Message to Egypt

19 The (A)pronouncement concerning (B)Egypt:

Behold, the Lord is (C)riding on a swift cloud and is about to come to Egypt;
The (D)idols of Egypt will tremble at His presence,
And the (E)heart of the Egyptians will melt within them.
“So I will incite Egyptians against Egyptians;
And they will fight, (F)each against his brother and each against his neighbor,
City against city and kingdom against kingdom.
Then the spirit of the Egyptians will be demoralized within them;
And I will confuse their strategy,
So that (G)they will resort to idols and ghosts of the dead,
And to [a]mediums and spiritists.
Furthermore, I will hand the Egyptians over to a (H)cruel master,
And a [b]mighty king will rule over them,” declares the Lord [c]God of armies.

(I)The waters from the sea will dry up,
And the river will be parched and dry.
The [d](J)canals will emit a stench,
The [e](K)streams of Egypt will thin out and dry up;
(L)The reeds and rushes will rot away.
The bulrushes by the (M)Nile, by the [f]edge of the Nile
And all the sown fields by the Nile
Will become dry, be driven away, and be no more.
And the (N)fishermen will grieve,
And all those who cast a [g]line into the Nile will mourn,
And those who spread nets on the waters will dwindle away.
Moreover, the manufacturers of linen made from combed flax
And the weavers of white (O)cloth will be [h]utterly dejected.
10 And [i]the (P)pillars of Egypt will be crushed;
All the hired laborers will be grieved in soul.

11 The officials of [j](Q)Zoan are mere fools;
The advice of Pharaoh’s wisest advisers has become [k]stupid.
How can you say to Pharaoh,
“I am a son of the (R)wise, a son of ancient kings”?
12 Well then, where are your wise men?
Please let them tell you,
And let them [l]understand what the Lord of armies
Has (S)planned against Egypt.
13 The officials of [m]Zoan have turned out to be fools,
The officials of (T)Memphis are deluded;
Those who are the (U)cornerstone of her tribes
Have [n]led Egypt astray.
14 The Lord has mixed within her a spirit of (V)distortion;
(W)They have led Egypt astray in all [o]that it does,
As a (X)drunken person [p]staggers in his vomit.
15 There will be no work for Egypt
(Y)Which its head or tail, its palm branch or bulrush, may do.

16 On that day the Egyptians will become like women, and they will tremble and be in great (Z)fear because of the (AA)waving of the hand of the Lord of armies, which He is going to wave over them. 17 The land of Judah will become a cause of shame to Egypt; everyone to whom it is mentioned will be in great fear because of the (AB)plan of the Lord of armies which He is making against them.

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  1. Isaiah 19:3 Or ghosts and spirits
  2. Isaiah 19:4 Or fierce
  3. Isaiah 19:4 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord
  4. Isaiah 19:6 Lit rivers
  5. Isaiah 19:6 Or Nile branches; i.e., the delta
  6. Isaiah 19:7 Or mouth
  7. Isaiah 19:8 Lit hook
  8. Isaiah 19:9 Lit ashamed
  9. Isaiah 19:10 Lit her pillars; or her weavers
  10. Isaiah 19:11 Or Tanis
  11. Isaiah 19:11 Or brutish
  12. Isaiah 19:12 Or know
  13. Isaiah 19:13 Or Tanis
  14. Isaiah 19:13 Or have caused Egypt to stagger
  15. Isaiah 19:14 Lit its work
  16. Isaiah 19:14 Or goes astray

To (A)Egypt, concerning the army of (B)Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt, which was by the river Euphrates at (C)Carchemish, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon defeated in the (D)fourth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah:

(E)Set up the [a]buckler and shield,
And advance to the battle!
Harness the horses,
And [b]mount the steeds,
Take your stand with helmets on!
(F)Polish the spears,
Put on the (G)coats of armor!
Why have I seen it?
They are terrified,
They are (H)retreating,
And their (I)warriors are defeated
And have taken refuge in flight,
Without facing back.
[c](J)Terror is on every side!”
Declares the Lord.
Let not the (K)swift man flee,
Nor the warrior escape.
In the north beside the river Euphrates
They have (L)stumbled and fallen.
Who is this that (M)rises like the Nile,
Like the rivers whose waters surge?
Egypt rises like the Nile,
And like the rivers whose waters surge;
And He has said, “I will (N)rise and cover that land;
I will (O)destroy the city and its inhabitants.”
Go up, you horses, and [d](P)drive wildly, you chariots,
So that the warriors may [e]march forward:
[f]Cush and [g](Q)Put, who handle the shield,
And the [h](R)Lydians, who handle and bend the bow.
10 For (S)that day belongs to the Lord [i]God of armies,
A day of (T)vengeance, so as to avenge Himself on His foes;
And the (U)sword will devour and be satisfied,
And [j]drink its fill of their blood;
For there will be a (V)slaughter for the Lord [k]God of armies,
In the land of the north at the river Euphrates.
11 Go (W)up to Gilead and obtain balm,
(X)Virgin daughter of Egypt!
You have used many [l]remedies in vain;
There is (Y)no healing for you.
12 The nations have heard of your (Z)shame,
And the earth is full of your (AA)cry of distress;
For one (AB)warrior has stumbled over [m]another,
And both of them have fallen down together.

13 This is the [n]message which the Lord spoke to Jeremiah the prophet about the (AC)coming of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon to (AD)strike the land of Egypt:

14 “Declare in Egypt and proclaim in (AE)Migdol,
Proclaim also in Memphis and (AF)Tahpanhes;
Say, ‘Take your stand and get yourself ready,
For the (AG)sword has devoured those around you.’
15 Why have your (AH)powerful ones been cut down?
They do not stand because the Lord has (AI)thrust them away.
16 They have repeatedly (AJ)stumbled;
Indeed, they have fallen, one against another.
Then they said, ‘Get up, and (AK)let’s go back
To our own people and our native land,
Away from the [o](AL)sword of the oppressor!’
17 [p]They shouted there, ‘Pharaoh king of Egypt is nothing but (AM)a big noise;
He has let the appointed time pass by!’
18 As I live,” declares the (AN)King,
Whose name is the Lord of armies,
“One certainly shall come who is like (AO)Tabor among the mountains,
Or like (AP)Carmel by the sea.
19 Make your baggage ready for (AQ)exile,
(AR)Daughter living in Egypt,
For (AS)Memphis will become a desolation;
It will be destroyed and [q]deprived of inhabitants.
20 Egypt is a pretty (AT)heifer,
But a [r]horsefly is coming (AU)from the north—it is coming!
21 Also her (AV)mercenaries in her midst
Are like fattened (AW)calves,
For they too have turned away and have fled together;
They did not stand their ground.
For the day of their disaster has come upon them,
The time of their (AX)punishment.
22 Its sound moves along like a serpent;
For they move on [s]like an army
And come to her as woodcutters with axes.
23 They have cut down her (AY)forest,” declares the Lord;
“Certainly it will no longer be found,
Even though [t]they are more numerous than (AZ)locusts
And are without number.
24 The daughter of Egypt has been put to shame,
Turned over to the [u]power of the (BA)people of the north.”

25 The Lord of armies, the God of Israel says: “Behold, I am going to punish Amon of (BB)Thebes, and (BC)Pharaoh, and Egypt along with her (BD)gods and her kings, indeed, Pharaoh and those who (BE)trust in him. 26 I shall hand them over to those who are (BF)seeking their lives, that is, to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and to his [v]officers. (BG)Afterward, however, it will be inhabited as in the days of old,” declares the Lord.

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  1. Jeremiah 46:3 I.e., small shield
  2. Jeremiah 46:4 Or go up, you horsemen
  3. Jeremiah 46:5 Heb Magor-missabib i.e., Terror is on every side
  4. Jeremiah 46:9 Lit act like madmen
  5. Jeremiah 46:9 Lit go forth
  6. Jeremiah 46:9 Or Ethiopia
  7. Jeremiah 46:9 I.e., Libya (or Somaliland)
  8. Jeremiah 46:9 Heb Ludim
  9. Jeremiah 46:10 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord
  10. Jeremiah 46:10 Lit be saturated with
  11. Jeremiah 46:10 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord
  12. Jeremiah 46:11 Lit healings
  13. Jeremiah 46:12 Lit warrior
  14. Jeremiah 46:13 Lit word
  15. Jeremiah 46:16 Lit oppressing sword
  16. Jeremiah 46:17 Some ancient versions Call the name of Pharaoh a big noise
  17. Jeremiah 46:19 Lit without
  18. Jeremiah 46:20 Or possibly mosquito
  19. Jeremiah 46:22 Or in force
  20. Jeremiah 46:23 I.e., trees of the forest, the Egyptians
  21. Jeremiah 46:24 Lit hand
  22. Jeremiah 46:26 Lit servants

Grief over Egypt

30 The word of the Lord came again to me, saying, “Son of man, prophesy and say, ‘This is what the Lord [a]God says:

(A)Wail, ‘Woe for the day!’
For the day is near,
Indeed, (B)the day of the Lord is near;
It will be a day of (C)clouds,
A time of doom for the nations.
A sword will come upon Egypt,
And there will be trembling in [b]Cush;
When the slain fall in Egypt,
They will (D)take away her [c]wealth,
And her foundations will be torn down.

[d]Cush, Put, Lud, all [e](E)Arabia, [f]Libya and the [g]people of the land [h]that is in league will fall with them by the sword.”

‘This is what the Lord says:
“Indeed, those who support (F)Egypt will fall
And the pride of her power will come down;
From Migdol to Syene
They will fall within her by the sword,”
Declares the Lord God.
“They will be desolate
In the (G)midst of the desolated lands;
And her cities will be
In the midst of the devastated cities.
And they will (H)know that I am the Lord,
When I set a (I)fire in Egypt
And all her helpers are broken.

On that day (J)messengers will go out from Me in ships to frighten (K)carefree [i]Cush; and (L)trembling will come on them as on the day of Egypt; for behold, it is coming!”

10 ‘This is what the Lord God says:

(M)I will also make the [j]hordes of Egypt cease
By the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon.
11 He and his people with him,
(N)The most ruthless of the nations,
Will be brought in to destroy the land;
And they will draw their swords against Egypt
And fill the land with the slain.
12 Moreover, I will make the (O)Nile canals dry
And (P)sell the land into the hands of evil men.
And I will make the land desolate
And [k]all that is in it,
By the hand of strangers; I the Lord have spoken.”

13 ‘This is what the Lord God says:

“I will also (Q)destroy the idols
And make the [l]images cease from [m](R)Memphis.
And there will no longer be a prince in the land of Egypt;
And I will put fear in the land of Egypt.
14 I will make (S)Pathros desolate,
Set a fire in (T)Zoan
And execute judgments on [n](U)Thebes.
15 I will pour out My wrath on [o]Sin,
The stronghold of Egypt;
I will also eliminate the hordes of [p]Thebes.
16 I will set a fire in Egypt;
[q]Sin will writhe in anguish,
[r]Thebes will be breached
And [s]Memphis will have [t]distresses daily.
17 The young men of [u](V)On and of Pi-beseth
Will fall by the sword,
And [v]the women will go into captivity.
18 In (W)Tehaphnehes the day will [w]be (X)dark
When I (Y)break there the yoke bars of Egypt.
Then the pride of her power will cease in her;
A cloud will cover her,
And her daughters will go into captivity.
19 So I will (Z)execute judgments on Egypt,
And they will know that I am the Lord.”’”

Victory for Babylon

20 In the (AA)eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 21 “Son of man, I have (AB)broken the arm of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, behold, it has not been (AC)bound up [x]for healing [y]or wrapped with a bandage, so that it may be strong to wield the sword. 22 Therefore this is what the Lord God says: ‘Behold, I am (AD)against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and I will break his arms, both the strong and the (AE)broken; and I will make the sword (AF)fall from his hand. 23 And I will (AG)scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among the lands. 24 For I will (AH)strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon and put (AI)My sword in his hand; and I will break the arms of Pharaoh, so that he will groan before him with the groans of a wounded man. 25 So I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, but the arms of Pharaoh will fail. Then they will know that I am the Lord, when I put My sword into the hand of the king of Babylon and he (AJ)reaches out with it against the land of Egypt. 26 When I scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among the lands, then they will know that I am the Lord.’”

Pharaoh Warned of Assyria’s Fate

31 In the (AK)eleventh year, in the third month, on the first of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying, “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his (AL)hordes,

‘Whom are you like in your greatness?
Behold, Assyria was a (AM)cedar in Lebanon
With beautiful branches and forest shade,
And [z](AN)very high,
And its top was among the [aa]clouds.
The (AO)waters made it grow, the [ab]deep made it high.
With its rivers it continually [ac]extended all around its planting place,
And sent out its channels to all the trees of the field.
Therefore (AP)its height was loftier than all the trees of the field
And its boughs became many and its branches long
Because of (AQ)many waters [ad]as it spread them out.
All the (AR)birds of the sky nested in its twigs,
And under its branches all the animals of the field gave birth,
And all great nations lived under its shade.
So it was beautiful in its greatness, in the length of its branches;
For its [ae]roots extended to many waters.
The (AS)cedars in (AT)God’s garden [af]could not match it;
The junipers [ag]could not compare with its branches,
And the plane trees [ah]could not match its branches.
No tree in (AU)God’s garden [ai]could compare with it in its beauty.
I made it beautiful with the multitude of its branches,
And all the trees of (AV)Eden, which were in the (AW)garden of God, were jealous of it.

10 ‘Therefore this is what the Lord [aj]God says: “Because [ak]it is tall in stature and has put its top among the [al]clouds, and its (AX)heart is haughty in its loftiness, 11 I will hand it over to a [am](AY)ruler of the nations; he will thoroughly deal with it. In accordance with its wickedness I have (AZ)driven it out. 12 (BA)Foreign (BB)tyrants of the nations have cut it down and left it; on the (BC)mountains and in all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its branches have been broken in all the ravines of the land. And all the peoples of the earth have (BD)gone down from its shade and left it. 13 All the (BE)birds of the sky will nest on its fallen trunk, and all the animals of the field will [an]rest on its fallen branches, 14 so that all the trees by the waters will not be exalted in their stature, nor put their tops among the [ao]clouds, nor will any of their [ap]well-watered mighty ones stand straight in their height. For they have all been turned over to death, to the (BF)earth beneath, among [aq]mankind, [ar]with those who go down to the pit.”

15 ‘This is what the Lord God says: “On the day when it went down to Sheol I (BG)caused mourning; I closed the [as]deep over it and held back its rivers. And its many waters were stopped up, and I made Lebanon mourn for it, and all the trees of the field wilted away on account of it. 16 I made the nations (BH)quake from the sound of its fall when I made it (BI)go down to Sheol with those who go down to the pit; and all the [at]well-watered trees of Eden, the choicest and best of (BJ)Lebanon, were (BK)comforted in the earth beneath. 17 They also (BL)went down with it to Sheol to those who were (BM)slain by the sword; and those who were its [au]strength lived (BN)in its shade among the nations.

18 “To which among the trees of Eden are you so alike in glory and greatness? Yet you will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the earth beneath; you will lie in the midst of the (BO)uncircumcised with those who were killed by the sword. (BP)This is Pharaoh and all his hordes!”’ declares the Lord God.”

Grief over Pharaoh and Egypt

32 In the (BQ)twelfth year, in the twelfth month, on the first of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying, “Son of man, take up a (BR)song of mourning over Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him,

‘You [av]compared yourself to a young (BS)lion of the nations,
Yet you are like the (BT)monster in the seas;
And you (BU)burst forth in your rivers
And muddied the waters with your feet
And [aw]fouled their rivers.’”

This is what the Lord [ax]God says:

“Now I will (BV)spread My net over you
With a contingent of many peoples,
And they will lift you up in My net.
I will leave you on the land;
I will hurl you on the [ay]open field.
And I will cause all the (BW)birds of the sky to [az]nest on you,
And I will satisfy the animals of the whole earth [ba]with you.
I will lay your flesh (BX)on the mountains
And fill the valleys with your refuse.
I will also make the land drink the discharge of your (BY)blood
As far as the mountains,
And the ravines will be full of you.
And when I (BZ)extinguish you,
I will (CA)cover the heavens and darken their (CB)stars;
I will cover the (CC)sun with a cloud
And the moon will not give its light.
All the shining (CD)lights in the heavens
I will darken over you
And will set darkness on your land,”
Declares the Lord God.

“I will also (CE)trouble the hearts of many peoples when I (CF)bring your destruction among the nations, into lands which you have not known. 10 And I will make many peoples (CG)appalled at you, and their kings will be horribly afraid of you when I brandish My sword before them; and (CH)they will tremble again and again, every person for his own life, on the day of your fall.”

11 For (CI)the Lord God says (CJ)this: “The sword of the king of Babylon will [bb]attack you. 12 By the swords of the warriors I will make your multitude fall; all of them are (CK)tyrants of the nations,

And they will (CL)devastate the pride of Egypt,
And all its multitude will be destroyed.
13 I will also eliminate all its cattle from beside many waters;
And (CM)a human foot will not muddy them anymore,
And the hoofs of animals will not muddy them.
14 Then I will make their waters settle,
And make their rivers run like oil,”
Declares the Lord God.
15 “When I make the land of Egypt a (CN)desolation,
And the land is destitute of that which filled it,
When I strike all those who live in it,
Then they shall (CO)know that I am the Lord.

16 This is a (CP)song of mourning, and they shall sing it. The daughters of the nations shall sing it. Over Egypt and over all her hordes they shall sing it,” declares the Lord God.

17 In the (CQ)twelfth year, on the (CR)fifteenth of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 18 “Son of man, (CS)lament for the hordes of Egypt and (CT)bring it down, her and the daughters of the mighty nations, to the (CU)netherworld, with those who go down to the pit;

19 ‘Whom do you surpass in beauty?
Go down and make your bed with the (CV)uncircumcised.’

20 They shall fall in the midst of those who are killed by the sword. [bc]She is turned over to the sword; they have (CW)dragged her and all her hordes away. 21 The (CX)strong among the mighty ones shall speak of him and his helpers from the midst of Sheol: ‘They have gone down, they lie still, the uncircumcised, killed by the sword.’

22 (CY)Assyria is there and all her company; [bd]her graves are all around [be]her. All of them killed, fallen by the sword, 23 whose (CZ)graves are set in the remotest parts of the pit, and her company is all around her grave. All of them killed, fallen by the sword, who [bf]spread terror in the land of the living.

24 (DA)Elam is there and all her hordes around her grave; all of them killed, fallen by the sword, who went down uncircumcised to the (DB)lower parts of the earth, who inflicted their terror on the (DC)land of the living, and (DD)bore their disgrace with those who go down to the pit. 25 They have made a (DE)bed for her among the slain with all her hordes. Her graves are around it, they are all uncircumcised, killed by the sword (although their terror was [bg]inflicted on the land of the living), and they bore their disgrace with those who go down to the pit; [bh]they were put in the midst of the slain.

26 (DF)Meshech, (DG)Tubal, and all their hordes are there; their graves [bi]surround them. All of them were killed by the sword (DH)uncircumcised, though they inflicted their terror on the land of the living. 27 (DI)Nor do they lie beside the fallen [bj](DJ)heroes of the uncircumcised, who went down to Sheol with their weapons of war and whose swords were placed under their heads; but the punishment for their (DK)wrongdoing rested on their bones, though the terror of these [bk]heroes was once in the land of the living. 28 But in the midst of the uncircumcised you will be broken and lie with those killed by the sword.

29 “There also is (DL)Edom, its kings and all its [bl]princes, who [bm]despite all their might are laid with those killed by the sword; they will lie with the uncircumcised and with those who go down to the pit.

30 “There also are the [bn]chiefs of the (DM)north, all of them, and all the (DN)Sidonians, who in spite of the terror resulting from their might, in shame went down with the slain. So they lay down uncircumcised with those killed by the sword and bore their disgrace with those who go down to the pit.

31 “These Pharaoh will see, and he will (DO)find consolation regarding all his hordes killed by the sword, Pharaoh and all his army,” declares the Lord God. 32 “Though I inflicted the terror of him on the land of the living, yet he will be laid to rest among the uncircumcised along with those killed by the sword, Pharaoh and all his hordes,” declares the Lord God.


  1. Ezekiel 30:2 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord, and so throughout the ch
  2. Ezekiel 30:4 Or Ethiopia
  3. Ezekiel 30:4 Or multitude
  4. Ezekiel 30:5 Or Ethiopia
  5. Ezekiel 30:5 Or the mixed people
  6. Ezekiel 30:5 Or Cub
  7. Ezekiel 30:5 Lit sons
  8. Ezekiel 30:5 Lit of the covenant
  9. Ezekiel 30:9 Or Ethiopia
  10. Ezekiel 30:10 Or people; lit crowd, and so throughout the ch
  11. Ezekiel 30:12 Lit her fullness
  12. Ezekiel 30:13 Or futile ones
  13. Ezekiel 30:13 Or Noph
  14. Ezekiel 30:14 Or No
  15. Ezekiel 30:15 Or Pelusium
  16. Ezekiel 30:15 Or No
  17. Ezekiel 30:16 Or Pelusium
  18. Ezekiel 30:16 Or No
  19. Ezekiel 30:16 Or Noph
  20. Ezekiel 30:16 Or adversaries
  21. Ezekiel 30:17 Or Aven
  22. Ezekiel 30:17 Lit they
  23. Ezekiel 30:18 As in many mss and ancient versions; MT restrain
  24. Ezekiel 30:21 Lit to give healing
  25. Ezekiel 30:21 Lit to wrap it
  26. Ezekiel 31:3 Lit high of stature
  27. Ezekiel 31:3 As in LXX; MT thick boughs
  28. Ezekiel 31:4 I.e., subterranean waters
  29. Ezekiel 31:4 Lit was going
  30. Ezekiel 31:5 Lit in its sending forth
  31. Ezekiel 31:7 Lit root was
  32. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  33. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  34. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit were not like
  35. Ezekiel 31:8 Lit did
  36. Ezekiel 31:10 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord, and so throughout the ch
  37. Ezekiel 31:10 As in Syriac; MT you are
  38. Ezekiel 31:10 As in LXX; MT thick branches
  39. Ezekiel 31:11 Or mighty one
  40. Ezekiel 31:13 Lit be on
  41. Ezekiel 31:14 As in LXX; MT thick branches
  42. Ezekiel 31:14 Lit drinkers of water
  43. Ezekiel 31:14 Lit sons of mankind
  44. Ezekiel 31:14 Lit to
  45. Ezekiel 31:15 I.e., subterranean waters
  46. Ezekiel 31:16 Lit drinkers of water
  47. Ezekiel 31:17 Lit arm
  48. Ezekiel 32:2 Or were like
  49. Ezekiel 32:2 Lit fouled by stamping
  50. Ezekiel 32:3 Heb YHWH, usually rendered Lord, and so throughout the ch
  51. Ezekiel 32:4 Lit faces of the field
  52. Ezekiel 32:4 Lit dwell
  53. Ezekiel 32:4 Lit from
  54. Ezekiel 32:11 Lit come upon you
  55. Ezekiel 32:20 Or The sword is given
  56. Ezekiel 32:22 Lit his
  57. Ezekiel 32:22 Lit him
  58. Ezekiel 32:23 Lit gave, and so throughout the ch
  59. Ezekiel 32:25 Lit given
  60. Ezekiel 32:25 As in ancient versions; MT he was
  61. Ezekiel 32:26 Lit are around him
  62. Ezekiel 32:27 Or mighty ones
  63. Ezekiel 32:27 Or mighty ones
  64. Ezekiel 32:29 Or leaders
  65. Ezekiel 32:29 Lit in
  66. Ezekiel 32:30 Or leaders

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