New International Version
Everything Is Meaningless
2 “Meaningless! Meaningless!”
says the Teacher.
Everything is meaningless.”(C)
3 What do people gain from all their labors
at which they toil under the sun?(D)
4 Generations come and generations go,
but the earth remains forever.(E)
5 The sun rises and the sun sets,
and hurries back to where it rises.(F)
6 The wind blows to the south
and turns to the north;
round and round it goes,
ever returning on its course.
7 All streams flow into the sea,
yet the sea is never full.
To the place the streams come from,
there they return again.(G)
8 All things are wearisome,
more than one can say.
The eye never has enough of seeing,(H)
nor the ear its fill of hearing.
9 What has been will be again,
what has been done will be done again;(I)
there is nothing new under the sun.
10 Is there anything of which one can say,
“Look! This is something new”?
It was here already, long ago;
it was here before our time.
11 No one remembers the former generations,(J)
and even those yet to come
will not be remembered
by those who follow them.(K)
Wisdom Is Meaningless
12 I, the Teacher,(L) was king over Israel in Jerusalem.(M) 13 I applied my mind to study and to explore by wisdom all that is done under the heavens.(N) What a heavy burden God has laid on mankind!(O) 14 I have seen all the things that are done under the sun; all of them are meaningless, a chasing after the wind.(P)
15 What is crooked cannot be straightened;(Q)
what is lacking cannot be counted.
16 I said to myself, “Look, I have increased in wisdom more than anyone who has ruled over Jerusalem before me;(R) I have experienced much of wisdom and knowledge.” 17 Then I applied myself to the understanding of wisdom,(S) and also of madness and folly,(T) but I learned that this, too, is a chasing after the wind.
Pleasures Are Meaningless
2 I said to myself, “Come now, I will test you with pleasure(W) to find out what is good.” But that also proved to be meaningless. 2 “Laughter,”(X) I said, “is madness. And what does pleasure accomplish?” 3 I tried cheering myself with wine,(Y) and embracing folly(Z)—my mind still guiding me with wisdom. I wanted to see what was good for people to do under the heavens during the few days of their lives.
4 I undertook great projects: I built houses for myself(AA) and planted vineyards.(AB) 5 I made gardens and parks and planted all kinds of fruit trees in them. 6 I made reservoirs to water groves of flourishing trees. 7 I bought male and female slaves and had other slaves(AC) who were born in my house. I also owned more herds and flocks than anyone in Jerusalem before me. 8 I amassed silver and gold(AD) for myself, and the treasure of kings and provinces.(AE) I acquired male and female singers,(AF) and a harem[b] as well—the delights of a man’s heart. 9 I became greater by far than anyone in Jerusalem(AG) before me.(AH) In all this my wisdom stayed with me.
10 I denied myself nothing my eyes desired;
I refused my heart no pleasure.
My heart took delight in all my labor,
and this was the reward for all my toil.
11 Yet when I surveyed all that my hands had done
and what I had toiled to achieve,
everything was meaningless, a chasing after the wind;(AI)
nothing was gained under the sun.(AJ)
Wisdom and Folly Are Meaningless
12 Then I turned my thoughts to consider wisdom,
and also madness and folly.(AK)
What more can the king’s successor do
than what has already been done?(AL)
13 I saw that wisdom(AM) is better than folly,(AN)
just as light is better than darkness.
14 The wise have eyes in their heads,
while the fool walks in the darkness;
but I came to realize
that the same fate overtakes them both.(AO)
15 Then I said to myself,
“The fate of the fool will overtake me also.
What then do I gain by being wise?”(AP)
I said to myself,
“This too is meaningless.”
16 For the wise, like the fool, will not be long remembered;(AQ)
the days have already come when both have been forgotten.(AR)
Like the fool, the wise too must die!(AS)
Toil Is Meaningless
17 So I hated life, because the work that is done under the sun was grievous to me. All of it is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.(AT) 18 I hated all the things I had toiled for under the sun, because I must leave them to the one who comes after me.(AU) 19 And who knows whether that person will be wise or foolish?(AV) Yet they will have control over all the fruit of my toil into which I have poured my effort and skill under the sun. This too is meaningless. 20 So my heart began to despair over all my toilsome labor under the sun. 21 For a person may labor with wisdom, knowledge and skill, and then they must leave all they own to another who has not toiled for it. This too is meaningless and a great misfortune. 22 What do people get for all the toil and anxious striving with which they labor under the sun?(AW) 23 All their days their work is grief and pain;(AX) even at night their minds do not rest.(AY) This too is meaningless.
24 A person can do nothing better than to eat and drink(AZ) and find satisfaction in their own toil.(BA) This too, I see, is from the hand of God,(BB) 25 for without him, who can eat or find enjoyment?(BC) 26 To the person who pleases him, God gives wisdom,(BD) knowledge and happiness, but to the sinner he gives the task of gathering and storing up wealth(BE) to hand it over to the one who pleases God.(BF) This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.
A Time for Everything
3 There is a time(BG) for everything,
and a season for every activity under the heavens:
2 a time to be born and a time to die,
a time to plant and a time to uproot,(BH)
3 a time to kill(BI) and a time to heal,
a time to tear down and a time to build,
4 a time to weep and a time to laugh,
a time to mourn and a time to dance,
5 a time to scatter stones and a time to gather them,
a time to embrace and a time to refrain from embracing,
6 a time to search and a time to give up,
a time to keep and a time to throw away,
7 a time to tear and a time to mend,
a time to be silent(BJ) and a time to speak,
8 a time to love and a time to hate,
a time for war and a time for peace.
9 What do workers gain from their toil?(BK) 10 I have seen the burden God has laid on the human race.(BL) 11 He has made everything beautiful in its time.(BM) He has also set eternity in the human heart; yet[c] no one can fathom(BN) what God has done from beginning to end.(BO) 12 I know that there is nothing better for people than to be happy and to do good while they live. 13 That each of them may eat and drink,(BP) and find satisfaction(BQ) in all their toil—this is the gift of God.(BR) 14 I know that everything God does will endure forever; nothing can be added to it and nothing taken from it. God does it so that people will fear him.(BS)
16 And I saw something else under the sun:
In the place of judgment—wickedness was there,
in the place of justice—wickedness was there.
17 I said to myself,
18 I also said to myself, “As for humans, God tests them so that they may see that they are like the animals.(BX) 19 Surely the fate of human beings(BY) is like that of the animals; the same fate awaits them both: As one dies, so dies the other. All have the same breath[e]; humans have no advantage over animals. Everything is meaningless. 20 All go to the same place; all come from dust, and to dust all return.(BZ) 21 Who knows if the human spirit rises upward(CA) and if the spirit of the animal goes down into the earth?”
New International Version
For the director of music. To the tune of “Lilies.” Of the Sons of Korah. A maskil.[b] A wedding song.(A)
1 My heart is stirred by a noble theme
as I recite my verses for the king;
my tongue is the pen of a skillful writer.
3 Gird your sword(D) on your side, you mighty one;(E)
clothe yourself with splendor and majesty.(F)
4 In your majesty ride forth victoriously(G)
in the cause of truth, humility and justice;(H)
let your right hand(I) achieve awesome deeds.(J)
5 Let your sharp arrows(K) pierce the hearts(L) of the king’s enemies;(M)
let the nations fall beneath your feet.
6 Your throne, O God,[c] will last for ever and ever;(N)
a scepter of justice will be the scepter of your kingdom.
7 You love righteousness(O) and hate wickedness;(P)
therefore God, your God, has set you above your companions
by anointing(Q) you with the oil of joy.(R)
8 All your robes are fragrant(S) with myrrh(T) and aloes(U) and cassia;(V)
from palaces adorned with ivory(W)
the music of the strings(X) makes you glad.
9 Daughters of kings(Y) are among your honored women;
at your right hand(Z) is the royal bride(AA) in gold of Ophir.(AB)
10 Listen, daughter,(AC) and pay careful attention:(AD)
Forget your people(AE) and your father’s house.
11 Let the king be enthralled by your beauty;(AF)
honor(AG) him, for he is your lord.(AH)
12 The city of Tyre(AI) will come with a gift,[d](AJ)
people of wealth will seek your favor.
13 All glorious(AK) is the princess within her chamber;
her gown is interwoven with gold.(AL)
14 In embroidered garments(AM) she is led to the king;(AN)
her virgin companions(AO) follow her—
those brought to be with her.
15 Led in with joy and gladness,(AP)
they enter the palace of the king.
16 Your sons will take the place of your fathers;
you will make them princes(AQ) throughout the land.
New International Version
Made Alive in Christ
2 As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins,(A) 2 in which you used to live(B) when you followed the ways of this world(C) and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air,(D) the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient.(E) 3 All of us also lived among them at one time,(F) gratifying the cravings of our flesh[a](G) and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest, we were by nature deserving of wrath. 4 But because of his great love for us,(H) God, who is rich in mercy, 5 made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions(I)—it is by grace you have been saved.(J) 6 And God raised us up with Christ(K) and seated us with him(L) in the heavenly realms(M) in Christ Jesus, 7 in order that in the coming ages he might show the incomparable riches of his grace,(N) expressed in his kindness(O) to us in Christ Jesus. 8 For it is by grace(P) you have been saved,(Q) through faith(R)—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— 9 not by works,(S) so that no one can boast.(T) 10 For we are God’s handiwork,(U) created(V) in Christ Jesus to do good works,(W) which God prepared in advance for us to do.
Jew and Gentile Reconciled Through Christ
11 Therefore, remember that formerly(X) you who are Gentiles by birth and called “uncircumcised” by those who call themselves “the circumcision” (which is done in the body by human hands)(Y)— 12 remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners(Z) to the covenants of the promise,(AA) without hope(AB) and without God in the world. 13 But now in Christ Jesus you who once(AC) were far away have been brought near(AD) by the blood of Christ.(AE)
14 For he himself is our peace,(AF) who has made the two groups one(AG) and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, 15 by setting aside in his flesh(AH) the law with its commands and regulations.(AI) His purpose was to create in himself one(AJ) new humanity out of the two, thus making peace, 16 and in one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross,(AK) by which he put to death their hostility. 17 He came and preached peace(AL) to you who were far away and peace to those who were near.(AM) 18 For through him we both have access(AN) to the Father(AO) by one Spirit.(AP)
19 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and strangers,(AQ) but fellow citizens(AR) with God’s people and also members of his household,(AS) 20 built(AT) on the foundation(AU) of the apostles and prophets,(AV) with Christ Jesus himself(AW) as the chief cornerstone.(AX) 21 In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple(AY) in the Lord. 22 And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit.(AZ)
- Ephesians 2:3 In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit.