, leaving the καί (kai) before ἐθαύμαζον (ethaumazon) untranslated.
  65. John 4:27 tn BDAG 444 s.v. θαυμάζω 1.a.γ has “be surprised that” followed by indirect discourse. The context calls for a slightly stronger wording.
  66. John 4:27 tn The ὅτι (hoti) could also be translated as declarative (“that he had been speaking with a woman”) but since this would probably require translating the imperfect verb as a past perfect (which is normal after a declarative ὅτι), it is preferable to take this ὅτι as causal.
  67. John 4:27 tn Grk “seek.” See John The question “What do you want?” is John’s editorial comment (for no one in the text was asking it). The author is making a literary link with Jesus’ statement in v. 23: It is evident that, in spite of what the disciples may have been thinking, what Jesus was seeking is what the Father was seeking, that is to say, someone to worship him.
  68. John 4:28 tn The term ἄνθρωποι (anthrōpoi) used here can mean either “people” (when used generically) or “men” (though there is a more specific term in Greek for adult males, ανήρ [anēr]). Thus the woman could have been speaking either (1) to all the people or (2) to the male leaders of the city as their representatives. However, most recent English translations regard the former as more likely and render the word “people” here.
  69. John 4:29 tn Grk “the Christ” (both Greek “Christ” and Hebrew and Aramaic “Messiah” mean “one who has been anointed”). Although the Greek text reads χριστός (christos) here, it is more consistent based on 4:25 (where Μεσσίας [Messias] is the lead term and is qualified by χριστός) to translate χριστός as “Messiah” here.
  70. John 4:29 tn The use of μήτι (mēti) normally presupposes a negative answer. This should not be taken as an indication that the woman did not believe, however. It may well be an example of “reverse psychology,” designed to gain a hearing for her testimony among those whose doubts about her background would obviate her claims.
  71. John 4:30 tn “So” is supplied for transitional smoothness in English.
  72. John 4:30 sn The imperfect tense is here rendered began coming for the author is not finished with this part of the story yet; these same Samaritans will appear again in v. 35.
  73. John 4:31 tn Grk “were asking him, saying.”
  74. John 4:31 tn The direct object of φάγε (phage) in Greek is understood; “something” is supplied in English.
  75. John 4:33 tn An ingressive imperfect conveys the idea that Jesus’ reply provoked the disciples’ response.
  76. John 4:33 tn The direct object of ἤνεγκεν (ēnenken) in Greek is understood; “anything” is supplied in English.
  77. John 4:33 tn Questions prefaced with μή () in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end in English (here it is “did they?”).
  78. John 4:34 sn The one who sent me refers to the Father.
  79. John 4:34 tn Or “to accomplish.”
  80. John 4:34 tn The substantival ἵνα (hina) clause has been translated as an English infinitive No one brought him anything to eat, did they? In the discussion with the disciples which took place while the woman had gone into the city, note again the misunderstanding: The disciples thought Jesus referred to physical food, while he was really speaking figuratively and spiritually again. Thus Jesus was forced to explain what he meant, and the explanation that his food was his mission, to do the will of God and accomplish his work, leads naturally into the metaphor of the harvest. The fruit of his mission was represented by the Samaritans who were coming to him.
  81. John 4:35 tn The recitative ὅτι (hoti) after λέγετε (legete) has not been translated.
  82. John 4:35 tn Grk “lift up your eyes” (an idiom). BDAG 357 s.v. ἐπαίρω 1 has “look up” here.
  83. John 4:35 tn That is, “ripe.”
  84. John 4:36 tn Or “a reward”; see L&N 38.14 and 57.173. This is something of a wordplay.
  85. John 4:37 tn The recitative ὅτι (hoti) after ἀληθινός (alēthinos) has not been translated.
  86. John 4:39 tn Grk “when she testified.”
  87. John 4:40 tn Following the arrival of the Samaritans, the imperfect verb has been translated as ingressive.
  88. John 4:40 tn Because of the length of the Greek sentence and the sequencing with the following verse, the conjunction καί (kai) has not been translated here. Instead a new English sentence is begun.
  89. John 4:41 tn Or “and they believed much more.”
  90. John 4:42 tn Or “this.” The Greek pronoun can mean either “this one” or “this” (BDAG 740 s.v. οὗτος 1).
  91. John 4:42 sn There is irony in the Samaritans’ declaration that Jesus was really the Savior of the world, an irony foreshadowed in the prologue to the Fourth Gospel (1:11): “He came to his own, and his own did not receive him.” Yet the Samaritans welcomed Jesus and proclaimed him to be not the Jewish Messiah only, but the Savior of the world.
  92. John 4:44 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
  93. John 4:45 sn All the things he had done in Jerusalem probably refers to the signs mentioned in John 2:23.
  94. John 4:45 sn See John 2:23-25.
  95. John 4:45 sn John 4:44-45. The last part of v. 45 is a parenthetical note by the author. The major problem in these verses concerns the contradiction between the proverb stated by Jesus in v. 44 and the reception of the Galileans in v. 45. Origen solved the problem by referring his own country to Judea (which Jesus had just left) and not Galilee. But this runs counter to the thrust of John’s Gospel, which takes pains to identify Jesus with Galilee (cf. 1:46) and does not even mention his Judean birth. R. E. Brown typifies the contemporary approach: He regards v. 44 as an addition by a later redactor who wanted to emphasize Jesus’ unsatisfactory reception in Galilee. Neither expedient is necessary, though, if honor is understood in its sense of attributing true worth to someone. The Galileans did welcome him, but their welcome was to prove a superficial response based on what they had seen him do at the feast. There is no indication that the signs they saw brought them to place their faith in Jesus any more than Nicodemus did on the basis of the signs. But a superficial welcome based on enthusiasm for miracles is no real honor at all.
  96. John 4:46 sn See John 2:1-11.
  97. John 4:46 tn Grk “And in.”
  98. John 4:46 sn Capernaum was a town located on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, 680 ft (207 m) below sea level. It existed since Hasmonean times and was a major trade and economic center in the North Galilean region. The population in the first century is estimated to be around 1,500. Capernaum became the hub of operations for Jesus’ Galilean ministry (Matt 4:13; Mark 2:1). In modern times the site was discovered in 1838 by the American explorer E. Robinson, and major excavations began in 1905 by German archaeologists H. Kohl and C. Watzinger. Not until 1968, however, were remains from the time of Jesus visible; in that year V. Corbo and S. Loffreda began a series of annual archaeological campaigns that lasted until 1985. This work uncovered what is thought to be the house of Simon Peter as well as ruins of the first century synagogue beneath the later synagogue from the fourth or fifth century A.D. Today gently rolling hills and date palms frame the first century site, a favorite tourist destination of visitors to the Galilee.
  99. John 4:46 tn Although βασιλικός (basilikos) has often been translated “nobleman” it almost certainly refers here to a servant of Herod, tetrarch of Galilee (who in the NT is called a king, Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29). Capernaum was a border town, so doubtless there were many administrative officials in residence there.
  100. John 4:47 tn The direct object of ἠρώτα (ērōta) is supplied from context. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  101. John 4:48 tn The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied to indicate that the verb is second person plural (referring to more than the royal official alone).
  102. John 4:48 tn Or “you never believe.” The verb πιστεύσητε (pisteusēte) is aorist subjunctive and may have either nuance.
  103. John 4:50 tn Grk “Go”; the word “home” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
  104. John 4:50 tn Grk “and went.” The words “for home” are implied by the following verse.
  105. John 4:51 sn While he was on his way down. Going to Capernaum from Cana, one must go east across the Galilean hills and then descend to the Sea of Galilee. The 20 mi (33 km) journey could not be made in a single day. The use of the description on his way down shows the author was familiar with Palestinian geography.
  106. John 4:51 tn Traditionally, “servants.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force. Also, many slaves in the Roman world became slaves through Rome’s subjugation of conquered nations, kidnapping, or by being born into slave households.
  107. John 4:52 tn Grk “the hour.”
  108. John 4:52 tn BDAG 558 s.v. κομψότερον translates the idiom κομψότερον ἔχειν (kompsoteron echein) as “begin to improve.”
  109. John 4:52 tn The second οὖν (oun) in 4:52 has been translated as “and” to improve English style by avoiding redundancy.
  110. John 4:52 tn Grk “at the seventh hour.”
  111. John 4:53 tn Grk “at that hour.”
  112. John 4:54 tn This sentence in Greek involves an object-complement construction. The force can be either “Jesus did this as,” or possibly “Jesus made this to be.” The latter translation accents not only Jesus’ power but his sovereignty too. Cf. 2:11 where the same construction occurs.