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1 Kings 16 New English Translation (NET Bible)

16 The Lord’s message against Baasha came to[a] Jehu son of Hanani: “I raised you up[b] from the dust and made you ruler over my people Israel. Yet you followed in Jeroboam’s footsteps[c] and encouraged my people Israel to sin; their sins have made me angry.[d] So I am ready to burn up[e] Baasha and his family, and make your family[f] like the family of Jeroboam son of Nebat. Dogs will eat the members of Baasha’s family[g] who die in the city, and the birds of the sky will eat the ones who die in the country.”

The rest of the events of Baasha’s reign, including his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[h] Baasha passed away[i] and was buried in Tirzah. His son Elah replaced him as king. And so it was the Lord’s message came through the prophet Jehu son of Hanani against Baasha and his family.[j] This was because of all the evil he had done in the Lord’s view, by angering him with his deeds and becoming like Jeroboam’s dynasty,[k] and because of how he had destroyed Jeroboam’s dynasty.[l]

Elah’s Reign over Israel

In the twenty-sixth year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Baasha’s son Elah became king over Israel; he ruled in Tirzah for two years. His servant Zimri, a commander of half of his chariot force, conspired against him. While Elah was in Tirzah drinking heavily[m] at the house of Arza, who supervised the palace in Tirzah, 10 Zimri came in and struck him dead. (This happened in the twenty-seventh year of Asa’s reign over Judah.) Zimri replaced Elah as king.[n] 11 When he became king and occupied the throne, he killed Baasha’s entire family. He did not spare any male belonging to him; he killed his relatives and his friends.[o] 12 Zimri destroyed Baasha’s entire family, in keeping with the Lord’s message which he had spoken against Baasha through Jehu the prophet. 13 This happened because of all the sins which Baasha and his son Elah committed and which they made Israel commit. They angered the Lord God of Israel with their worthless idols.[p]

14 The rest of the events of Elah’s reign, including all his accomplishments, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[q]

Zimri’s Reign over Israel

15 In the twenty-seventh year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Zimri became king over Israel; he ruled for seven days in Tirzah. Zimri’s revolt took place while the army was deployed[r] in Gibbethon, which was in Philistine territory. 16 While deployed there, the army received this report:[s] “Zimri has conspired against the king and assassinated him.”[t] So all Israel made Omri, the commander of the army, king over Israel that very day in the camp. 17 Omri and all Israel went up from Gibbethon and besieged Tirzah. 18 When Zimri saw that the city was captured, he went into the fortified area of the royal palace. He set the palace on fire and died in the flames.[u] 19 This happened because of the sins he committed. He did evil in the sight of[v] the Lord and followed in Jeroboam’s footsteps and encouraged Israel to continue sinning.[w]

20 The rest of the events of Zimri’s reign, including the details of his revolt, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[x]

Omri’s Reign over Israel

21 At that time the people of Israel were divided in their loyalties. Half the people supported Tibni son of Ginath and wanted to make him king; the other half supported Omri. 22 Omri’s supporters were stronger than those who supported Tibni son of Ginath. Tibni died; Omri became king.

23 In the thirty-first year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Omri became king over Israel. He ruled for twelve years, six of them in Tirzah. 24 He purchased the hill of Samaria from Shemer for two talents[y] of silver. He launched a construction project there[z] and named the city he built after Shemer, the former owner of the hill of Samaria. 25 Omri did more evil in the sight of[aa] the Lord than all who were before him. 26 He followed in the footsteps of Jeroboam son of Nebat and encouraged Israel to sin;[ab] they angered the Lord God of Israel with their worthless idols.[ac]

27 The rest of the events of Omri’s reign, including his accomplishments and successes, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.[ad] 28 Omri passed away[ae] and was buried in Samaria. His son Ahab replaced him as king.[af]

Ahab Promotes Idolatry

29 In the thirty-eighth year of Asa’s reign over Judah, Omri’s son Ahab became king over Israel. Ahab son of Omri ruled over Israel for twenty-two years in Samaria. 30 Ahab son of Omri did more evil in the sight of[ag] the Lord than all who were before him. 31 As if following in the sinful footsteps of Jeroboam son of Nebat were not bad enough, he married Jezebel the daughter of King Ethbaal of the Sidonians. Then he worshiped and bowed to Baal.[ah] 32 He set up an altar for Baal in the temple of Baal he had built in Samaria. 33 Ahab also made an Asherah pole; he[ai] did more to anger the Lord God of Israel than all the kings of Israel who were before him.

34 During Ahab’s reign,[aj] Hiel the Bethelite rebuilt Jericho. Abiram, his firstborn son, died when he laid the foundation;[ak] Segub, his youngest son, died when he erected its gates,[al] in keeping with the Lord’s message that he had spoken through Joshua son of Nun.[am]


  1. 1 Kings 16:1 tc LXX “by the hand of,” meaning “through.”
  2. 1 Kings 16:2 tn The Hebrew text has “because” at the beginning of the sentence. In the Hebrew text vv. 2-3 are one sentence comprised of a causal clause giving the reason for divine punishment (v. 2) and the main clause announcing the punishment (v. 3). The translation divides this sentence for stylistic reasons.
  3. 1 Kings 16:2 tn Heb “walked in the way of Jeroboam.”
  4. 1 Kings 16:2 tn Heb “angering me by their sins.”
  5. 1 Kings 16:3 tn The traditional view understands the verb בָּעַר (baʿar) to mean “burn.” However, an alternate view takes בָּעַר (baʿar) as a homonym meaning “sweep away” (HALOT 146 s.v. II בער). In this case one might translate, “I am ready to sweep away Baasha and his family.” Either metaphor emphasizes the thorough and destructive nature of the coming judgment.
  6. 1 Kings 16:3 tc The Old Greek, Syriac Peshitta, and some mss of the Targum have here “his house.”
  7. 1 Kings 16:4 tn Heb “the ones belonging to Baasha.”
  8. 1 Kings 16:5 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Baasha, and that which he did and his strength, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  9. 1 Kings 16:6 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  10. 1 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “house,” by extension meaning the members of one’s household or a dynasty.
  11. 1 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “house.”
  12. 1 Kings 16:7 tn Heb “he struck him down” or “…it down.”
  13. 1 Kings 16:9 tn Heb “while he was in Tirzah drinking and drunken.”
  14. 1 Kings 16:10 tn Heb “and he became king in his place.”
  15. 1 Kings 16:11 tn Heb “and he did not spare any belonging to him who urinate against a wall, [including] his kinsmen redeemers and his friends.”
  16. 1 Kings 16:13 tn Heb “angering the Lord God of Israel with their empty things.”
  17. 1 Kings 16:14 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Elah, and all which he did, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  18. 1 Kings 16:15 tn Heb “Now the people were encamped.
  19. 1 Kings 16:16 tn Heb “and the people who were encamped heard, saying.”
  20. 1 Kings 16:16 tn Heb “has conspired against and also has struck down the king.”
  21. 1 Kings 16:18 tn Heb “and he burned the house of the king over him with fire and he died.”
  22. 1 Kings 16:19 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  23. 1 Kings 16:19 tn Heb “walking in the way of Jeroboam and in his sin which he did to make Israel sin.”
  24. 1 Kings 16:20 tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Zimri, and his conspiracy which he conspired, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  25. 1 Kings 16:24 tn The Hebrew term כִּכָּר (kikkar, “circle”) refers generally to something that is round. When used of metals it can refer to a disk-shaped weight made of the metal or to a standard unit of weight, generally regarded as a talent. Since the accepted weight for a talent of metal is about 75 pounds, this would have amounted to about 150 pounds of silver.
  26. 1 Kings 16:24 tn Heb “he built up the hill.”
  27. 1 Kings 16:25 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  28. 1 Kings 16:26 tn Heb “walked in all the way of Jeroboam son of Nebat and in his sin which he made Israel sin.”
  29. 1 Kings 16:26 tn Heb “angering the Lord God of Israel with their empty things.”
  30. 1 Kings 16:27 tn Heb “As for the rest of the acts of Omri which he did, and his strength which he demonstrated, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?”
  31. 1 Kings 16:28 tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.”
  32. 1 Kings 16:28 tc The Old Greek has eight additional verses here. Cf. 1 Kgs 22:41-44.
  33. 1 Kings 16:30 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  34. 1 Kings 16:31 tn Heb “and he went and served Baal and bowed down to him.”sn The Canaanites worshiped Baal as a storm and fertility god.
  35. 1 Kings 16:33 tn Heb “Ahab”; the proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  36. 1 Kings 16:34 tn Heb “in his days.”
  37. 1 Kings 16:34 tn Heb “with Abiram, his firstborn, he founded it.”
  38. 1 Kings 16:34 tn Heb “with Segub, his youngest, he set up its gates.”
  39. 1 Kings 16:34 sn Warned through Joshua son of Nun. For the background to this statement, see Josh 6:26, where Joshua pronounces a curse on the one who dares to rebuild Jericho. Here that curse is viewed as a prophecy spoken by God through Joshua.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 74 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 74[a]

A well-written song[b] by Asaph.

74 Why, O God, have you permanently rejected us?[c]
Why does your anger burn[d] against the sheep of your pasture?
Remember your people[e] whom you acquired in ancient times,
whom you rescued[f] so they could be your very own nation,[g]
as well as Mount Zion, where you dwell.
Hurry[h] to the permanent ruins,
and to all the damage the enemy has done to the temple.[i]
Your enemies roar[j] in the middle of your sanctuary;[k]
they set up their battle flags.[l]
They invade like lumberjacks
swinging their axes in a thick forest.[m]
And now[n] they are tearing down[o] all its engravings[p]
with axes[q] and crowbars.[r]
They set your sanctuary on fire;
they desecrate your dwelling place by knocking it to the ground.[s]
They say to themselves,[t]
“We will oppress all of them.”[u]
They burn down all the places in the land where people worship God.[v]
We do not see any signs of God’s presence;[w]
there are no longer any prophets,[x]
and we have no one to tell us how long this will last.[y]
10 How long, O God, will the adversary hurl insults?
Will the enemy blaspheme your name forever?
11 Why do you remain inactive?
Intervene and destroy him.[z]
12 But God has been my[aa] king from ancient times,
performing acts of deliverance on the earth.[ab]
13 You destroyed[ac] the sea by your strength;
you shattered the heads of the sea monster[ad] in the water.
14 You crushed the heads of Leviathan;[ae]
you fed[af] him to the people who live along the coast.[ag]
15 You broke open the spring and the stream;[ah]
you dried up perpetually flowing rivers.[ai]
16 You established the cycle of day and night;[aj]
you put the moon[ak] and sun in place.[al]
17 You set up all the boundaries[am] of the earth;
you created the cycle of summer and winter.[an]
18 Remember how[ao] the enemy hurls insults, O Lord,[ap]
and how a foolish nation blasphemes your name.
19 Do not hand the life of your dove[aq] over to a wild animal.
Do not continue to disregard[ar] the lives of your oppressed people.
20 Remember your covenant promises,[as]
for the dark regions of the earth are full of places where violence rules.[at]
21 Do not let the afflicted be turned back in shame.
Let the oppressed and poor praise your name.[au]
22 Rise up, O God. Defend your honor.[av]
Remember how fools insult you all day long.[aw]
23 Do not disregard[ax] what your enemies say,[ay]
or the unceasing shouts of those who defy you.[az]


  1. Psalm 74:1 sn Psalm 74. The psalmist, who has just experienced the devastation of the Babylonian invasion of Jerusalem in 586 b.c., asks God to consider Israel’s sufferings and intervene on behalf of his people. He describes the ruined temple, recalls God’s mighty deeds in the past, begs for mercy, and calls for judgment upon God’s enemies.
  2. Psalm 74:1 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
  3. Psalm 74:1 sn The psalmist does not really believe God has permanently rejected his people or he would not pray as he does in this psalm. But this initial question reflects his emotional response to what he sees and is overstated for the sake of emphasis. The severity of divine judgment gives the appearance that God has permanently abandoned his people.
  4. Psalm 74:1 tn Heb “smoke.” The picture is that of a fire that continues to smolder.
  5. Psalm 74:2 tn Heb “your assembly,” which pictures God’s people as an assembled community.
  6. Psalm 74:2 tn Heb “redeemed.” The verb “redeem” casts God in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis (see Ps 19:14).
  7. Psalm 74:2 tn Heb “the tribe of your inheritance” (see Jer 10:16; 51:19).
  8. Psalm 74:3 tn Heb “lift up your steps to,” which may mean “run, hurry.”
  9. Psalm 74:3 tn Heb “everything [the] enemy has damaged in the holy place.”
  10. Psalm 74:4 tn This verb is often used of a lion’s roar, so the psalmist may be comparing the enemy to a raging, devouring lion.
  11. Psalm 74:4 tn Heb “your meeting place.”
  12. Psalm 74:4 tn Heb “they set up their banners [as] banners.” The Hebrew noun אוֹת (ʾot, “sign”) here refers to the enemy army’s battle flags and banners (see Num 2:12).
  13. Psalm 74:5 tn Heb “it is known like one bringing upwards, in a thicket of wood, axes.” The Babylonian invaders destroyed the woodwork in the temple.
  14. Psalm 74:6 tn This is the reading of the Qere (marginal reading). The Kethib (consonantal text) has “and a time.”
  15. Psalm 74:6 tn The imperfect verbal form vividly describes the act as underway.
  16. Psalm 74:6 tn Heb “its engravings together.”
  17. Psalm 74:6 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT (see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 49-50).
  18. Psalm 74:6 tn This Hebrew noun occurs only here in the OT. An Akkadian cognate refers to a “pickaxe” (cf. NEB “hatchet and pick”; NIV “axes and hatchets”; NRSV “hatchets and hammers”).
  19. Psalm 74:7 tn Heb “to the ground they desecrate the dwelling place of your name.”
  20. Psalm 74:8 tn Heb “in their heart.”
  21. Psalm 74:8 tc Heb “[?] altogether.” The Hebrew form נִינָם (ninam) is problematic. It could be understood as the noun נִין (nin, “offspring”) but the statement “their offspring altogether” would make no sense here. C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs (Psalms [ICC], 2:159) emends יָחַד (yakhad, “altogether”) to יָחִיד (yakhid, “alone”) and translate “let their offspring be solitary” (i.e., exiled). Another option is to understand the form as a Qal imperfect first common plural from יָנָה (yanah, “to oppress”) with a third masculine plural pronominal suffix, “we will oppress them.” However, this verb, when used in the finite form, always appears in the Hiphil. Therefore, it is preferable to emend the form to the Hiphil נוֹנֵם (nonem, “we will oppress them”).
  22. Psalm 74:8 tn Heb “they burn down all the meeting places of God in the land.”
  23. Psalm 74:9 tn Heb “our signs we do not see.” Because of the reference to a prophet in the next line, it is likely that the “signs” in view here include the evidence of God’s presence as typically revealed through the prophets. These could include miraculous acts performed by the prophets (see, for example, Isa 38:7-8) or object lessons which they acted out (see, for example, Isa 20:3).
  24. Psalm 74:9 tn Heb “there is not still a prophet.”
  25. Psalm 74:9 tn Heb “and [there is] not with us one who knows how long.”
  26. Psalm 74:11 tn Heb “Why do you draw back your hand, even your right hand? From the midst of your chest, destroy!” The psalmist pictures God as having placed his right hand (symbolic of activity and strength) inside his robe against his chest. He prays that God would pull his hand out from under his robe and use it to destroy the enemy.
  27. Psalm 74:12 tn The psalmist speaks as Israel’s representative here.
  28. Psalm 74:12 tn Heb “in the midst of the earth.”
  29. Psalm 74:13 tn The derivation and meaning of the Polel verb form פּוֹרַרְתָּ (porarta) are uncertain. The form may be related to an Akkadian cognate meaning “break, shatter,” though the biblical Hebrew cognate of this verb always appears in the Hiphil or Hophal stem. BDB 830 s.v. II פָּרַר suggests a homonym here, meaning “to split; to divide.” A Hitpolel form of a root פָּרַר (parar) appears in Isa 24:19 with the meaning “to shake violently.”
  30. Psalm 74:13 tn The Hebrew text has the plural form, “sea monsters” (cf. NRSV “dragons”), but it is likely that an original enclitic mem has been misunderstood as a plural ending. The imagery of the mythological sea monster is utilized here. See the note on “Leviathan” in v. 14.
  31. Psalm 74:14 sn You crushed the heads of Leviathan. The imagery of vv. 13-14 originates in West Semitic mythology. The description of Leviathan should be compared with the following excerpts from Ugaritic mythological texts: (1) “Was not the dragon [Ugaritic tnn, cognate with Hebrew תַּנִין (tanin), translated “sea monster” in v. 13] vanquished and captured? I did destroy the wriggling [Ugaritic ʿqltn, cognate to Hebrew עֲקַלָּתוֹן (ʿaqallaton), translated “squirming” in Isa 27:1] serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (note the use of the plural “heads” here and in v. 13). (See CTA 3.iii.38-39 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 50.) (2) “For all that you smote Leviathan the slippery [Ugaritic brḥ, cognate to Hebrew בָּרִחַ (bariakh), translated “fast moving” in Isa 27:1] serpent, [and] made an end of the wriggling serpent, the tyrant with seven heads” (See CTA 5.i.1-3 in G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 68.) In the myths Leviathan is a sea creature that symbolizes the destructive water of the sea and, in turn, the forces of chaos that threaten the established order. In the OT, the battle with the sea motif is applied to Yahweh’s victories over the forces of chaos at creation and in history (see Pss 74:13-14; 77:16-20; 89:9-10; Isa 51:9-10). Yahweh’s subjugation of the waters of chaos is related to his kingship (see Pss 29:3, 10; 93:3-4). Isa 27:1 applies imagery from Canaanite mythology to Yahweh’s eschatological victory over his enemies. Apocalyptic literature employs the imagery as well. The beasts of Dan 7 emerge from the sea, while Rev 13 speaks of a seven-headed beast coming from the sea. Here in Ps 74:13-14 the primary referent is unclear. The psalmist may be describing God’s creation of the world (note vv. 16-17 and see Ps 89:9-12), when he brought order out of a watery mass, or the exodus (see Isa 51:9-10), when he created Israel by destroying the Egyptians in the waters of the sea.
  32. Psalm 74:14 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite in this narrational context.
  33. Psalm 74:14 sn You fed him to the people. This pictures the fragments of Leviathan’s dead corpse washing up on shore and being devoured by those who find them. If the exodus is in view, then it may allude to the bodies of the dead Egyptians which washed up on the shore of the Red Sea (see Exod 14:30).
  34. Psalm 74:15 sn You broke open the spring and the stream. Perhaps this alludes to the way in which God provided water for the Israelites as they traveled in the wilderness following the exodus (see Ps 78:15-16, 20; 105:41).
  35. Psalm 74:15 sn Perpetually flowing rivers are rivers that contain water year round, unlike the seasonal streams that flow only during the rainy season. Perhaps the psalmist here alludes to the drying up of the Jordan River when the Israelites entered the land of Canaan under Joshua (see Josh 3-4).
  36. Psalm 74:16 tn Heb “To you [is] day, also to you [is] night.”
  37. Psalm 74:16 tn Heb “[the] light.” Following the reference to “day and night” and in combination with “sun,” it is likely that the Hebrew term מָאוֹר (maʾor, “light”) refers here to the moon.
  38. Psalm 74:16 tn Heb “you established [the] light and [the] sun.”
  39. Psalm 74:17 tn This would appear to refer to geographical boundaries, such as mountains, rivers, and seacoasts. However, since the day-night cycle has just been mentioned (v. 16) and the next line speaks of the seasons, it is possible that “boundaries” here refers to the divisions of the seasons. See C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms (ICC), 2:156.
  40. Psalm 74:17 tn Heb “summer and winter, you, you formed them.”
  41. Psalm 74:18 tn Heb “remember this.”
  42. Psalm 74:18 tn Or “[how] the enemy insults the Lord.”
  43. Psalm 74:19 sn Your dove. The psalmist compares weak and vulnerable Israel to a helpless dove.
  44. Psalm 74:19 tn Heb “do not forget forever.”
  45. Psalm 74:20 tc Heb “look at the covenant.” The LXX reads “your covenant,” which seems to assume a second person pronominal suffix, which would be written with ך (kaf). The suffix may have been accidentally omitted by haplography. Note that the following word, כִּי (ki), begins with כ (kaf) .
  46. Psalm 74:20 tn Heb “for the dark places of the earth are full of dwelling places of violence.” The “dark regions” are probably the lands where the people have been exiled (see C. A. Briggs and E. G. Briggs, Psalms [ICC], 2:157). In some contexts “dark regions” refers to Sheol (Ps 88:6) or to hiding places likened to Sheol (Ps 143:3; Lam 3:6).
  47. Psalm 74:21 sn Let the oppressed and poor praise your name. The statement is metonymic. The point is this: May the oppressed be delivered from their enemies. Then they will have ample reason to praise God’s name.
  48. Psalm 74:22 tn Or “defend your cause.”
  49. Psalm 74:22 tn Heb “remember your reproach from a fool all the day.”
  50. Psalm 74:23 tn Or “forget.”
  51. Psalm 74:23 tn Heb “the voice of your enemies.”
  52. Psalm 74:23 tn Heb “the roar of those who rise up against you, which ascends continually.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Luke 23:26-56 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Crucifixion

26 As[a] they led him away, they seized Simon of Cyrene,[b] who was coming in from the country.[c] They placed the cross on his back and made him carry it behind Jesus.[d] 27 A great number of the people followed him, among them women[e] who were mourning[f] and wailing for him. 28 But Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem,[g] do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves[h] and for your children. 29 For this is certain:[i] The days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore children, and the breasts that never nursed!’[j] 30 Then they will begin to say to the mountains,[k]Fall on us!and to the hills,Cover us![l] 31 For if such things are done[m] when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?”[n]

32 Two other criminals[o] were also led away to be executed with him. 33 So[p] when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,”[q] they crucified[r] him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left. 34 [But Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.”][s] Then[t] they threw dice[u] to divide his clothes.[v] 35 The people also stood there watching, but the leaders ridiculed[w] him, saying, “He saved others. Let him save[x] himself if[y] he is the Christ[z] of God, his chosen one!” 36 The soldiers also mocked him, coming up and offering him sour wine,[aa] 37 and saying, “If[ab] you are the king of the Jews, save yourself!” 38 There was also an inscription[ac] over him, “This is the king of the Jews.”

39 One of the criminals who was hanging there railed at him, saying, “Aren’t[ad] you the Christ?[ae] Save yourself and us!” 40 But the other rebuked him, saying,[af] “Don’t[ag] you fear God, since you are under the same sentence of condemnation?[ah] 41 And we rightly so, for we are getting what we deserve for what we did, but this man has done nothing[ai] wrong.” 42 Then[aj] he said, “Jesus, remember me[ak] when you come in[al] your kingdom.” 43 And Jesus[am] said to him, “I tell you the truth,[an] today[ao] you will be with me in paradise.”[ap]

44 It was now[aq] about noon,[ar] and darkness came over the whole land until three in the afternoon,[as] 45 because the sun’s light failed.[at] The temple curtain[au] was torn in two. 46 Then Jesus, calling out with a loud voice, said, “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit![av] And after he said this he breathed his last.

47 Now when the centurion[aw] saw what had happened, he praised God and said, “Certainly this man was innocent!”[ax] 48 And all the crowds that had assembled for this spectacle, when they saw what had taken place, returned home beating their breasts.[ay] 49 And all those who knew Jesus[az] stood at a distance, and the women who had followed him from Galilee saw[ba] these things.

Jesus’ Burial

50 Now[bb] there was a man named Joseph who was a member of the council,[bc] a good and righteous man. 51 (He[bd] had not consented[be] to their plan and action.) He[bf] was from the Judean town[bg] of Arimathea, and was looking forward to[bh] the kingdom of God.[bi] 52 He went to Pilate and asked for the body[bj] of Jesus. 53 Then[bk] he took it down, wrapped it in a linen cloth,[bl] and placed it[bm] in a tomb cut out of the rock,[bn] where no one had yet been buried.[bo] 54 It was the day of preparation[bp] and the Sabbath was beginning.[bq] 55 The[br] women who had accompanied Jesus[bs] from Galilee followed, and they saw the tomb and how his body was laid in it. 56 Then[bt] they returned and prepared aromatic spices[bu] and perfumes.[bv]

On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.[bw]


  1. Luke 23:26 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  2. Luke 23:26 sn Jesus was beaten severely with a whip before this (the prelude to crucifixion, known to the Romans as verberatio, mentioned in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15; John 19:1), so he would have been weak from trauma and loss of blood. Apparently he was unable to bear the cross himself, so Simon was conscripted to help. Cyrene was located in North Africa where Tripoli is today. Nothing more is known about this Simon. Mark 15:21 names him as father of two people apparently known to Mark’s audience.
  3. Luke 23:26 tn Or perhaps, “was coming in from his field” outside the city (BDAG 15-16 s.v. ἀγρός 1).
  4. Luke 23:26 tn Grk “they placed the cross on him to carry behind Jesus.”
  5. Luke 23:27 sn The background of these women is disputed. Are they “official” mourners of Jesus’ death, appointed by custom to mourn death? If so, the mourning here would be more pro forma. However, the text seems to treat the mourning as sincere, so their tears and lamenting would have been genuine.
  6. Luke 23:27 tn Or “who were beating their breasts,” implying a ritualized form of mourning employed in Jewish funerals. See the note on the term “women” earlier in this verse.
  7. Luke 23:28 sn The title Daughters of Jerusalem portrays these women mourning as representatives of the nation.
  8. Luke 23:28 sn Do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves. Judgment now comes on the nation (see Luke 19:41-44) for this judgment of Jesus. Ironically, they mourn the wrong person—they should be mourning for themselves.
  9. Luke 23:29 tn Grk “For behold.”
  10. Luke 23:29 tn Grk “Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the breasts that have not nursed!”sn Normally barrenness is a sign of judgment, because birth would be seen as a sign of blessing. The reversal of imagery indicates that something was badly wrong.
  11. Luke 23:30 sn The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8).
  12. Luke 23:30 sn An allusion to Hos 10:8 (cf. Rev 6:16).
  13. Luke 23:31 tn Grk “if they do such things.” The plural subject here is indefinite, so the active voice has been translated as a passive (see ExSyn 402).
  14. Luke 23:31 sn The figure of the green wood and the dry has been variously understood. Most likely the picture compares the judgment on Jesus as the green (living) wood to the worse judgment that will surely come for the dry (dead) wood of the nation.
  15. Luke 23:32 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in P75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 ƒ1,13 33 M) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely autographic.sn Jesus is numbered among the criminals (see Isa 53:12 and Luke 22:37).
  16. Luke 23:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.
  17. Luke 23:33 sn The place that is calledThe Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).
  18. Luke 23:33 sn See the note on crucify in 23:21.
  19. Luke 23:34 tc Many significant mss (P75 א1 B D* W Θ 070 579 1241 sys sa) lack v. 34a. It is included in א*,2 (A) C D2 L Ψ 0250 ƒ1,(13) 33 M lat syc,p,h. It also fits a major Lukan theme of forgiving the enemies (6:27-36), and it has a parallel in Stephen’s response in Acts 7:60. The lack of parallels in the other Gospels argues also for inclusion here. On the other hand, the fact of the parallel in Acts 7:60 may well have prompted early scribes to insert the saying in Luke’s Gospel alone. Further, there is the great difficulty of explaining why early and diverse witnesses lack the saying. A decision is difficult, but even those who regard the verse as inauthentic literarily often consider it to be authentic historically. For this reason it has been placed in single brackets in the translation.
  20. Luke 23:34 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  21. Luke 23:34 tn Grk “cast lots” (probably by using marked pebbles or broken pieces of pottery). A modern equivalent “threw dice” was chosen here because of its association with gambling.
  22. Luke 23:34 sn An allusion to Ps 22:18, which identifies Jesus as the suffering innocent one.
  23. Luke 23:35 tn A figurative extension of the literal meaning “to turn one’s nose up at someone”; here “ridicule, sneer at, show contempt for” (L&N 33.409).
  24. Luke 23:35 sn The irony in the statement Let him save himself is that salvation did come, but later, not while on the cross.
  25. Luke 23:35 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text.
  26. Luke 23:35 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  27. Luke 23:36 sn Sour wine was cheap wine, called in Latin posca, and referred to a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion, who had some on hand, now used it to taunt Jesus further.
  28. Luke 23:37 tn This is also a first class condition in the Greek text.
  29. Luke 23:38 sn Mention of the inscription is an important detail, because the inscription would normally give the reason for the execution. It shows that Jesus was executed for claiming to be a king. It was also probably written with irony from the executioners’ point of view.
  30. Luke 23:39 tc Most mss (A C3 W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 33 M lat) read εἰ σὺ εἶ (ei su ei, “If you are”) here, while οὐχὶ σὺ εἶ (ouchi su ei, “Are you not”) is found in overall better and earlier witnesses (P75 א B C* L 070 1241 it). The “if” clause reading creates a parallel with the earlier taunts (vv. 35, 37), and thus is most likely a motivated reading. sn The question in Greek expects a positive reply and is also phrased with irony.
  31. Luke 23:39 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 2:11.
  32. Luke 23:40 tn Grk “But answering, the other rebuking him, said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
  33. Luke 23:40 tn The particle used here (οὐδέ, oude), which expects a positive reply, makes this a rebuke—“You should fear God and not speak!”
  34. Luke 23:40 tn The words “of condemnation” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.
  35. Luke 23:41 sn This man has done nothing wrong is yet another declaration that Jesus was innocent of any crime.
  36. Luke 23:42 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  37. Luke 23:42 sn Jesus, remember me is a statement of faith from the cross, as Jesus saves another even while he himself is dying. This man’s faith had shown itself when he rebuked the other thief. He hoped to be with Jesus sometime in the future in the kingdom.
  38. Luke 23:42 tc ‡ The alternate readings of some mss make the reference to Jesus’ coming clearer. “Into your kingdom”—with εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν (eis tēn basileian), read by P75 B L—is a reference to his entering into God’s presence at the right hand. “In your kingdom”—with ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ (en tē basileia), read by א A C*,2 W Θ Ψ 070 ƒ1,13 33 M lat sy—looks at his return. It could be argued that the reading with εἰς is more in keeping with Luke’s theology elsewhere, but the contrast with Jesus’ reply, “Today,” slightly favors the reading “in your kingdom.” Codex Bezae (D), in place of this short interchange between the criminal and Jesus, reads “Then he turned to the Lord and said to him, ‘Remember me in the day of your coming.’ Then the Lord said in reply to [him], ‘Take courage; today you will be with me in paradise.’” This reading emphasizes the future aspect of the coming of Christ; it has virtually no support in any other mss.
  39. Luke 23:43 tn Grk “he.”
  40. Luke 23:43 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  41. Luke 23:43 sn Jesus gives more than the criminal asked for, because the blessing will come today, not in the future. He will be among the righteous. See the note on today in 2:11.
  42. Luke 23:43 sn In the NT, paradise is mentioned three times. Here it refers to the abode of the righteous dead. In Rev 2:7 it refers to the restoration of Edenic paradise predicted in Isa 51:3 and Ezek 36:35. In 2 Cor 12:4 it probably refers to the “third heaven” (2 Cor 12:2) as the place where God dwells.
  43. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “And it was.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  44. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “the sixth hour.”
  45. Luke 23:44 tn Grk “until the ninth hour.”
  46. Luke 23:45 tc The wording “the sun’s light failed” is a translation of τοῦ ἡλίου ἐκλιπόντος/ ἐκλείποντος (tou hēliou eklipontos/ ekleipontos), a reading found in the earliest and best witnesses (among them P75 א B C*vid L 070 579 2542) as well as several ancient versions. The majority of mss (A C3 [D] W Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M lat sy) have the flatter, less dramatic term, “the sun was darkened” (ἐσκοτίσθη, eskotisthe), a reading that avoids the problem of implying an eclipse (see sn below). This alternative thus looks secondary because it is a more common word and less likely to be misunderstood as referring to a solar eclipse. That it appears in later witnesses rather than the earliest ones adds confirmatory testimony to its inauthentic character.sn This imagery has parallels to the Day of the Lord: Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9; Zeph 1:15. Some students of the NT see in Luke’s statement the sun’s light failed (eklipontos) an obvious blunder in his otherwise meticulous historical accuracy. The reason for claiming such an error on the author’s part is due to an understanding of the verb as indicating a solar eclipse when such would be an astronomical impossibility during a full moon. There are generally two ways to resolve this difficulty: (a) adopt a different reading (“the sun was darkened”) that smoothes over the problem (discussed in the tc problem above), or (b) understand the verb eklipontos in a general way (such as “the sun’s light failed”) rather than as a technical term, “the sun was eclipsed.” The problem with the first solution is that it is too convenient, for the Christian scribes who, over the centuries, copied Luke’s Gospel would have thought the same thing. That is, they too would have sensed a problem in the wording and felt that some earlier scribe had incorrectly written down what Luke penned. The fact that the reading “was darkened” shows up in the later and generally inferior witnesses does not bolster one’s confidence that this is the right solution. But second solution, if taken to its logical conclusion, proves too much for it would nullify the argument against the first solution: If the term did not refer to an eclipse, then why would scribes feel compelled to change it to a more general term? The solution to the problem is that ekleipo did in fact sometimes refer to an eclipse, but it did not always do so. (BDAG 306 s.v. ἐκλείπω notes that the verb is used in Hellenistic Greek “Of the sun cease to shine.” In MM it is argued that “it seems more than doubtful that in Lk 2345 any reference is intended to an eclipse. To find such a reference is to involve the Evangelist in a needless blunder, as an eclipse is impossible at full moon, and to run counter to his general usage of the verb = ‘fail’…” [p. 195]. They enlist Luke 16:9; 22:32; and Heb 1:12 for the general meaning “fail,” and further cite several contemporaneous examples from papyri of this meaning [195-96]) Thus, the very fact that the verb can refer to an eclipse would be a sufficient basis for later scribes altering the text out of pious motives; conversely, the very fact that the verb does not always refer to an eclipse and, in fact, does not normally do so, is enough of a basis to exonerate Luke of wholly uncharacteristic carelessness.
  47. Luke 23:45 tn The referent of this term, καταπέτασμα (katapetasma), is not entirely clear. It could refer to the curtain separating the holy of holies from the holy place (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.5 [5.219]), or it could refer to one at the entrance of the temple court (Josephus, J. W. 5.5.4 [5.212]). Many argue that the inner curtain is meant because another term, κάλυμμα (kalumma), is also used for the outer curtain. Others see a reference to the outer curtain as more likely because of the public nature of this sign. Either way, the symbolism means that access to God has been opened up. It also pictures a judgment that includes the sacrifices.
  48. Luke 23:46 sn A quotation from Ps 31:5. It is a psalm of trust. The righteous, innocent sufferer trusts in God. Luke does not have the cry of pain from Ps 22:1 (cf. Matt 27:46; Mark 15:34), but notes Jesus’ trust instead.
  49. Luke 23:47 sn See the note on the word centurion in 7:2.
  50. Luke 23:47 tn Or “righteous.” It is hard to know whether “innocent” or “righteous” is intended, as the Greek term used can mean either, and both make good sense in this context. Luke has been emphasizing Jesus as innocent, so that is slightly more likely here. Of course, one idea entails the other. sn Here is a fourth figure who said that Jesus was innocent in this chapter (Pilate, Herod, a criminal, and now a centurion).
  51. Luke 23:48 sn Some apparently regretted what had taken place. Beating their breasts was a sign of lamentation.
  52. Luke 23:49 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  53. Luke 23:49 tn Technically the participle ὁρῶσαι (horōsai) modifies only γυναῖκες (gunaikes) since both are feminine plural nominative, although many modern translations refer this as well to the group of those who knew Jesus mentioned in the first part of the verse. These events had a wide array of witnesses.
  54. Luke 23:50 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  55. Luke 23:50 tn Grk “a councillor” (as a member of the Sanhedrin, see L&N 11.85). This indicates that some individuals among the leaders did respond to Jesus.
  56. Luke 23:51 tn Grk “This one.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
  57. Luke 23:51 tc Several mss (א C D L Δ Ψ 070 ƒ1,13 [579] 892 1424 2542 al) read the present participle συγκατατιθέμενος (sunkatatithemenos) instead of the perfect participle συγκατατεθειμένος (sunkatatetheimenos). The present participle could be taken to mean that Joseph had decided that the execution was now a mistake. The perfect means that he did not agree with it from the start. The perfect participle, however, has better support externally (P75 A B W Θ 33 M), and is thus the preferred reading.sn The parenthetical note at the beginning of v. 51 indicates that Joseph of Arimathea had not consented to the action of the Sanhedrin in condemning Jesus to death. Since Mark 14:64 indicates that all the council members condemned Jesus as deserving death, it is likely that Joseph was not present at the trial.
  58. Luke 23:51 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
  59. Luke 23:51 tn Or “Judean city”; Grk “from Arimathea, a city of the Jews.” Here the expression “of the Jews” (᾿Ιουδαίων, Ioudaiōn) is used in an adjectival sense to specify a location (cf. BDAG 478 s.v. ᾿Ιουδαῖος 2.c) and so has been translated “Judean.”
  60. Luke 23:51 tn Or “waiting for.”sn Though some dispute that Joseph of Arimathea was a disciple of Jesus, this remark that he was looking forward to the kingdom of God and his actions regarding Jesus’ burial suggest otherwise.
  61. Luke 23:51 sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus’ teaching. The nature of the kingdom of God in the NT and in Jesus’ teaching has long been debated by interpreters and scholars, with discussion primarily centering around the nature of the kingdom (earthly, heavenly, or both) and the kingdom’s arrival (present, future, or both). An additional major issue concerns the relationship between the kingdom of God and the person and work of Jesus himself. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21.
  62. Luke 23:52 sn Joseph went to Pilate and asked for the body because he sought to give Jesus an honorable burial. This was indeed a bold move on the part of Joseph of Arimathea, for it clearly and openly identified him with a man who had just been condemned and executed, namely, Jesus. His faith is exemplary, especially for someone who was a member of the council that handed Jesus over for crucifixion (cf. Mark 15:43).
  63. Luke 23:53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  64. Luke 23:53 tn The term σινδών (sindōn) can refer to a linen cloth used either for clothing or for burial.
  65. Luke 23:53 tn In the Greek text this pronoun (αὐτόν, auton) is masculine, while the previous one (αὐτό, auto) is neuter, referring to the body.
  66. Luke 23:53 tn That is, cut or carved into an outcropping of natural rock, resulting in a cave-like structure (see L&N 19.26).
  67. Luke 23:53 tc Codex Bezae (D), with some support from 070, one Itala ms, and the Sahidic version, adds the words, “And after he [Jesus] was laid [in the tomb], he [Joseph of Arimathea] put a stone over the tomb which scarcely twenty men could roll.” Although this addition is certainly not part of the original text of Luke, it does show how interested the early scribes were in the details of the burial and may even reflect a very primitive tradition. Matt 27:60 and Mark 15:46 record the positioning of a large stone at the door of the tomb.tn Or “laid to rest.”
  68. Luke 23:54 sn The day of preparation was the day before the Sabbath when everything had to be prepared for it, as no work could be done on the Sabbath.
  69. Luke 23:54 tn Normally, “dawning,” but as the Jewish Sabbath begins at 6 p.m., “beginning” is more appropriate.
  70. Luke 23:55 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  71. Luke 23:55 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  72. Luke 23:56 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  73. Luke 23:56 tn On this term see BDAG 140-41 s.v. ἄρωμα. The Jews did not practice embalming, so these preparations were used to cover the stench of decay and slow decomposition. The women planned to return and anoint the body. But that would have to wait until after the Sabbath.
  74. Luke 23:56 tn Or “ointments.” This was another type of perfumed oil.
  75. Luke 23:56 sn According to the commandment. These women are portrayed as pious, faithful to the law in observing the Sabbath.
New English Translation (NET)

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