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28 who commissions[a] Cyrus, the one I appointed as shepherd[b]
to carry out all my wishes[c]
and to decree concerning Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’
and concerning the temple, ‘It will be reconstructed.’[d]
45 “This is what the Lord says to his chosen one,[e]

to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold[f]
in order to subdue nations before him,
and disarm kings,[g]
to open doors before him,
so gates remain unclosed:

‘I will go before you
and level mountains.[h]
Bronze doors I will shatter
and iron bars[i] I will hack through.
I will give you hidden treasures,[j]
riches stashed away in secret places,
so you may recognize that I am the Lord,
the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel.
For the sake of my servant Jacob,
Israel, my chosen one,
I call you by name
and give you a title of respect, even though you do not submit[k] to me.
I am the Lord, I have no peer,[l]
there is no God but me.
I arm you for battle,[m] even though you do not recognize[n] me.
I do this[o] so people[p] will recognize from east to west
that there is no God but me;
I am the Lord, I have no peer.


  1. Isaiah 44:28 tn Heb “says to.” It is possible that the sentence is not completed, as the description of Cyrus and his God-given role is developed in the rest of the verse. 45:1 picks up where 44:28a leaves off with the Lord’s actual words to Cyrus finally being quoted in 45:2.
  2. Isaiah 44:28 tn Heb “my shepherd.” The shepherd motif is sometimes applied, as here, to a royal figure who is responsible for the well-being of the people whom he rules.
  3. Isaiah 44:28 tn Heb “that he might bring to completion all my desire.”
  4. Isaiah 44:28 tn Heb “and [concerning the] temple, you will be founded.” The preposition -לְ (le) is understood by ellipsis at the beginning of the second line. The verb תִּוָּסֵד (tivvased, “you will be founded”) is second masculine singular and is probably addressed to the personified temple (הֵיכָל [hekhal, “temple”] is masculine).
  5. Isaiah 45:1 tn Heb “anointed” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “his appointed king.”
  6. Isaiah 45:1 sn The “right hand” is a symbol of activity and strength; the Lord directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.
  7. Isaiah 45:1 tn Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”
  8. Isaiah 45:2 tc The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) is difficult. It may need to be emended to an original הָרָרִים (hararim, “mountains”), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, “mountain”). 1QIsaa and the LXX support an unambiguous text of “mountains.”
  9. Isaiah 45:2 tn That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”
  10. Isaiah 45:3 tn Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”
  11. Isaiah 45:4 tn Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.” The common verb יָדַע (yadaʿ) means “to know.” Among homophonous roots DCH includes יָדַע II meaning “be submissive, humbled; be quiet, at rest” (cf. Job 21:19; Prov 5:6; Jer 14:18; Hos 9:7).
  12. Isaiah 45:5 tn Heb “and there is none besides.” On the use of עוֹד (ʿod) here, see BDB 729 s.v. 1.c.
  13. Isaiah 45:5 tn Heb “gird you” (so NASB) or “strengthen you” (so NIV).
  14. Isaiah 45:5 tn Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”
  15. Isaiah 45:6 tn The words “I do this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  16. Isaiah 45:6 tn Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”