Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

42 When Jacob learned that there was grain in Egypt,(A) he said to his sons, “Why do you just keep looking at each other?” He continued, “I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy some for us,(B) so that we may live and not die.”(C)

Then ten of Joseph’s brothers went down to buy grain(D) from Egypt. But Jacob did not send Benjamin,(E) Joseph’s brother, with the others, because he was afraid that harm might come to him.(F) So Israel’s sons were among those who went to buy grain,(G) for there was famine in the land of Canaan(H) also.(I)

Now Joseph was the governor of the land,(J) the person who sold grain to all its people.(K) So when Joseph’s brothers arrived, they bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.(L) As soon as Joseph saw his brothers, he recognized them, but he pretended to be a stranger and spoke harshly to them.(M) “Where do you come from?”(N) he asked.

“From the land of Canaan,” they replied, “to buy food.”

Although Joseph recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him.(O) Then he remembered his dreams(P) about them and said to them, “You are spies!(Q) You have come to see where our land is unprotected.”(R)

10 “No, my lord,(S)” they answered. “Your servants have come to buy food.(T) 11 We are all the sons of one man. Your servants(U) are honest men,(V) not spies.(W)

12 “No!” he said to them. “You have come to see where our land is unprotected.”(X)

13 But they replied, “Your servants(Y) were twelve brothers, the sons of one man, who lives in the land of Canaan.(Z) The youngest is now with our father, and one is no more.”(AA)

14 Joseph said to them, “It is just as I told you: You are spies!(AB) 15 And this is how you will be tested: As surely as Pharaoh lives,(AC) you will not leave this place unless your youngest brother comes here.(AD) 16 Send one of your number to get your brother;(AE) the rest of you will be kept in prison,(AF) so that your words may be tested to see if you are telling the truth.(AG) If you are not, then as surely as Pharaoh lives, you are spies!(AH) 17 And he put them all in custody(AI) for three days.

18 On the third day, Joseph said to them, “Do this and you will live, for I fear God:(AJ) 19 If you are honest men,(AK) let one of your brothers stay here in prison,(AL) while the rest of you go and take grain back for your starving households.(AM) 20 But you must bring your youngest brother to me,(AN) so that your words may be verified and that you may not die.” This they proceeded to do.

21 They said to one another, “Surely we are being punished because of our brother.(AO) We saw how distressed he was when he pleaded with us for his life, but we would not listen; that’s why this distress(AP) has come on us.”

22 Reuben replied, “Didn’t I tell you not to sin against the boy?(AQ) But you wouldn’t listen! Now we must give an accounting(AR) for his blood.”(AS) 23 They did not realize(AT) that Joseph could understand them,(AU) since he was using an interpreter.

24 He turned away from them and began to weep,(AV) but then came back and spoke to them again. He had Simeon taken from them and bound before their eyes.(AW)

25 Joseph gave orders to fill their bags with grain,(AX) to put each man’s silver back in his sack,(AY) and to give them provisions(AZ) for their journey.(BA) After this was done for them, 26 they loaded their grain on their donkeys(BB) and left.

27 At the place where they stopped for the night one of them opened his sack to get feed for his donkey,(BC) and he saw his silver in the mouth of his sack.(BD) 28 “My silver has been returned,” he said to his brothers. “Here it is in my sack.”

Their hearts sank(BE) and they turned to each other trembling(BF) and said, “What is this that God has done to us?”(BG)

29 When they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan,(BH) they told him all that had happened to them.(BI) They said, 30 “The man who is lord over the land spoke harshly to us(BJ) and treated us as though we were spying on the land.(BK) 31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men; we are not spies.(BL) 32 We were twelve brothers, sons of one father. One is no more, and the youngest is now with our father in Canaan.’(BM)

33 “Then the man who is lord over the land said to us, ‘This is how I will know whether you are honest men: Leave one of your brothers here with me, and take food for your starving households and go.(BN) 34 But bring your youngest brother to me so I will know that you are not spies but honest men.(BO) Then I will give your brother back to you,(BP) and you can trade[a] in the land.(BQ)’”

35 As they were emptying their sacks, there in each man’s sack was his pouch of silver!(BR) When they and their father saw the money pouches, they were frightened.(BS) 36 Their father Jacob said to them, “You have deprived me of my children. Joseph is no more and Simeon is no more,(BT) and now you want to take Benjamin.(BU) Everything is against me!(BV)

37 Then Reuben said to his father, “You may put both of my sons to death if I do not bring him back to you. Entrust him to my care,(BW) and I will bring him back.”(BX)

38 But Jacob said, “My son will not go down there with you; his brother is dead(BY) and he is the only one left. If harm comes to him(BZ) on the journey you are taking, you will bring my gray head down to the grave(CA) in sorrow.(CB)

The Second Journey to Egypt

43 Now the famine was still severe in the land.(CC) So when they had eaten all the grain they had brought from Egypt,(CD) their father said to them, “Go back and buy us a little more food.”(CE)

But Judah(CF) said to him, “The man warned us solemnly, ‘You will not see my face again unless your brother is with you.’(CG) If you will send our brother along with us, we will go down and buy food for you.(CH) But if you will not send him, we will not go down, because the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face again unless your brother is with you.(CI)’”

Israel(CJ) asked, “Why did you bring this trouble(CK) on me by telling the man you had another brother?”

They replied, “The man questioned us closely about ourselves and our family. ‘Is your father still living?’(CL) he asked us. ‘Do you have another brother?’(CM) We simply answered his questions. How were we to know he would say, ‘Bring your brother down here’?”(CN)

Then Judah(CO) said to Israel(CP) his father, “Send the boy along with me and we will go at once, so that we and you and our children may live and not die.(CQ) I myself will guarantee his safety; you can hold me personally responsible for him.(CR) If I do not bring him back to you and set him here before you, I will bear the blame(CS) before you all my life.(CT) 10 As it is, if we had not delayed,(CU) we could have gone and returned twice.”

11 Then their father Israel(CV) said to them, “If it must be, then do this: Put some of the best products(CW) of the land in your bags and take them down to the man as a gift(CX)—a little balm(CY) and a little honey, some spices(CZ) and myrrh,(DA) some pistachio nuts and almonds. 12 Take double the amount(DB) of silver with you, for you must return the silver that was put back into the mouths of your sacks.(DC) Perhaps it was a mistake. 13 Take your brother also and go back to the man at once.(DD) 14 And may God Almighty[b](DE) grant you mercy(DF) before the man so that he will let your other brother and Benjamin come back with you.(DG) As for me, if I am bereaved, I am bereaved.”(DH)

15 So the men took the gifts and double the amount of silver,(DI) and Benjamin also. They hurried(DJ) down to Egypt and presented themselves(DK) to Joseph. 16 When Joseph saw Benjamin(DL) with them, he said to the steward of his house,(DM) “Take these men to my house, slaughter an animal and prepare a meal;(DN) they are to eat with me at noon.”

17 The man did as Joseph told him and took the men to Joseph’s house.(DO) 18 Now the men were frightened(DP) when they were taken to his house.(DQ) They thought, “We were brought here because of the silver that was put back into our sacks(DR) the first time. He wants to attack us(DS) and overpower us and seize us as slaves(DT) and take our donkeys.(DU)

19 So they went up to Joseph’s steward(DV) and spoke to him at the entrance to the house. 20 “We beg your pardon, our lord,” they said, “we came down here the first time to buy food.(DW) 21 But at the place where we stopped for the night we opened our sacks and each of us found his silver—the exact weight—in the mouth of his sack. So we have brought it back with us.(DX) 22 We have also brought additional silver with us to buy food. We don’t know who put our silver in our sacks.”

23 “It’s all right,” he said. “Don’t be afraid. Your God, the God of your father,(DY) has given you treasure in your sacks;(DZ) I received your silver.” Then he brought Simeon out to them.(EA)

24 The steward took the men into Joseph’s house,(EB) gave them water to wash their feet(EC) and provided fodder for their donkeys. 25 They prepared their gifts(ED) for Joseph’s arrival at noon,(EE) because they had heard that they were to eat there.

26 When Joseph came home,(EF) they presented to him the gifts(EG) they had brought into the house, and they bowed down before him to the ground.(EH) 27 He asked them how they were, and then he said, “How is your aged father(EI) you told me about? Is he still living?”(EJ)

28 They replied, “Your servant our father(EK) is still alive and well.” And they bowed down,(EL) prostrating themselves before him.(EM)

29 As he looked about and saw his brother Benjamin, his own mother’s son,(EN) he asked, “Is this your youngest brother, the one you told me about?”(EO) And he said, “God be gracious to you,(EP) my son.” 30 Deeply moved(EQ) at the sight of his brother, Joseph hurried out and looked for a place to weep. He went into his private room and wept(ER) there.

31 After he had washed his face, he came out and, controlling himself,(ES) said, “Serve the food.”(ET)

32 They served him by himself, the brothers by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves, because Egyptians could not eat with Hebrews,(EU) for that is detestable to Egyptians.(EV) 33 The men had been seated before him in the order of their ages, from the firstborn(EW) to the youngest;(EX) and they looked at each other in astonishment. 34 When portions were served to them from Joseph’s table, Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as anyone else’s.(EY) So they feasted(EZ) and drank freely with him.

A Silver Cup in a Sack

44 Now Joseph gave these instructions to the steward of his house:(FA) “Fill the men’s sacks with as much food as they can carry, and put each man’s silver in the mouth of his sack.(FB) Then put my cup,(FC) the silver one,(FD) in the mouth of the youngest one’s sack, along with the silver for his grain.” And he did as Joseph said.

As morning dawned, the men were sent on their way with their donkeys.(FE) They had not gone far from the city when Joseph said to his steward,(FF) “Go after those men at once, and when you catch up with them, say to them, ‘Why have you repaid good with evil?(FG) Isn’t this the cup(FH) my master drinks from and also uses for divination?(FI) This is a wicked thing you have done.’”

When he caught up with them, he repeated these words to them. But they said to him, “Why does my lord say such things? Far be it from your servants(FJ) to do anything like that!(FK) We even brought back to you from the land of Canaan(FL) the silver(FM) we found inside the mouths of our sacks.(FN) So why would we steal(FO) silver or gold from your master’s house? If any of your servants(FP) is found to have it, he will die;(FQ) and the rest of us will become my lord’s slaves.(FR)

10 “Very well, then,” he said, “let it be as you say. Whoever is found to have it(FS) will become my slave;(FT) the rest of you will be free from blame.”(FU)

11 Each of them quickly lowered his sack to the ground and opened it. 12 Then the steward(FV) proceeded to search,(FW) beginning with the oldest and ending with the youngest.(FX) And the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack.(FY) 13 At this, they tore their clothes.(FZ) Then they all loaded their donkeys(GA) and returned to the city.

14 Joseph was still in the house(GB) when Judah(GC) and his brothers came in, and they threw themselves to the ground before him.(GD) 15 Joseph said to them, “What is this you have done?(GE) Don’t you know that a man like me can find things out by divination?(GF)

16 “What can we say to my lord?(GG)” Judah(GH) replied. “What can we say? How can we prove our innocence?(GI) God has uncovered your servants’(GJ) guilt. We are now my lord’s slaves(GK)—we ourselves and the one who was found to have the cup.(GL)

17 But Joseph said, “Far be it from me to do such a thing!(GM) Only the man who was found to have the cup will become my slave.(GN) The rest of you, go back to your father in peace.”(GO)

18 Then Judah(GP) went up to him and said: “Pardon your servant, my lord,(GQ) let me speak a word to my lord. Do not be angry(GR) with your servant, though you are equal to Pharaoh himself. 19 My lord asked his servants,(GS) ‘Do you have a father or a brother?’(GT) 20 And we answered, ‘We have an aged father, and there is a young son born to him in his old age.(GU) His brother is dead,(GV) and he is the only one of his mother’s sons left, and his father loves him.’(GW)

21 “Then you said to your servants,(GX) ‘Bring him down to me so I can see him for myself.’(GY) 22 And we said to my lord,(GZ) ‘The boy cannot leave his father; if he leaves him, his father will die.’(HA) 23 But you told your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you will not see my face again.’(HB) 24 When we went back to your servant my father,(HC) we told him what my lord(HD) had said.(HE)

25 “Then our father said, ‘Go back and buy a little more food.’(HF) 26 But we said, ‘We cannot go down. Only if our youngest brother is with us will we go. We cannot see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’(HG)

27 “Your servant my father(HH) said to us, ‘You know that my wife bore me two sons.(HI) 28 One of them went away from me, and I said, “He has surely been torn to pieces.”(HJ) And I have not seen him since.(HK) 29 If you take this one from me too and harm comes to him, you will bring my gray head down to the grave(HL) in misery.’(HM)

30 “So now, if the boy is not with us when I go back to your servant my father,(HN) and if my father, whose life is closely bound up with the boy’s life,(HO) 31 sees that the boy isn’t there, he will die.(HP) Your servants(HQ) will bring the gray head of our father down to the grave(HR) in sorrow. 32 Your servant guaranteed the boy’s safety to my father. I said, ‘If I do not bring him back to you, I will bear the blame before you, my father, all my life!’(HS)

33 “Now then, please let your servant remain here as my lord’s slave(HT) in place of the boy,(HU) and let the boy return with his brothers. 34 How can I go back to my father if the boy is not with me? No! Do not let me see the misery(HV) that would come on my father.”(HW)

Joseph Makes Himself Known

45 Then Joseph could no longer control himself(HX) before all his attendants, and he cried out, “Have everyone leave my presence!”(HY) So there was no one with Joseph when he made himself known to his brothers. And he wept(HZ) so loudly that the Egyptians heard him, and Pharaoh’s household heard about it.(IA)

Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph! Is my father still living?”(IB) But his brothers were not able to answer him,(IC) because they were terrified at his presence.(ID)

Then Joseph said to his brothers, “Come close to me.”(IE) When they had done so, he said, “I am your brother Joseph, the one you sold into Egypt!(IF) And now, do not be distressed(IG) and do not be angry with yourselves for selling me here,(IH) because it was to save lives that God sent me ahead of you.(II) For two years now there has been famine(IJ) in the land, and for the next five years there will be no plowing and reaping. But God sent me ahead of you to preserve for you a remnant(IK) on earth and to save your lives by a great deliverance.[c](IL)

“So then, it was not you who sent me here, but God.(IM) He made me father(IN) to Pharaoh, lord of his entire household and ruler of all Egypt.(IO) Now hurry(IP) back to my father and say to him, ‘This is what your son Joseph says: God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; don’t delay.(IQ) 10 You shall live in the region of Goshen(IR) and be near me—you, your children and grandchildren, your flocks and herds, and all you have.(IS) 11 I will provide for you there,(IT) because five years of famine(IU) are still to come. Otherwise you and your household and all who belong to you will become destitute.’(IV)

12 “You can see for yourselves, and so can my brother Benjamin,(IW) that it is really I who am speaking to you.(IX) 13 Tell my father about all the honor accorded me in Egypt(IY) and about everything you have seen. And bring my father down here quickly.(IZ)

14 Then he threw his arms around his brother Benjamin and wept, and Benjamin(JA) embraced him,(JB) weeping. 15 And he kissed(JC) all his brothers and wept over them.(JD) Afterward his brothers talked with him.(JE)

16 When the news reached Pharaoh’s palace that Joseph’s brothers had come,(JF) Pharaoh and all his officials(JG) were pleased.(JH) 17 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Tell your brothers, ‘Do this: Load your animals(JI) and return to the land of Canaan,(JJ) 18 and bring your father and your families back to me. I will give you the best of the land of Egypt(JK) and you can enjoy the fat of the land.’(JL)

19 “You are also directed to tell them, ‘Do this: Take some carts(JM) from Egypt for your children and your wives, and get your father and come. 20 Never mind about your belongings,(JN) because the best of all Egypt(JO) will be yours.’”

21 So the sons of Israel did this. Joseph gave them carts,(JP) as Pharaoh had commanded, and he also gave them provisions for their journey.(JQ) 22 To each of them he gave new clothing,(JR) but to Benjamin he gave three hundred shekels[d] of silver and five sets of clothes.(JS) 23 And this is what he sent to his father: ten donkeys(JT) loaded with the best things(JU) of Egypt, and ten female donkeys loaded with grain and bread and other provisions for his journey.(JV) 24 Then he sent his brothers away, and as they were leaving he said to them, “Don’t quarrel on the way!”(JW)

25 So they went up out of Egypt(JX) and came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan.(JY) 26 They told him, “Joseph is still alive! In fact, he is ruler of all Egypt.”(JZ) Jacob was stunned; he did not believe them.(KA) 27 But when they told him everything Joseph had said to them, and when he saw the carts(KB) Joseph had sent to carry him back, the spirit of their father Jacob revived. 28 And Israel said, “I’m convinced!(KC) My son Joseph is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”(KD)


  1. Genesis 42:34 Or move about freely
  2. Genesis 43:14 Hebrew El-Shaddai
  3. Genesis 45:7 Or save you as a great band of survivors
  4. Genesis 45:22 That is, about 7 1/2 pounds or about 3.5 kilograms

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