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Judgments About Property Rights

22 [a]If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for the ox and (A)four sheep for the sheep.

[b]If the (B)thief is [c]caught while breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there will be no bloodguiltiness on his account. But if the sun has risen on him, there will be bloodguiltiness on his account. He shall surely make restitution; if he owns nothing, then he shall be (C)sold for his theft. If what he stole is actually found alive in his hand, whether an ox or a donkey or a sheep, (D)he shall pay double.

“If a man lets a field or vineyard be grazed bare and lets his animal loose so that it grazes in another man’s field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.

“If a fire breaks out and spreads to thorn bushes, so that stacked grain or the standing grain or the field itself is consumed, he who started the fire shall surely make restitution.

(E)If a man gives his neighbor money or goods to keep for him and it is stolen from the man’s house, if the thief is [d]caught, he shall pay double. If the thief is not [e]caught, then the owner of the house shall [f]appear before [g](F)the judges to determine whether he [h]laid his hands on his neighbor’s property. For every [i]breach of trust, whether it is for ox, for donkey, for sheep, for clothing, or for any lost thing about which one says, ‘This is it,’ the [j]case of both parties shall come before [k](G)the judges; he whom [l]the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor.

10 “If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep for him, and it dies or is injured or is driven away while no one is looking, 11 then an (H)oath before Yahweh shall be made by the two of them [m]that he has not [n]laid hands on his neighbor’s property; and its owner shall accept it, and he shall not make restitution. 12 But if it is actually stolen from him, he shall make restitution to its owner. 13 Now if it is all torn to pieces, let him bring it as evidence; he shall not make restitution for what has been torn to pieces.

14 “If a man [o]borrows anything from his neighbor, and it is injured or dies while its owner is not with it, he shall make full restitution. 15 But if its owner is with it, he shall not make restitution; if it is hired, it came for its hire.

Various Judgments

16 (I)If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged and lies with her, he must pay a dowry for her to be his wife. 17 If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he shall [p]pay money equal to the (J)dowry for virgins.

18 “You shall not allow a (K)sorceress to live.

19 (L)Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death.

20 (M)And he who sacrifices to [q]any god, other than to Yahweh alone, shall be [r]devoted to destruction.

21 (N)You shall not mistreat a sojourner or oppress him, for you were sojourners in the land of Egypt. 22 (O)You shall not afflict any widow or orphan. 23 And if you indeed afflict him, and (P)if he earnestly cries out to Me, (Q)I will surely hear his cry; 24 and My anger will burn, and I will kill you with the sword, (R)and your wives shall become widows and your children fatherless.

25 (S)If you lend money to My people, to the afflicted [s]among you, you are not to [t]act as a creditor to him; you shall not [u]charge him (T)interest. 26 If you ever take your neighbor’s cloak (U)as a pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun sets, 27 for that is his only covering; it is his cloak for his [v]body. What else shall he sleep in? And it shall be that (V)when he cries out to Me, I will hear him, for (W)I am gracious.

28 “You shall not [w](X)curse God, (Y)nor curse a ruler of your people.

29 (Z)You shall not delay the offering from [x]the fullness of your harvest and the juice of your wine vat. (AA)The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me. 30 (AB)And you shall do the same with your oxen and with your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; (AC)on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

31 (AD)You shall be holy men to Me, therefore (AE)you shall not eat any flesh torn to pieces in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.


  1. Exodus 22:1 Ch 21:37 in Heb
  2. Exodus 22:2 Ch 22:1 in Heb
  3. Exodus 22:2 Lit found
  4. Exodus 22:7 Lit found
  5. Exodus 22:8 Lit found
  6. Exodus 22:8 Lit approach to
  7. Exodus 22:8 Or God
  8. Exodus 22:8 Lit stretched his hand
  9. Exodus 22:9 Or matter of transgression
  10. Exodus 22:9 Lit matter
  11. Exodus 22:9 Or God
  12. Exodus 22:9 Or God
  13. Exodus 22:11 Lit whether
  14. Exodus 22:11 Lit stretched his hand
  15. Exodus 22:14 Lit asks
  16. Exodus 22:17 Lit weigh out silver
  17. Exodus 22:20 Lit the gods
  18. Exodus 22:20 Lit put under the ban
  19. Exodus 22:25 Lit with
  20. Exodus 22:25 Lit be
  21. Exodus 22:25 Lit lay upon
  22. Exodus 22:27 Lit skin
  23. Exodus 22:28 Or revile
  24. Exodus 22:29 Lit your fullness and your tears