1 Samuel 1-4
New International Version
The Birth of Samuel
1 There was a certain man from Ramathaim,(A) a Zuphite[a](B) from the hill country(C) of Ephraim,(D) whose name was Elkanah(E) son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. 2 He had two wives;(F) one was called Hannah and the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none.
3 Year after year(G) this man went up from his town to worship(H) and sacrifice to the Lord Almighty at Shiloh,(I) where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli,(J) were priests of the Lord. 4 Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice,(K) he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters.(L) 5 But to Hannah he gave a double portion(M) because he loved her, and the Lord had closed her womb.(N) 6 Because the Lord had closed Hannah’s womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her.(O) 7 This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the Lord, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat.(P) 8 Her husband Elkanah would say to her, “Hannah, why are you weeping? Why don’t you eat? Why are you downhearted? Don’t I mean more to you than ten sons?(Q)”
9 Once when they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh, Hannah stood up. Now Eli the priest was sitting on his chair by the doorpost of the Lord’s house.(R) 10 In her deep anguish(S) Hannah prayed to the Lord, weeping bitterly. 11 And she made a vow,(T) saying, “Lord Almighty(U), if you will only look on your servant’s misery and remember(V) me, and not forget your servant but give her a son, then I will give him to the Lord for all the days of his life,(W) and no razor(X) will ever be used on his head.”
12 As she kept on praying to the Lord, Eli observed her mouth. 13 Hannah was praying in her heart, and her lips were moving but her voice was not heard. Eli thought she was drunk 14 and said to her, “How long are you going to stay drunk? Put away your wine.”
15 “Not so, my lord,” Hannah replied, “I am a woman who is deeply troubled.(Y) I have not been drinking wine or beer; I was pouring(Z) out my soul to the Lord. 16 Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; I have been praying here out of my great anguish and grief.”(AA)
19 Early the next morning they arose and worshiped before the Lord and then went back to their home at Ramah.(AF) Elkanah made love to his wife Hannah, and the Lord remembered(AG) her. 20 So in the course of time Hannah became pregnant and gave birth to a son.(AH) She named(AI) him Samuel,[b](AJ) saying, “Because I asked the Lord for him.”
Hannah Dedicates Samuel
21 When her husband Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the annual(AK) sacrifice to the Lord and to fulfill his vow,(AL) 22 Hannah did not go. She said to her husband, “After the boy is weaned, I will take him and present(AM) him before the Lord, and he will live there always.”[c]
23 “Do what seems best to you,” her husband Elkanah told her. “Stay here until you have weaned him; only may the Lord make good(AN) his[d] word.” So the woman stayed at home and nursed her son until she had weaned(AO) him.
24 After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull,[e](AP) an ephah[f] of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the Lord at Shiloh. 25 When the bull had been sacrificed, they brought the boy to Eli, 26 and she said to him, “Pardon me, my lord. As surely as you live, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the Lord. 27 I prayed(AQ) for this child, and the Lord has granted me what I asked of him. 28 So now I give him to the Lord. For his whole life(AR) he will be given over to the Lord.” And he worshiped the Lord there.
2 Then Hannah prayed and said:(AS)
4 “The bows of the warriors are broken,(BE)
but those who stumbled are armed with strength.(BF)
5 Those who were full hire themselves out for food,
but those who were hungry(BG) are hungry no more.
She who was barren(BH) has borne seven children,
but she who has had many sons pines away.
6 “The Lord brings death and makes alive;(BI)
he brings down to the grave and raises up.(BJ)
7 The Lord sends poverty and wealth;(BK)
he humbles and he exalts.(BL)
8 He raises(BM) the poor(BN) from the dust(BO)
and lifts the needy(BP) from the ash heap;
he seats them with princes
and has them inherit a throne of honor.(BQ)
“For the foundations(BR) of the earth are the Lord’s;
on them he has set the world.
9 He will guard the feet(BS) of his faithful servants,(BT)
but the wicked will be silenced in the place of darkness.(BU)
Eli’s Wicked Sons
12 Eli’s sons were scoundrels; they had no regard(CD) for the Lord. 13 Now it was the practice(CE) of the priests that, whenever any of the people offered a sacrifice, the priest’s servant would come with a three-pronged fork in his hand while the meat(CF) was being boiled 14 and would plunge the fork into the pan or kettle or caldron or pot. Whatever the fork brought up the priest would take for himself. This is how they treated all the Israelites who came to Shiloh. 15 But even before the fat was burned, the priest’s servant would come and say to the person who was sacrificing, “Give the priest some meat to roast; he won’t accept boiled meat from you, but only raw.”
16 If the person said to him, “Let the fat(CG) be burned first, and then take whatever you want,” the servant would answer, “No, hand it over now; if you don’t, I’ll take it by force.”
18 But Samuel was ministering(CI) before the Lord—a boy wearing a linen ephod.(CJ) 19 Each year his mother made him a little robe and took it to him when she went up with her husband to offer the annual(CK) sacrifice. 20 Eli would bless Elkanah and his wife, saying, “May the Lord give you children by this woman to take the place of the one she prayed(CL) for and gave to[i] the Lord.” Then they would go home. 21 And the Lord was gracious to Hannah;(CM) she gave birth to three sons and two daughters. Meanwhile, the boy Samuel grew(CN) up in the presence of the Lord.
22 Now Eli, who was very old, heard about everything(CO) his sons were doing to all Israel and how they slept with the women(CP) who served at the entrance to the tent of meeting. 23 So he said to them, “Why do you do such things? I hear from all the people about these wicked deeds of yours. 24 No, my sons; the report I hear spreading among the Lord’s people is not good. 25 If one person sins against another, God[j] may mediate for the offender; but if anyone sins against the Lord, who will(CQ) intercede(CR) for them?” His sons, however, did not listen to their father’s rebuke, for it was the Lord’s will to put them to death.
Prophecy Against the House of Eli
27 Now a man of God(CU) came to Eli and said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Did I not clearly reveal myself to your ancestor’s family when they were in Egypt under Pharaoh? 28 I chose(CV) your ancestor out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to go up to my altar, to burn incense,(CW) and to wear an ephod(CX) in my presence. I also gave your ancestor’s family all the food offerings(CY) presented by the Israelites. 29 Why do you[k] scorn my sacrifice and offering(CZ) that I prescribed for my dwelling?(DA) Why do you honor your sons more than me by fattening yourselves on the choice parts of every offering made by my people Israel?’
30 “Therefore the Lord, the God of Israel, declares: ‘I promised that members of your family would minister before me forever.(DB)’ But now the Lord declares: ‘Far be it from me! Those who honor me I will honor,(DC) but those who despise(DD) me will be disdained.(DE) 31 The time is coming when I will cut short your strength and the strength of your priestly house, so that no one in it will reach old age,(DF) 32 and you will see distress(DG) in my dwelling. Although good will be done to Israel, no one in your family line will ever reach old age.(DH) 33 Every one of you that I do not cut off from serving at my altar I will spare only to destroy your sight and sap your strength, and all your descendants(DI) will die in the prime of life.
34 “‘And what happens to your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, will be a sign(DJ) to you—they will both die(DK) on the same day.(DL) 35 I will raise up for myself a faithful priest,(DM) who will do according to what is in my heart and mind. I will firmly establish his priestly house, and they will minister before my anointed(DN) one always. 36 Then everyone left in your family line will come and bow down before him for a piece of silver and a loaf of bread and plead,(DO) “Appoint me to some priestly office so I can have food to eat.(DP)”’”
The Lord Calls Samuel
2 One night Eli, whose eyes(DT) were becoming so weak that he could barely see,(DU) was lying down in his usual place. 3 The lamp(DV) of God had not yet gone out, and Samuel was lying down in the house(DW) of the Lord, where the ark(DX) of God was. 4 Then the Lord called Samuel.
Samuel answered, “Here I am.(DY)” 5 And he ran to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”
But Eli said, “I did not call; go back and lie down.” So he went and lay down.
6 Again the Lord called, “Samuel!” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”
“My son,” Eli said, “I did not call; go back and lie down.”
8 A third time the Lord called, “Samuel!” And Samuel got up and went to Eli and said, “Here I am; you called me.”
Then Eli realized that the Lord was calling the boy. 9 So Eli told Samuel, “Go and lie down, and if he calls you, say, ‘Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.’” So Samuel went and lay down in his place.
10 The Lord came and stood there, calling as at the other times, “Samuel! Samuel!(EC)”
Then Samuel said, “Speak, for your servant is listening.”
11 And the Lord said to Samuel: “See, I am about to do something in Israel that will make the ears of everyone who hears about it tingle.(ED) 12 At that time I will carry out against Eli everything(EE) I spoke against his family—from beginning to end. 13 For I told him that I would judge his family forever because of the sin he knew about; his sons blasphemed God,[l] and he failed to restrain(EF) them. 14 Therefore I swore to the house of Eli, ‘The guilt of Eli’s house will never be atoned(EG) for by sacrifice or offering.’”
15 Samuel lay down until morning and then opened the doors of the house of the Lord. He was afraid to tell Eli the vision, 16 but Eli called him and said, “Samuel, my son.”
Samuel answered, “Here I am.”
17 “What was it he said to you?” Eli asked. “Do not hide(EH) it from me. May God deal with you, be it ever so severely,(EI) if you hide from me anything he told you.” 18 So Samuel told him everything, hiding nothing from him. Then Eli said, “He is the Lord; let him do what is good in his eyes.”(EJ)
19 The Lord was with(EK) Samuel as he grew(EL) up, and he let none(EM) of Samuel’s words fall to the ground. 20 And all Israel from Dan to Beersheba(EN) recognized that Samuel was attested as a prophet of the Lord.(EO) 21 The Lord continued to appear at Shiloh, and there he revealed(EP) himself to Samuel through his word.
4 And Samuel’s word came to all Israel.
The Philistines Capture the Ark
Now the Israelites went out to fight against the Philistines. The Israelites camped at Ebenezer,(EQ) and the Philistines at Aphek.(ER) 2 The Philistines deployed their forces to meet Israel, and as the battle spread, Israel was defeated by the Philistines, who killed about four thousand of them on the battlefield. 3 When the soldiers returned to camp, the elders of Israel asked, “Why(ES) did the Lord bring defeat on us today before the Philistines? Let us bring the ark(ET) of the Lord’s covenant from Shiloh,(EU) so that he may go with us(EV) and save us from the hand of our enemies.”
4 So the people sent men to Shiloh, and they brought back the ark of the covenant of the Lord Almighty, who is enthroned between the cherubim.(EW) And Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.
5 When the ark of the Lord’s covenant came into the camp, all Israel raised such a great shout(EX) that the ground shook. 6 Hearing the uproar, the Philistines asked, “What’s all this shouting in the Hebrew(EY) camp?”
When they learned that the ark of the Lord had come into the camp, 7 the Philistines were afraid.(EZ) “A god has[m] come into the camp,” they said. “Oh no! Nothing like this has happened before. 8 We’re doomed! Who will deliver us from the hand of these mighty gods? They are the gods who struck(FA) the Egyptians with all kinds of plagues(FB) in the wilderness. 9 Be strong, Philistines! Be men, or you will be subject to the Hebrews, as they(FC) have been to you. Be men, and fight!”
10 So the Philistines fought, and the Israelites were defeated(FD) and every man fled to his tent. The slaughter was very great; Israel lost thirty thousand foot soldiers. 11 The ark of God was captured, and Eli’s two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, died.(FE)
Death of Eli
12 That same day a Benjamite(FF) ran from the battle line and went to Shiloh with his clothes torn and dust(FG) on his head. 13 When he arrived, there was Eli(FH) sitting on his chair by the side of the road, watching, because his heart feared for the ark of God. When the man entered the town and told what had happened, the whole town sent up a cry.
14 Eli heard the outcry and asked, “What is the meaning of this uproar?”
The man hurried over to Eli, 15 who was ninety-eight years old and whose eyes(FI) had failed so that he could not see. 16 He told Eli, “I have just come from the battle line; I fled from it this very day.”
Eli asked, “What happened, my son?”
17 The man who brought the news replied, “Israel fled before the Philistines, and the army has suffered heavy losses. Also your two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, are dead,(FJ) and the ark of God has been captured.”(FK)
18 When he mentioned the ark of God, Eli fell backward off his chair by the side of the gate. His neck was broken and he died, for he was an old man, and he was heavy. He had led[n](FL) Israel forty years.(FM)
19 His daughter-in-law, the wife of Phinehas, was pregnant and near the time of delivery. When she heard the news that the ark of God had been captured and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she went into labor and gave birth, but was overcome by her labor pains. 20 As she was dying, the women attending her said, “Don’t despair; you have given birth to a son.” But she did not respond or pay any attention.
21 She named the boy Ichabod,[o](FN) saying, “The Glory(FO) has departed from Israel”—because of the capture of the ark of God and the deaths of her father-in-law and her husband. 22 She said, “The Glory(FP) has departed from Israel, for the ark of God has been captured.”(FQ)
- 1 Samuel 1:1 See Septuagint and 1 Chron. 6:26-27,33-35; or from Ramathaim Zuphim.
- 1 Samuel 1:20 Samuel sounds like the Hebrew for heard by God.
- 1 Samuel 1:22 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls always. I have dedicated him as a Nazirite—all the days of his life.”
- 1 Samuel 1:23 Masoretic Text; Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac your
- 1 Samuel 1:24 Dead Sea Scrolls, Septuagint and Syriac; Masoretic Text with three bulls
- 1 Samuel 1:24 That is, probably about 36 pounds or about 16 kilograms
- 1 Samuel 2:1 Horn here symbolizes strength; also in verse 10.
- 1 Samuel 2:17 Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint; Masoretic Text people
- 1 Samuel 2:20 Dead Sea Scrolls; Masoretic Text and asked from
- 1 Samuel 2:25 Or the judges
- 1 Samuel 2:29 The Hebrew is plural.
- 1 Samuel 3:13 An ancient Hebrew scribal tradition (see also Septuagint); Masoretic Text sons made themselves contemptible
- 1 Samuel 4:7 Or “Gods have (see Septuagint)
- 1 Samuel 4:18 Traditionally judged
- 1 Samuel 4:21 Ichabod means no glory.