New International Version
Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt
42 When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt,(A) he said to his sons, “Why do you just keep looking at each other?” 2 He continued, “I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us,(B) so that we may live and not die.”(C)
3 Then ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain(D) from Egypt. 4 But Jacob did not send Benjamin,(E) Joseph’s brother, with the others, because he was afraid that harm might come to him.(F) 5 So Israel’s sons were among those who went to buy grain,(G) for there was famine in the land of Canaan(H) also.(I)
6 Now Joseph was the governor of the land,(J) the person who sold grain to all its people.(K) So when Joseph’s brothers arrived, they bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.(L) 7 As soon as Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he pretended to be a stranger and spoke harshly to them.(M) “Where do you come from?”(N) he asked.
“From the land of Canaan,” they replied, “to buy food.”
8 Although Joseph recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him.(O) 9 Then he remembered his dreams(P) about them and said to them, “You are spies!(Q) You have come to see where our land is unprotected.”(R)
10 “No, my lord,(S)” they answered. “Your servants have come to buy food.(T) 11 We are all the sons of one man. Your servants(U) are honest men,(V) not spies.(W)”
12 “No!” he said to them. “You have come to see where our land is unprotected.”(X)
13 But they replied, “Your servants(Y) were twelve brothers, the sons of one man, who lives in the land of Canaan.(Z) The youngest is now with our father, and one is no more.”(AA)
14 Joseph said to them, “It is just as I told you: You are spies!(AB) 15 And this is how you will be tested: As surely as Pharaoh lives,(AC) you will not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here.(AD) 16 Send one of your number to get your brother;(AE) the rest of you will be kept in prison,(AF) so that your words may be tested to see if you are telling the truth.(AG) If you are not, then as surely as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!(AH)” 17 And he put them all in custody(AI) for three days.
18 On the third day, Joseph said to them, “Do this and you will live, for I fear God:(AJ) 19 If you are honest men,(AK) let one of your brothers stay here in prison,(AL) while the rest of you go and take grain back for your starving households.(AM) 20 But you must bring your youngest brother to me,(AN) so that your words may be verified and that you may not die.” This they proceeded to do.
21 They said to one another, “Surely we are being punished because of our brother.(AO) We saw how distressed he was when he pleaded with us for his life, but we would not listen; that’s why this distress(AP) has come on us.”
22 Reuben replied, “Didn’t I tell you not to sin against the boy?(AQ) But you wouldn’t listen! Now we must give an accounting(AR) for his blood.”(AS) 23 They did not realize(AT) that Joseph could understand them,(AU) since he was using an interpreter.
24 He turned away from them and began to weep,(AV) but then came back and spoke to them again. He had Simeon taken from them and bound before their eyes.(AW)
25 Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain,(AX) to put each man’s silver back in his sack,(AY) and to give them provisions(AZ) for their journey.(BA) After this was done for them, 26 they loaded their grain on their donkeys(BB) and left.
27 At the place where they stopped for the night one of them opened his sack to get feed for his donkey,(BC) and he saw his silver in the mouth of his sack.(BD) 28 “My silver has been returned,” he said to his brothers. “Here it is in my sack.”
Their hearts sank(BE) and they turned to each other trembling(BF) and said, “What is this that God has done to us?”(BG)
29 When they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan,(BH) they told him all that had happened to them.(BI) They said, 30 “The man who is lord over the land spoke harshly to us(BJ) and treated us as though we were spying on the land.(BK) 31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are not spies.(BL) 32 We were twelve brothers, sons of one father. One is no more, and the youngest is now with our father in Canaan.’(BM)
33 “Then the man who is lord over the land said to us, ‘This is how I will know whether you are honest men: Leave one of your brothers here with me, and take food for your starving households and go.(BN) 34 But bring your youngest brother to me so I will know that you are not spies but honest men.(BO) Then I will give your brother back to you,(BP) and you can trade[a] in the land.(BQ)’”
35 As they were emptying their sacks, there in each man’s sack was his pouch of silver!(BR) When they and their father saw the money pouches, they were frightened.(BS) 36 Their father Jacob said to them, “You have deprived me of my children. Joseph is no more and Simeon is no more,(BT) and now you want to take Benjamin.(BU) Everything is against me!(BV)”
37 Then Reuben said to his father, “You may put both of my sons to death if I do not bring him back to you. Entrust him to my care,(BW) and I will bring him back.”(BX)
38 But Jacob said, “My son will not go down there with you; his brother is dead(BY) and he is the only one left. If harm comes to him(BZ) on the journey you are taking, you will bring my gray head down to the grave(CA) in sorrow.(CB)”
The Second Journey to Egypt
43 Now the famine was still severe in the land.(CC) 2 So when they had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt,(CD) their father said to them, “Go back and buy us a little more food.”(CE)
3 But Judah(CF) said to him, “The man warned us solemnly, ‘You will not see my face again unless your brother is with you.’(CG) 4 If you will send our brother along with us, we will go down and buy food for you.(CH) 5 But if you will not send him, we will not go down, because the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face again unless your brother is with you.(CI)’”
6 Israel(CJ) asked, “Why did you bring this trouble(CK) on me by telling the man you had another brother?”
7 They replied, “The man questioned us closely about ourselves and our family. ‘Is your father still living?’(CL) he asked us. ‘Do you have another brother?’(CM) We simply answered his questions. How were we to know he would say, ‘Bring your brother down here’?”(CN)
8 Then Judah(CO) said to Israel(CP) his father, “Send the boy along with me and we will go at once, so that we and you and our children may live and not die.(CQ) 9 I myself will guarantee his safety; you can hold me personally responsible for him.(CR) If I do not bring him back to you and set him here before you, I will bear the blame(CS) before you all my life.(CT) 10 As it is, if we had not delayed,(CU) we could have gone and returned twice.”
11 Then their father Israel(CV) said to them, “If it must be, then do this: Put some of the best products(CW) of the land in your bags and take them down to the man as a gift(CX)—a little balm(CY) and a little honey, some spices(CZ) and myrrh,(DA) some pistachio nuts and almonds. 12 Take double the amount(DB) of silver with you, for you must return the silver that was put back into the mouths of your sacks.(DC) Perhaps it was a mistake. 13 Take your brother also and go back to the man at once.(DD) 14 And may God Almighty[b](DE) grant you mercy(DF) before the man so that he will let your other brother and Benjamin come back with you.(DG) As for me, if I am bereaved, I am bereaved.”(DH)
15 So the men took the gifts and double the amount of silver,(DI) and Benjamin also. They hurried(DJ) down to Egypt and presented themselves(DK) to Joseph. 16 When Joseph saw Benjamin(DL) with them, he said to the steward of his house,(DM) “Take these men to my house, slaughter an animal and prepare a meal;(DN) they are to eat with me at noon.”
17 The man did as Joseph told him and took the men to Joseph’s house.(DO) 18 Now the men were frightened(DP) when they were taken to his house.(DQ) They thought, “We were brought here because of the silver that was put back into our sacks(DR) the first time. He wants to attack us(DS) and overpower us and seize us as slaves(DT) and take our donkeys.(DU)”
19 So they went up to Joseph’s steward(DV) and spoke to him at the entrance to the house. 20 “We beg your pardon, our lord,” they said, “we came down here the first time to buy food.(DW) 21 But at the place where we stopped for the night we opened our sacks and each of us found his silver—the exact weight—in the mouth of his sack. So we have brought it back with us.(DX) 22 We have also brought additional silver with us to buy food. We don’t know who put our silver in our sacks.”
23 “It’s all right,” he said. “Don’t be afraid. Your God, the God of your father,(DY) has given you treasure in your sacks;(DZ) I received your silver.” Then he brought Simeon out to them.(EA)
24 The steward took the men into Joseph’s house,(EB) gave them water to wash their feet(EC) and provided fodder for their donkeys. 25 They prepared their gifts(ED) for Joseph’s arrival at noon,(EE) because they had heard that they were to eat there.
26 When Joseph came home,(EF) they presented to him the gifts(EG) they had brought into the house, and they bowed down before him to the ground.(EH) 27 He asked them how they were, and then he said, “How is your aged father(EI) you told me about? Is he still living?”(EJ)
28 They replied, “Your servant our father(EK) is still alive and well.” And they bowed down,(EL) prostrating themselves before him.(EM)
29 As he looked about and saw his brother Benjamin, his own mother’s son,(EN) he asked, “Is this your youngest brother, the one you told me about?”(EO) And he said, “God be gracious to you,(EP) my son.” 30 Deeply moved(EQ) at the sight of his brother, Joseph hurried out and looked for a place to weep. He went into his private room and wept(ER) there.
31 After he had washed his face, he came out and, controlling himself,(ES) said, “Serve the food.”(ET)
32 They served him by himself, the brothers by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves, because Egyptians could not eat with Hebrews,(EU) for that is detestable to Egyptians.(EV) 33 The men had been seated before him in the order of their ages, from the firstborn(EW) to the youngest;(EX) and they looked at each other in astonishment. 34 When portions were served to them from Joseph’s table, Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as anyone else’s.(EY) So they feasted(EZ) and drank freely with him.
A Silver Cup in a Sack
44 Now Joseph gave these instructions to the steward of his house:(FA) “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack.(FB) 2 Then put my cup,(FC) the silver one,(FD) in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did as Joseph said.
3 As morning dawned, the men were sent on their way with their donkeys.(FE) 4 They had not gone far from the city when Joseph said to his steward,(FF) “Go after those men at once, and when you catch up with them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil?(FG) 5 Isn’t this the cup(FH) my master drinks from and also uses for divination?(FI) This is a wicked thing you have done.’”
6 When he caught up with them, he repeated these words to them. 7 But they said to him, “Why does my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants(FJ) to do anything like that!(FK) 8 We even brought back to you from the land of Canaan(FL) the silver(FM) we found inside the mouths of our sacks.(FN) So why would we steal(FO) silver or gold from your master’s house? 9 If any of your servants(FP) is found to have it, he will die;(FQ) and the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves.(FR)”
10 “Very well, then,” he said, “let it be as you say. Whoever is found to have it(FS) will become my slave;(FT) the rest of you will be free from blame.”(FU)
11 Each of them quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. 12 Then the steward(FV) proceeded to search,(FW) beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest.(FX) And the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack.(FY) 13 At this, they tore their clothes.(FZ) Then they all loaded their donkeys(GA) and returned to the city.
14 Joseph was still in the house(GB) when Judah(GC) and his brothers came in, and they threw themselves to the ground before him.(GD) 15 Joseph said to them, “What is this you have done?(GE) Don’t you know that a man like me can find things out by divination?(GF)”
16 “What can we say to my lord?(GG)” Judah(GH) replied. “What can we say? How can we prove our innocence?(GI) God has uncovered your servants’(GJ) guilt. We are now my lord’s slaves(GK)—we ourselves and the one who was found to have the cup.(GL)”
17 But Joseph said, “Far be it from me to do such a thing!(GM) Only the man who was found to have the cup will become my slave.(GN) The rest of you, go back to your father in peace.”(GO)
18 Then Judah(GP) went up to him and said: “Pardon your servant, my lord,(GQ) let me speak a word to my lord. Do not be angry(GR) with your servant, though you are equal to Pharaoh himself. 19 My lord asked his servants,(GS) ‘Do you have a father or a brother?’(GT) 20 And we answered, ‘We have an aged father, and there is a young son born to him in his old age.(GU) His brother is dead,(GV) and he is the only one of his mother’s sons left, and his father loves him.’(GW)
21 “Then you said to your servants,(GX) ‘Bring him down to me so I can see him for myself.’(GY) 22 And we said to my lord,(GZ) ‘The boy cannot leave his father; if he leaves him, his father will die.’(HA) 23 But you told your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you will not see my face again.’(HB) 24 When we went back to your servant my father,(HC) we told him what my lord(HD) had said.(HE)
25 “Then our father said, ‘Go back and buy a little more food.’(HF) 26 But we said, ‘We cannot go down. Only if our youngest brother is with us will we go. We cannot see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’(HG)
27 “Your servant my father(HH) said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons.(HI) 28 One of them went away from me, and I said, “He has surely been torn to pieces.”(HJ) And I have not seen him since.(HK) 29 If you take this one from me too and harm comes to him, you will bring my gray head down to the grave(HL) in misery.’(HM)
30 “So now, if the boy is not with us when I go back to your servant my father,(HN) and if my father, whose life is closely bound up with the boy’s life,(HO) 31 sees that the boy isn’t there, he will die.(HP) Your servants(HQ) will bring the gray head of our father down to the grave(HR) in sorrow. 32 Your servant guaranteed the boy’s safety to my father. I said, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, I will bear the blame before you, my father, all my life!’(HS)
33 “Now then, please let your servant remain here as my lord’s slave(HT) in place of the boy,(HU) and let the boy return with his brothers. 34 How can I go back to my father if the boy is not with me? No! Do not let me see the misery(HV) that would come on my father.”(HW)
Joseph Makes Himself Known
45 Then Joseph could no longer control himself(HX) before all his attendants, and he cried out, “Have everyone leave my presence!”(HY) So there was no one with Joseph when he made himself known to his brothers. 2 And he wept(HZ) so loudly that the Egyptians heard him, and Pharaoh’s household heard about it.(IA)
3 Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph! Is my father still living?”(IB) But his brothers were not able to answer him,(IC) because they were terrified at his presence.(ID)
4 Then Joseph said to his brothers, “Come close to me.”(IE) When they had done so, he said, “I am your brother Joseph, the one you sold into Egypt!(IF) 5 And now, do not be distressed(IG) and do not be angry with yourselves for selling me here,(IH) because it was to save lives that God sent me ahead of you.(II) 6 For two years now there has been famine(IJ) in the land, and for the next five years there will be no plowing and reaping. 7 But God sent me ahead of you to preserve for you a remnant(IK) on earth and to save your lives by a great deliverance.[c](IL)
8 “So then, it was not you who sent me here, but God.(IM) He made me father(IN) to Pharaoh, lord of his entire household and ruler of all Egypt.(IO) 9 Now hurry(IP) back to my father and say to him, ‘This is what your son Joseph says: God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; don’t delay.(IQ) 10 You shall live in the region of Goshen(IR) and be near me—you, your children and grandchildren, your flocks and herds, and all you have.(IS) 11 I will provide for you there,(IT) because five years of famine(IU) are still to come. Otherwise you and your household and all who belong to you will become destitute.’(IV)
12 “You can see for yourselves, and so can my brother Benjamin,(IW) that it is really I who am speaking to you.(IX) 13 Tell my father about all the honor accorded me in Egypt(IY) and about everything you have seen. And bring my father down here quickly.(IZ)”
14 Then he threw his arms around his brother Benjamin and wept, and Benjamin(JA) embraced him,(JB) weeping. 15 And he kissed(JC) all his brothers and wept over them.(JD) Afterward his brothers talked with him.(JE)
16 When the news reached Pharaoh’s palace that Joseph’s brothers had come,(JF) Pharaoh and all his officials(JG) were pleased.(JH) 17 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Tell your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals(JI) and return to the land of Canaan,(JJ) 18 and bring your father and your families back to me. I will give you the best of the land of Egypt(JK) and you can enjoy the fat of the land.’(JL)
19 “You are also directed to tell them, ‘Do this: Take some carts(JM) from Egypt for your children and your wives, and get your father and come. 20 Never mind about your belongings,(JN) because the best of all Egypt(JO) will be yours.’”
21 So the sons of Israel did this. Joseph gave them carts,(JP) as Pharaoh had commanded, and he also gave them provisions for their journey.(JQ) 22 To each of them he gave new clothing,(JR) but to Benjamin he gave three hundred shekels[d] of silver and five sets of clothes.(JS) 23 And this is what he sent to his father: ten donkeys(JT) loaded with the best things(JU) of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and other provisions for his journey.(JV) 24 Then he sent his brothers away, and as they were leaving he said to them, “Don’t quarrel on the way!”(JW)
25 So they went up out of Egypt(JX) and came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan.(JY) 26 They told him, “Joseph is still alive! In fact, he is ruler of all Egypt.”(JZ) Jacob was stunned; he did not believe them.(KA) 27 But when they told him everything Joseph had said to them, and when he saw the carts(KB) Joseph had sent to carry him back, the spirit of their father Jacob revived. 28 And Israel said, “I’m convinced!(KC) My son Joseph is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”(KD)
Jacob Goes to Egypt
46 So Israel(KE) set out with all that was his, and when he reached Beersheba,(KF) he offered sacrifices(KG) to the God of his father Isaac.(KH)
2 And God spoke to Israel(KI) in a vision at night(KJ) and said, “Jacob! Jacob!”
“Here I am,”(KK) he replied.
3 “I am God, the God of your father,”(KL) he said. “Do not be afraid(KM) to go down to Egypt,(KN) for I will make you into a great nation(KO) there.(KP) 4 I will go down to Egypt with you, and I will surely bring you back again.(KQ) And Joseph’s own hand will close your eyes.(KR)”
5 Then Jacob left Beersheba,(KS) and Israel’s(KT) sons took their father Jacob and their children and their wives in the carts(KU) that Pharaoh had sent to transport him. 6 So Jacob and all his offspring went to Egypt,(KV) taking with them their livestock and the possessions(KW) they had acquired(KX) in Canaan. 7 Jacob brought with him to Egypt(KY) his sons and grandsons and his daughters and granddaughters—all his offspring.(KZ)
8 These are the names of the sons of Israel(LA) (Jacob and his descendants) who went to Egypt:
Reuben the firstborn(LB) of Jacob.
9 The sons of Reuben:(LC)
Hanok, Pallu,(LD) Hezron and Karmi.(LE)
10 The sons of Simeon:(LF)
Jemuel,(LG) Jamin, Ohad, Jakin, Zohar(LH) and Shaul the son of a Canaanite woman.
11 The sons of Levi:(LI)
Gershon,(LJ) Kohath(LK) and Merari.(LL)
12 The sons of Judah:(LM)
Er,(LN) Onan,(LO) Shelah, Perez(LP) and Zerah(LQ) (but Er and Onan had died in the land of Canaan).(LR)
The sons of Perez:(LS)
Hezron and Hamul.(LT)
13 The sons of Issachar:(LU)
Tola, Puah,[e](LV) Jashub[f](LW) and Shimron.
14 The sons of Zebulun:(LX)
Sered, Elon and Jahleel.
15 These were the sons Leah bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram,[g](LY) besides his daughter Dinah.(LZ) These sons and daughters of his were thirty-three in all.
16 The sons of Gad:(MA)
Zephon,[h](MB) Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, Arodi and Areli.
17 The sons of Asher:(MC)
Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi and Beriah.
Their sister was Serah.
The sons of Beriah:
Heber and Malkiel.
18 These were the children born to Jacob by Zilpah,(MD) whom Laban had given to his daughter Leah(ME)—sixteen in all.
19 The sons of Jacob’s wife Rachel:(MF)
Joseph and Benjamin.(MG) 20 In Egypt, Manasseh(MH) and Ephraim(MI) were born to Joseph(MJ) by Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On.[i](MK)
21 The sons of Benjamin:(ML)
Bela, Beker, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim and Ard.(MM)
22 These were the sons of Rachel(MN) who were born to Jacob—fourteen in all.
25 These were the sons born to Jacob by Bilhah,(MR) whom Laban had given to his daughter Rachel(MS)—seven in all.
26 All those who went to Egypt with Jacob—those who were his direct descendants, not counting his sons’ wives—numbered sixty-six persons.(MT) 27 With the two sons[j] who had been born to Joseph in Egypt,(MU) the members of Jacob’s family, which went to Egypt, were seventy[k] in all.(MV)
28 Now Jacob sent Judah(MW) ahead of him to Joseph to get directions to Goshen.(MX) When they arrived in the region of Goshen, 29 Joseph had his chariot(MY) made ready and went to Goshen to meet his father Israel.(MZ) As soon as Joseph appeared before him, he threw his arms around his father[l] and wept(NA) for a long time.(NB)
30 Israel(NC) said to Joseph, “Now I am ready to die, since I have seen for myself that you are still alive.”(ND)
31 Then Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s household, “I will go up and speak to Pharaoh and will say to him, ‘My brothers and my father’s household, who were living in the land of Canaan,(NE) have come to me.(NF) 32 The men are shepherds;(NG) they tend livestock,(NH) and they have brought along their flocks and herds and everything they own.’(NI) 33 When Pharaoh calls you in and asks, ‘What is your occupation?’(NJ) 34 you should answer, ‘Your servants(NK) have tended livestock from our boyhood on, just as our fathers did.’(NL) Then you will be allowed to settle(NM) in the region of Goshen,(NN) for all shepherds are detestable to the Egyptians.(NO)”
47 Joseph went and told Pharaoh, “My father and brothers, with their flocks and herds and everything they own, have come from the land of Canaan(NP) and are now in Goshen.”(NQ) 2 He chose five of his brothers and presented them(NR) before Pharaoh.
3 Pharaoh asked the brothers, “What is your occupation?”(NS)
“Your servants(NT) are shepherds,(NU)” they replied to Pharaoh, “just as our fathers were.” 4 They also said to him, “We have come to live here for a while,(NV) because the famine is severe in Canaan(NW) and your servants’ flocks have no pasture.(NX) So now, please let your servants settle in Goshen.”(NY)
5 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Your father and your brothers have come to you, 6 and the land of Egypt is before you; settle(NZ) your father and your brothers in the best part of the land.(OA) Let them live in Goshen. And if you know of any among them with special ability,(OB) put them in charge of my own livestock.(OC)”
7 Then Joseph brought his father Jacob in and presented him(OD) before Pharaoh. After Jacob blessed[m] Pharaoh,(OE) 8 Pharaoh asked him, “How old are you?”
9 And Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The years of my pilgrimage are a hundred and thirty.(OF) My years have been few and difficult,(OG) and they do not equal the years of the pilgrimage of my fathers.(OH)” 10 Then Jacob blessed[n] Pharaoh(OI) and went out from his presence.
11 So Joseph settled his father and his brothers in Egypt and gave them property in the best part of the land,(OJ) the district of Rameses,(OK) as Pharaoh directed. 12 Joseph also provided his father and his brothers and all his father’s household with food, according to the number of their children.(OL)
Joseph and the Famine
13 There was no food, however, in the whole region because the famine was severe; both Egypt and Canaan wasted away because of the famine.(OM) 14 Joseph collected all the money that was to be found in Egypt and Canaan in payment for the grain they were buying,(ON) and he brought it to Pharaoh’s palace.(OO) 15 When the money of the people of Egypt and Canaan was gone,(OP) all Egypt came to Joseph(OQ) and said, “Give us food. Why should we die before your eyes?(OR) Our money is all gone.”
16 “Then bring your livestock,(OS)” said Joseph. “I will sell you food in exchange for your livestock, since your money is gone.(OT)” 17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph, and he gave them food in exchange for their horses,(OU) their sheep and goats, their cattle and donkeys.(OV) And he brought them through that year with food in exchange for all their livestock.
18 When that year was over, they came to him the following year and said, “We cannot hide from our lord the fact that since our money is gone(OW) and our livestock belongs to you,(OX) there is nothing left for our lord except our bodies and our land. 19 Why should we perish before your eyes(OY)—we and our land as well? Buy us and our land in exchange for food,(OZ) and we with our land will be in bondage to Pharaoh.(PA) Give us seed so that we may live and not die,(PB) and that the land may not become desolate.”
20 So Joseph bought all the land in Egypt for Pharaoh. The Egyptians, one and all, sold their fields, because the famine was too severe(PC) for them. The land became Pharaoh’s, 21 and Joseph reduced the people to servitude,[o](PD) from one end of Egypt to the other. 22 However, he did not buy the land of the priests,(PE) because they received a regular allotment from Pharaoh and had food enough from the allotment(PF) Pharaoh gave them. That is why they did not sell their land.
23 Joseph said to the people, “Now that I have bought you and your land today for Pharaoh, here is seed(PG) for you so you can plant the ground.(PH) 24 But when the crop comes in, give a fifth(PI) of it to Pharaoh. The other four-fifths you may keep as seed for the fields and as food for yourselves and your households and your children.”
25 “You have saved our lives,” they said. “May we find favor in the eyes of our lord;(PJ) we will be in bondage to Pharaoh.”(PK)
26 So Joseph established it as a law concerning land in Egypt—still in force today—that a fifth(PL) of the produce belongs to Pharaoh. It was only the land of the priests that did not become Pharaoh’s.(PM)
27 Now the Israelites settled in Egypt in the region of Goshen.(PN) They acquired property there(PO) and were fruitful and increased greatly in number.(PP)
28 Jacob lived in Egypt(PQ) seventeen years, and the years of his life were a hundred and forty-seven.(PR) 29 When the time drew near for Israel(PS) to die,(PT) he called for his son Joseph and said to him, “If I have found favor in your eyes,(PU) put your hand under my thigh(PV) and promise that you will show me kindness(PW) and faithfulness.(PX) Do not bury me in Egypt, 30 but when I rest with my fathers,(PY) carry me out of Egypt and bury me where they are buried.”(PZ)
“I will do as you say,” he said.
31 “Swear to me,”(QA) he said. Then Joseph swore to him,(QB) and Israel(QC) worshiped as he leaned on the top of his staff.[p](QD)
Manasseh and Ephraim
48 Some time later Joseph was told, “Your father is ill.” So he took his two sons Manasseh and Ephraim(QE) along with him. 2 When Jacob was told, “Your son Joseph has come to you,” Israel(QF) rallied his strength and sat up on the bed.
3 Jacob said to Joseph, “God Almighty[q](QG) appeared to me at Luz(QH) in the land of Canaan, and there he blessed me(QI) 4 and said to me, ‘I am going to make you fruitful and increase your numbers.(QJ) I will make you a community of peoples, and I will give this land(QK) as an everlasting possession to your descendants after you.’(QL)
5 “Now then, your two sons born to you in Egypt(QM) before I came to you here will be reckoned as mine; Ephraim and Manasseh will be mine,(QN) just as Reuben(QO) and Simeon(QP) are mine. 6 Any children born to you after them will be yours; in the territory they inherit they will be reckoned under the names of their brothers. 7 As I was returning from Paddan,[r](QQ) to my sorrow(QR) Rachel died in the land of Canaan while we were still on the way, a little distance from Ephrath. So I buried her there beside the road to Ephrath” (that is, Bethlehem).(QS)
8 When Israel(QT) saw the sons of Joseph,(QU) he asked, “Who are these?”
9 “They are the sons God has given me here,”(QV) Joseph said to his father.
Then Israel said, “Bring them to me so I may bless(QW) them.”
10 Now Israel’s eyes were failing because of old age, and he could hardly see.(QX) So Joseph brought his sons close to him, and his father kissed them(QY) and embraced them.(QZ)
11 Israel(RA) said to Joseph, “I never expected to see your face again,(RB) and now God has allowed me to see your children too.”(RC)
12 Then Joseph removed them from Israel’s knees(RD) and bowed down with his face to the ground.(RE) 13 And Joseph took both of them, Ephraim on his right toward Israel’s left hand and Manasseh on his left toward Israel’s right hand,(RF) and brought them close to him. 14 But Israel(RG) reached out his right hand and put it on Ephraim’s head,(RH) though he was the younger,(RI) and crossing his arms, he put his left hand on Manasseh’s head, even though Manasseh was the firstborn.(RJ)
15 Then he blessed(RK) Joseph and said,
“May the God before whom my fathers
Abraham and Isaac walked faithfully,(RL)
the God who has been my shepherd(RM)
all my life to this day,
16 the Angel(RN) who has delivered me from all harm(RO)
—may he bless(RP) these boys.(RQ)
May they be called by my name
and the names of my fathers Abraham and Isaac,(RR)
and may they increase greatly
on the earth.”(RS)
17 When Joseph saw his father placing his right hand(RT) on Ephraim’s head(RU) he was displeased; so he took hold of his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 Joseph said to him, “No, my father, this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.”(RV)
19 But his father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He too will become a people, and he too will become great.(RW) Nevertheless, his younger brother will be greater than he,(RX) and his descendants will become a group of nations.(RY)” 20 He blessed(RZ) them that day(SA) and said,
“In your[s] name will Israel(SB) pronounce this blessing:(SC)
‘May God make you like Ephraim(SD) and Manasseh.(SE)’”
So he put Ephraim ahead of Manasseh.
21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “I am about to die, but God will be with you[t](SF) and take you[u] back to the land of your[v] fathers.(SG) 22 And to you I give one more ridge of land[w](SH) than to your brothers,(SI) the ridge I took from the Amorites with my sword(SJ) and my bow.”
Jacob Blesses His Sons(SK)
49 Then Jacob called for his sons and said: “Gather around so I can tell you what will happen to you in days to come.(SL)
3 “Reuben, you are my firstborn,(SO)
my might, the first sign of my strength,(SP)
excelling in honor,(SQ) excelling in power.
4 Turbulent as the waters,(SR) you will no longer excel,
for you went up onto your father’s bed,
onto my couch and defiled it.(SS)
5 “Simeon(ST) and Levi(SU) are brothers—
their swords[x] are weapons of violence.(SV)
6 Let me not enter their council,
let me not join their assembly,(SW)
for they have killed men in their anger(SX)
and hamstrung(SY) oxen as they pleased.
7 Cursed be their anger, so fierce,
and their fury,(SZ) so cruel!(TA)
I will scatter them in Jacob
and disperse them in Israel.(TB)
8 “Judah,[y](TC) your brothers will praise you;
your hand will be on the neck(TD) of your enemies;
your father’s sons will bow down to you.(TE)
9 You are a lion’s(TF) cub,(TG) Judah;(TH)
you return from the prey,(TI) my son.
Like a lion he crouches and lies down,
like a lioness—who dares to rouse him?
10 The scepter will not depart from Judah,(TJ)
nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet,[z]
until he to whom it belongs[aa] shall come(TK)
and the obedience of the nations shall be his.(TL)
11 He will tether his donkey(TM) to a vine,
his colt to the choicest branch;(TN)
he will wash his garments in wine,
his robes in the blood of grapes.(TO)
12 His eyes will be darker than wine,
his teeth whiter than milk.[ab](TP)
13 “Zebulun(TQ) will live by the seashore
and become a haven for ships;
his border will extend toward Sidon.(TR)
14 “Issachar(TS) is a rawboned[ac] donkey
lying down among the sheep pens.[ad](TT)
15 When he sees how good is his resting place
and how pleasant is his land,(TU)
he will bend his shoulder to the burden(TV)
and submit to forced labor.(TW)
16 “Dan[ae](TX) will provide justice for his people
as one of the tribes of Israel.(TY)
17 Dan(TZ) will be a snake by the roadside,
a viper along the path,(UA)
that bites the horse’s heels(UB)
so that its rider tumbles backward.
22 “Joseph(UL) is a fruitful vine,(UM)
a fruitful vine near a spring,
whose branches(UN) climb over a wall.[ah]
23 With bitterness archers attacked him;(UO)
they shot at him with hostility.(UP)
24 But his bow remained steady,(UQ)
his strong arms(UR) stayed[ai] limber,
because of the hand of the Mighty One of Jacob,(US)
because of the Shepherd,(UT) the Rock of Israel,(UU)
25 because of your father’s God,(UV) who helps(UW) you,
because of the Almighty,[aj](UX) who blesses you
with blessings of the skies above,
blessings of the deep springs below,(UY)
blessings of the breast(UZ) and womb.(VA)
26 Your father’s blessings are greater
than the blessings of the ancient mountains,
than[ak] the bounty of the age-old hills.(VB)
Let all these rest on the head of Joseph,(VC)
on the brow of the prince among[al] his brothers.(VD)
27 “Benjamin(VE) is a ravenous wolf;(VF)
in the morning he devours the prey,(VG)
in the evening he divides the plunder.”(VH)
28 All these are the twelve tribes of Israel,(VI) and this is what their father said to them when he blessed them, giving each the blessing(VJ) appropriate to him.
The Death of Jacob
29 Then he gave them these instructions:(VK) “I am about to be gathered to my people.(VL) Bury me with my fathers(VM) in the cave in the field of Ephron the Hittite,(VN)
- Genesis 42:34 Or move about freely
- Genesis 43:14 Hebrew El-Shaddai
- Genesis 45:7 Or save you as a great band of survivors
- Genesis 45:22 That is, about 7 1/2 pounds or about 3.5 kilograms
- Genesis 46:13 Samaritan Pentateuch and Syriac (see also 1 Chron. 7:1); Masoretic Text Puvah
- Genesis 46:13 Samaritan Pentateuch and some Septuagint manuscripts (see also Num. 26:24 and 1 Chron. 7:1); Masoretic Text Iob
- Genesis 46:15 That is, Northwest Mesopotamia
- Genesis 46:16 Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint (see also Num. 26:15); Masoretic Text Ziphion
- Genesis 46:20 That is, Heliopolis
- Genesis 46:27 Hebrew; Septuagint the nine children
- Genesis 46:27 Hebrew (see also Exodus 1:5 and note); Septuagint (see also Acts 7:14) seventy-five
- Genesis 46:29 Hebrew around him
- Genesis 47:7 Or greeted
- Genesis 47:10 Or said farewell to
- Genesis 47:21 Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint (see also Vulgate); Masoretic Text and he moved the people into the cities
- Genesis 47:31 Or Israel bowed down at the head of his bed
- Genesis 48:3 Hebrew El-Shaddai
- Genesis 48:7 That is, Northwest Mesopotamia
- Genesis 48:20 The Hebrew is singular.
- Genesis 48:21 The Hebrew is plural.
- Genesis 48:21 The Hebrew is plural.
- Genesis 48:21 The Hebrew is plural.
- Genesis 48:22 The Hebrew for ridge of land is identical with the place name Shechem.
- Genesis 49:5 The meaning of the Hebrew for this word is uncertain.
- Genesis 49:8 Judah sounds like and may be derived from the Hebrew for praise.
- Genesis 49:10 Or from his descendants
- Genesis 49:10 Or to whom tribute belongs; the meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.
- Genesis 49:12 Or will be dull from wine, / his teeth white from milk
- Genesis 49:14 Or strong
- Genesis 49:14 Or the campfires; or the saddlebags
- Genesis 49:16 Dan here means he provides justice.
- Genesis 49:19 Gad sounds like the Hebrew for attack and also for band of raiders.
- Genesis 49:21 Or free; / he utters beautiful words
- Genesis 49:22 Or Joseph is a wild colt, / a wild colt near a spring, / a wild donkey on a terraced hill
- Genesis 49:24 Or archers will attack … will shoot … will remain … will stay
- Genesis 49:25 Hebrew Shaddai
- Genesis 49:26 Or of my progenitors, / as great as
- Genesis 49:26 Or of the one separated from
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