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1 Chronicles 6 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Levi’s Descendants

(5:27)[a] The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.

The children of Amram: Aaron, Moses, and Miriam.

The sons of Aaron: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.

Eleazar was the father of Phinehas, and Phinehas was the father of Abishua. Abishua was the father of Bukki, and Bukki was the father of Uzzi. Uzzi was the father of Zerahiah, and Zerahiah was the father of Meraioth. Meraioth was the father of Amariah, and Amariah was the father of Ahitub. Ahitub was the father of Zadok, and Zadok was the father of Ahimaaz. Ahimaaz was the father of Azariah, and Azariah was the father of Johanan. 10 Johanan was the father of Azariah, who served as a priest in the temple Solomon built in Jerusalem. 11 Azariah was the father of Amariah, and Amariah was the father of Ahitub. 12 Ahitub was the father of Zadok, and Zadok was the father of Shallum. 13 Shallum was the father of Hilkiah, and Hilkiah was the father of Azariah. 14 Azariah was the father of Seraiah, and Seraiah was the father of Jehozadak. 15 Jehozadak went into exile when the Lord sent the people of[b] Judah and Jerusalem into exile by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.

16 (6:1)[c] The sons of Levi: Gershom,[d] Kohath, and Merari.

17 These are the names of the sons Gershom: Libni and Shimei.

18 The sons of Kohath: Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel.

19 The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi.

These are the clans of the Levites by their families.[e]

20 To Gershom: his son Libni, his son Jahath, his son Zimmah, 21 his son Joah, his son Iddo, his son Zerah, and his son Jeatherai.

22 The sons[f] of Kohath: his son Amminadab, his son Korah, his son Assir, 23 his son Elkanah, his son Ebiasaph, his son Assir, 24 his son Tahath, his son Uriel, his son Uzziah, and his son Shaul.

25 The sons of Elkanah: Amasai, Ahimoth,[g] 26 his son Elkanah,[h] his son Zophai, his son Nahath, 27 his son Eliab, his son Jeroham, and his son Elkanah.[i]

28 The sons of Samuel: Joel the firstborn[j] and Abijah the second oldest.

29 The descendants of Merari: Mahli, his son Libni, his son Shimei, his son Uzzah, 30 his son Shimea, his son Haggiah, and his son Asaiah.

Professional Musicians

31 These are the men David put in charge of music in the Lord’s sanctuary,[k] after the ark was placed there. 32 They performed music[l] before the sanctuary[m] of the meeting tent until Solomon built the Lord’s temple in Jerusalem. They carried out their tasks according to regulations.

33 These are the ones who served along with their sons:

From the Kohathites: Heman the musician, son of Joel, son of Samuel, 34 son of Elkanah, son of Jeroham, son of Eliel, son of Toah, 35 son of Zuph, son of Elkanah, son of Mahath, son of Amasai, 36 son of Elkanah, son of Joel, son of Azariah, son of Zephaniah, 37 son of Tahath, son of Assir, son of Ebiasaph, son of Korah, 38 son of Izhar, son of Kohath, son of Levi, son of Israel.

39 Serving beside him was his fellow Levite Asaph,[n] son of Berechiah, son of Shimea, 40 son of Michael, son of Baaseiah,[o] son of Malkijah, 41 son of Ethni, son of Zerah, son of Adaiah, 42 son of Ethan, son of Zimmah, son of Shimei, 43 son of Jahath, son of Gershom, son of Levi.

44 Serving beside them were their fellow Levites, the descendants of Merari, led by[p] Ethan, son of Kishi, son of Abdi, son of Malluch, 45 son of Hashabiah, son of Amaziah, son of Hilkiah, 46 son of Amzi, son of Bani, son of Shemer, 47 son of Mahli, son of Mushi, son of Merari, son of Levi.

48 The rest of their fellow Levites[q] were assigned to perform the remaining tasks at God’s sanctuary.[r] 49 But Aaron and his descendants offered sacrifices on the altar for burnt offerings and on the altar for incense as they had been assigned to do in the Most Holy Sanctuary.[s] They made atonement for Israel, just as God’s servant Moses had ordered.[t]

50 These were the descendants of Aaron:

His son Eleazar, his son Phinehas, his son Abishua, 51 his son Bukki, his son Uzzi, his son Zerahiah, 52 his son Meraioth, his son Amariah, his son Ahitub, 53 his son Zadok, and his son Ahimaaz.

54 These were the areas where Aaron’s descendants lived:[u]

The following belonged to the Kohathite clan, for they received the first allotment:[v]

55 They were allotted Hebron in the territory of Judah, as well as its surrounding pasturelands. 56 (But the city’s land and nearby towns were allotted to Caleb son of Jephunneh.) 57 The descendants of Aaron were also allotted as cities[w] of refuge Hebron, Libnah and its pasturelands, Jattir, Eshtemoa and its pasturelands, 58 Hilez[x] and its pasturelands, Debir and its pasturelands, 59 Ashan[y] and its pasturelands,[z] and Beth Shemesh and its pasturelands.

60 Within the territory of the tribe of Benjamin they were allotted[aa] Geba and its pasturelands, Alemeth and its pasturelands, and Anathoth and its pasturelands. Their clans were allotted thirteen cities in all. 61 The rest of Kohath’s descendants were allotted ten cities in the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh.[ab]

62 The clans of Gershom’s descendants received thirteen cities within the territory of the tribes of Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, and Manasseh (in Bashan).[ac]

63 The clans of Merari’s descendants were allotted twelve cities within the territory of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Zebulun.[ad]

64 So the Israelites gave to the Levites these cities and their pasturelands. 65 They allotted these previously named cities from the territory of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin.[ae]

66 The clans of Kohath’s descendants also received cities as their territory within the tribe of Ephraim.[af] 67 They were allotted as cities[ag] of refuge Shechem and its pasturelands (in the hill country of Ephraim), Gezer and its pasturelands, 68 Jokmeam and its pasturelands, Beth Horon and its pasturelands, 69 Aijalon and its pasturelands, and Gath Rimmon and its pasturelands.

70 Within the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh, the rest of Kohath’s descendants received Aner and its pasturelands and Bileam and its pasturelands.[ah]

71 The following belonged to Gershom’s descendants:[ai]

Within the territory of the half-tribe of Manasseh: Golan in Bashan and its pasturelands and Ashtaroth and its pasturelands.

72 Within the territory of the tribe of Issachar: Kedesh and its pasturelands, Daberath and its pasturelands, 73 Ramoth and its pasturelands, and Anem and its pasturelands.

74 Within the territory of the tribe of Asher: Mashal and its pasturelands, Abdon and its pasturelands, 75 Hukok and its pasturelands, and Rehob and its pasturelands.

76 Within the territory of the tribe of Naphtali: Kedesh in Galilee and its pasturelands, Hammon and its pasturelands, and Kiriathaim and its pasturelands.

77 The following belonged to the rest of Merari’s descendants:[aj]

Within the territory of the tribe of Zebulun: Rimmono[ak] and its pasturelands, and Tabor and its pasturelands.

78 Within the territory of the tribe of Reuben across the Jordan River east of Jericho:[al] Bezer in the wilderness and its pasturelands, Jahzah and its pasturelands, 79 Kedemoth and its pasturelands, and Mephaath and its pasturelands.

80 Within the territory of the tribe of Gad: Ramoth in Gilead and its pasturelands, Mahanaim and its pasturelands, 81 Heshbon and its pasturelands, and Jazer and its pasturelands.


  1. 1 Chronicles 6:1 sn Beginning with 6:1, the verse numbers through 6:81 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 6:1 ET = 5:27 HT, 6:2 ET = 5:28 HT, 6:16 ET = 6:1 HT, etc., through 6:81 ET = 6:66 HT. Beginning with 7:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.
  2. 1 Chronicles 6:15 tn The words “the people of” are added in the translation for clarification.
  3. 1 Chronicles 6:16 sn Chapter 6 of 1 Chr begins here in the Hebrew text; 6:16-81 ET = 6:1-66 HT. See the note at 6:1.
  4. 1 Chronicles 6:16 tn The name “Gershom” (also in vv. 17, 20, 43, 62, 71) appears as “Gershon” in 1 Chr 6:1.
  5. 1 Chronicles 6:19 tn Heb “by their fathers.”
  6. 1 Chronicles 6:22 tn Or perhaps, “descendants,” since the list differs from the one in v. 18.
  7. 1 Chronicles 6:25 tn Heb “and Achimoth.”
  8. 1 Chronicles 6:26 tc The consonantal Hebrew text (Kethib) has, “Elkanah, his son, Elkanah.” The marginal reading (Qere) is “Elkanah, the sons of Elkanah.” The text probably originally read simply, “Elkanah his son.”
  9. 1 Chronicles 6:27 tc After the last named individual (“Elkanah” in v. 27) some LXX mss insert the words “Samuel his son” to facilitate a transition to the following verse, which begins “and the sons of Samuel.” Among the English versions that include this added phrase are NAB, NIV, and NLT.
  10. 1 Chronicles 6:28 tc The Hebrew text lacks the name יוֹאֵל (yoʾel, “Joel”), which has probably dropped out due to homoioteleuton (note the last three letters of the preceding name שְׁמוּאֵל (shemuel, “Samuel”).
  11. 1 Chronicles 6:31 tn Heb “house.”
  12. 1 Chronicles 6:32 tn Heb “they were serving…with music.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 6:32 tn Or traditionally “tabernacle.”
  14. 1 Chronicles 6:39 tn Heb “and his brother Asaph, the one who stood at his right hand.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 6:40 tc A few Hebrew mss, one LXX ms, and the Syriac read “Maaseiah.”
  16. 1 Chronicles 6:44 tn Heb “and the sons of Merari, their brothers, on the left.”
  17. 1 Chronicles 6:48 tn Heb “their brothers, the Levites.”
  18. 1 Chronicles 6:48 tn Heb “were assigned to all the work of the tabernacle of the house of God.”
  19. 1 Chronicles 6:49 tn Heb “for all the work of the holy of holies.”
  20. 1 Chronicles 6:49 tn Heb “making atonement for Israel according to all which Moses the servant of God commanded.”
  21. 1 Chronicles 6:54 tn Heb “and these were their dwelling places according to their encampments in their territory to the sons of Aaron.”
  22. 1 Chronicles 6:54 tn Heb “to the clan of the Kohathites for to them was the lot.”
  23. 1 Chronicles 6:57 tn The parallel account in Josh 21:13 has the singular “city,” which apparently refers only to Hebron.
  24. 1 Chronicles 6:58 tc The MT reads “Hilez” here; the place name appears as “Holon” in Josh 21:15.
  25. 1 Chronicles 6:59 tc The MT reads “Ashan” here; the place name appears as “Ain” in Josh 21:16.
  26. 1 Chronicles 6:59 tc The LXX and Syriac (following the parallel list in Josh 21:16) add “Juttah and its pasturelands” here. Cf. NAB “Jetta”; also NIV, NCV, NLT “Juttah.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 6:60 tn The parallel passage in Josh 21:17 adds “Gibeon and its pasturelands” (cf. NAB, NIV, NCV, NLT). The words “they were allotted” are supplied in the translation for both clarity and stylistic reasons.
  28. 1 Chronicles 6:61 tn Heb “to the sons of Kohath who were left from the clan of the tribe, from the half of the tribe of the half of Manasseh by lot ten cities.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 6:62 tn Heb “and to the sons of Gershom by their clans from the tribe of Issachar, and from the tribe of Asher, and from the tribe of Naphtali, and from the tribe of Manasseh in Bashan, thirteen cities.”
  30. 1 Chronicles 6:63 tn Heb “and to the sons of Merari by their clans from the tribe of Reuben, and from the tribe of Gad, and from the tribe of Zebulun by lot, twelve cities.”
  31. 1 Chronicles 6:65 tn Heb “and they gave by lot from the tribe of the sons of Judah, and from the tribe of the sons of Simeon, and from the tribe of the sons of Benjamin these cities, which they called them by names.”
  32. 1 Chronicles 6:66 tn Heb “and from [it is probably preferable to read “to” here] the clans of the sons of Kohath and there were the cities of their territory from the tribe of Ephraim.”
  33. 1 Chronicles 6:67 tn The parallel account in Josh 21:21 has the singular “city,” referring only to Shechem.
  34. 1 Chronicles 6:70 tn Heb “and from the half of the tribe of Manasseh, Aner and its pasturelands and Bileam and its pasturelands to the clan, to the sons of Kohath who were left.”
  35. 1 Chronicles 6:71 tn Heb “to the sons of Gershom.”
  36. 1 Chronicles 6:77 tn Heb “to the sons of Merari, who were left.”
  37. 1 Chronicles 6:77 tc Before “Rimmono” the LXX (following the parallel passage in Josh 21:34) adds “Jokneam and its pasturelands, Kartah and its pasturelands.” This addition is included in some English versions (e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV, NLT).
  38. 1 Chronicles 6:78 tn Heb “and from across the Jordan at Jericho, on the east of the Jordan, from the tribe of Reuben.” The word “River” is supplied in the translation for clarity.
New English Translation (NET)

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Psalm 35 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 35[a]

By David.

35 O Lord, fight[b] those who fight with me.
Attack those who attack me.
Grab your small shield and large shield,[c]
and rise up to help me.
Use your spear and lance[d] against[e] those who chase me.
Assure me with these words:[f] “I am your deliverer.”
May those who seek my life be embarrassed and humiliated.
May those who plan to harm me be turned back and ashamed.[g]
May they be[h] like wind-driven chaff,
as the angel of the Lord[i] attacks them.[j]
May their path be[k] dark and slippery,
as the angel of the Lord chases them.
I did not harm them, but they hid a net to catch me
and dug a pit to trap me.[l]
Let destruction take them by surprise.[m]
Let the net they hid catch them.
Let them fall into destruction.[n]
Then I will rejoice in the Lord
and be happy because of his deliverance.[o]
10 With all my strength I will say,[p]
“O Lord, who can compare to you?
You rescue[q] the oppressed from those who try to overpower them,[r]
the oppressed and needy from those who try to rob them.”[s]
11 Violent men perjure themselves,[t]
and falsely accuse me.[u]
12 They repay me evil for the good I have done;[v]
I am overwhelmed with sorrow.[w]
13 When they were sick, I wore sackcloth,[x]
and refrained from eating food.[y]
(If I am lying, may my prayers go unanswered.)[z]
14 I mourned for them as I would for a friend or my brother.[aa]
I bowed down[ab] in sorrow as if I were mourning for my mother.[ac]
15 But when I stumbled, they rejoiced and gathered together;
they gathered together to ambush me.[ad]
They tore at me without stopping to rest.[ae]
16 When I tripped, they taunted me relentlessly,[af]
and tried to bite me.[ag]
17 O Lord, how long are you going to watch this?
Rescue[ah] me[ai] from their destructive attacks;
guard my life[aj] from the young lions.
18 Then I will give you thanks in the great assembly;[ak]
I will praise you before a large crowd of people.[al]
19 Do not let those who are my enemies for no reason[am] gloat[an] over me.
Do not let those who hate me without cause carry out their wicked schemes.[ao]
20 For they do not try to make peace with others,[ap]
but plan ways to deceive those who live peacefully in the land.[aq]
21 They are ready to devour me;[ar]
they say, “Aha! Aha! We’ve got you!”[as]
22 But you take notice,[at] Lord; do not be silent!
O Lord, do not remain far away from me.
23 Rouse yourself, wake up[au] and vindicate me.[av]
My God and Lord, defend my just cause.[aw]
24 Vindicate me by your justice, O Lord my God.
Do not let them gloat[ax] over me.
25 Do not let them say to themselves,[ay] “Aha! We have what we wanted!”[az]
Do not let them say, “We have devoured him.”
26 May those who rejoice in my troubles be totally embarrassed and ashamed.[ba]
May those who arrogantly taunt me be covered with shame and humiliation.[bb]
27 May those who desire my vindication shout for joy and rejoice.
May they continually say,[bc] “May the Lord be praised,[bd] for he wants his servant to be secure.”[be]
28 Then I will tell others about your justice,[bf]
and praise you all day long.[bg]


  1. Psalm 35:1 sn Psalm 35. The author, who faces ruthless enemies who seek his life for no reason, begs the Lord to fight his battles for him and to vindicate him by annihilating his adversaries.
  2. Psalm 35:1 tn Or “contend.”
  3. Psalm 35:2 tn Two different types of shields are mentioned here. See also Ezek 38:4. Many modern translations render the first term (translated here “small shield”) as “buckler” (cf. NASB “buckler and shield”; the order is often reversed in the translation, apparently for stylistic reasons: cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV “shield and buckler”). The English term “buckler,” referring to a small round shield held on the arm to protect the upper body, is unfamiliar to many modern readers, so the term “small shield” was used in the present translation for clarity.
  4. Psalm 35:3 tn Or “javelin.” On the meaning of this word, which occurs only here in the Hebrew Bible, see M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:210-11.
  5. Psalm 35:3 tn Heb “draw out spear and lance to meet.”
  6. Psalm 35:3 tn Heb “say to me,” or “say to my soul.”
  7. Psalm 35:4 tn The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist is calling judgment down on his enemies. See also the distinct jussive form in v. 6.
  8. Psalm 35:5 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive. See v. 4.
  9. Psalm 35:5 sn See the mention of the angel of the Lord in Ps 34:7.
  10. Psalm 35:5 tn Heb “as the angel of the Lord pushes [them].”
  11. Psalm 35:6 tn The prefixed verbal form is distinctly jussive, indicating this is a prayer.
  12. Psalm 35:7 tc Heb “for without cause they hid for me a pit of their net, without cause they dug for my life.” It appears that the words “pit” and “net” have been transposed. “Net” goes with the verb “hid” in the first line (see v. 8, as well as Pss 9:15; 31:4), while “pit” goes with the verb “dug” in the second line (see Ps 7:15).
  13. Psalm 35:8 tn Heb “let destruction [which] he does not know come to him.” The singular is used of the enemy in v. 8, probably in a representative or collective sense. The psalmist has more than one enemy, as vv. 1-7 make clear.
  14. Psalm 35:8 tn The psalmist’s prayer for his enemies’ demise continues. See vv. 4-6.
  15. Psalm 35:9 tn Heb “then my soul will rejoice in the Lord and be happy in his deliverance.”
  16. Psalm 35:10 tn Heb “all my bones will say.”
  17. Psalm 35:10 tn Heb “[the one who] rescues.” The substantival participle in the Hebrew text characterizes God as one who typically rescues the oppressed.
  18. Psalm 35:10 tn Heb “from [the one who is] too strong for him.” The singular forms are used in a representative sense. The typical oppressed individual and typical oppressor are in view.
  19. Psalm 35:10 tn Heb “the oppressed [one] and needy [one] from [the one who] robs him.” As in the previous line, the singular forms are used in a representative sense.
  20. Psalm 35:11 tn Heb “witnesses of violence rise up.”
  21. Psalm 35:11 tn Heb “[that] which I do not know they ask me.”
  22. Psalm 35:12 tn Heb “they repay me evil instead of good.”
  23. Psalm 35:12 tn Heb “[there is] bereavement to my soul.”
  24. Psalm 35:13 tn Heb “as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth.” Sackcloth was worn by mourners. When the psalmist’s enemies were sick, he was sorry for their misfortune and mourned for them.
  25. Psalm 35:13 sn Fasting was also a practice of mourners. By refraining from normal activities, such as eating food, the mourner demonstrated the sincerity of his sorrow.
  26. Psalm 35:13 tn Heb “and my prayer upon my chest will return.” One could translate, “but my prayer was returning upon my chest,” but the use of the imperfect verbal form sets this line apart from the preceding and following lines (vv. 13a, 14), which use the perfect to describe the psalmist’s past actions.
  27. Psalm 35:14 tn Heb “like a friend, like a brother to me I walked about.”
  28. Psalm 35:14 sn I bowed down. Bowing down was a posture for mourning. See Ps 38:6.
  29. Psalm 35:14 tn Heb “like mourning for a mother [in] sorrow I bowed down.”
  30. Psalm 35:15 tn Heb “they gathered together against me, stricken [ones], and I did not know.” The Hebrew form נֵכִים (nekhim, “stricken ones” ?) is problematic. Some suggest an emendation to נָכְרִים[כְ] (kenokherim, “foreigners”) or “like foreigners,” which would fit with what follows, “[like] foreigners that I do not recognize.” Perhaps the form should be read as a Qal active participle, נֹכִים (nokhim, “ones who strike”) from the verbal root נָכָה (nakhah, “to strike”). The Qal of this verb is unattested in biblical Hebrew, but the peal (basic) stem appears in Old Aramaic (J. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire [BibOr], 114; DNWSI 1:730.) In this case one might translate, “attackers gathered together against me though I was not aware of it” (cf. NASB “smiters”; NEB, NRSV “ruffians”; NIV “attackers”).
  31. Psalm 35:15 tn Heb “they tore and did not keep quiet.” By using the verb “tear,” the psalmist likens his enemies to a wild animal (see Hos 13:8). In v. 17 he compares them to hungry young lions.
  32. Psalm 35:16 tc The MT reads “as profane [ones] of mockers of food,” which is difficult. The present translation assumes (1) an emendation of בְּחַנְפֵי (bekhanfe, “as profane men”) to בְּחַנְפִי (bekhanfi, “when I tripped”; preposition + Qal infinitive construct from II חָנַף [“limp”] + first common singular pronominal suffix) and (2) an emendation of לַעֲגֵי מָעוֹג (laʿage maʿog, “mockers of food”) to עָגוּ [ם]לַעְגָּ (laʿgam ʿagu, “[with] taunting they taunted”; masculine plural noun with enclitic mem + Qal perfect third common plural from לַּעַג [laʿag, “taunt”]).
  33. Psalm 35:16 tn Heb “gnashing at me with their teeth.” The infinitive absolute adds a complementary action—they gnashed with their teeth as they taunted.
  34. Psalm 35:17 tn Heb “bring back, restore.”
  35. Psalm 35:17 tn Or “my life.”
  36. Psalm 35:17 tn Heb “my only one.” The psalmist may mean that his life is precious, or that he feels isolated and alone (see Ps 22:20). The verb “guard” is supplied in the translation, because the verb “rescue” is understood by ellipsis (see the previous line).
  37. Psalm 35:18 sn The great assembly is also mentioned in Ps 22:25.
  38. Psalm 35:18 tn Heb “among numerous people.”
  39. Psalm 35:19 tn Heb “[with] a lie.” The Hebrew noun שֶׁקֶר (sheqer, “lie”) is used here as an adverb, “falsely, wrongfully” (see Ps 38:19).
  40. Psalm 35:19 tn Heb “rejoice.”
  41. Psalm 35:19 tn Heb “[do not let] those who hate me without cause pinch [i.e., wink] an eye.” The negative particle is understood in the second line by ellipsis (see the preceding line). In the Book of Proverbs “winking an eye” is associated with deceit and trickery (see 6:13; 10:10; 16:30).
  42. Psalm 35:20 tn Heb “for they do not speak peace.”
  43. Psalm 35:20 tn Heb “but against the quiet ones of the land words of deceit they plan.” The imperfect verbal forms in v. 20 highlight their characteristic behavior.
  44. Psalm 35:21 tn Heb “and they cause their mouth to be wide against me.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries on the generalizing mood of the previous verse. For other examples of this use of the prefixed verbal form with vav consecutive, see GKC 329 §111.t.
  45. Psalm 35:21 tn Heb “our eye sees.” Apparently this is an idiom meaning to “look in triumph” or “gloat over” (see Ps 54:7).
  46. Psalm 35:22 tn Heb “you see, O Lord.” There is a deliberate play on words. In v. 21 the enemies say, “our eye sees,” but the psalmist is confident that the Lord “sees” as well, so he appeals to him for help (see also v. 17).
  47. Psalm 35:23 sn Though he is confident that the Lord is aware of his situation (see v. 22a), the psalmist compares the Lord’s inactivity to sleep and urges him to wake up.
  48. Psalm 35:23 tn Heb “for my justice.”
  49. Psalm 35:23 tn Heb “for my cause.”
  50. Psalm 35:24 tn Heb “rejoice.”
  51. Psalm 35:25 tn Heb “in their heart[s].”
  52. Psalm 35:25 tn Heb “Aha! Our desire!” The “desire” of the psalmist’s enemies is to triumph over him.
  53. Psalm 35:26 tn Heb “may they be embarrassed and ashamed together, the ones who rejoice over my harm.”
  54. Psalm 35:26 tn Heb “may they be clothed with shame and humiliation, the ones who magnify [themselves] against me.” The prefixed verbal forms in v. 26 are understood as jussives (see vv. 24b-25, where the negative particle אַל (ʾal) appears before the prefixed verbal forms, indicating they are jussives). The psalmist is calling down judgment on his enemies.
  55. Psalm 35:27 tn The prefixed verbal forms in v. 27a are understood as jussives (see vv. 24b-26).
  56. Psalm 35:27 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, “may the Lord be magnified [in praise].” Another option is to take the verb as an imperfect, “the Lord is great.”
  57. Psalm 35:27 tn Heb “the one who desires the peace of his servant.”
  58. Psalm 35:28 tn Heb “and my tongue will proclaim your justice.”
  59. Psalm 35:28 tn Heb “all the day your praise.” The verb “proclaim” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the previous line).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 3 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Healing a Withered Hand

Then[a] Jesus[b] entered the synagogue[c] again, and a man was there who had a withered[d] hand. They watched[e] Jesus[f] closely to see if he would heal him on the Sabbath,[g] so that they could accuse him. So he said to the man who had the withered hand, “Stand up among all these people.”[h] Then[i] he said to them, “Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath, or evil, to save a life or destroy it?” But they were silent. After looking around[j] at them in anger, grieved by the hardness of their hearts,[k] he said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.” He stretched it out, and his hand was restored.[l] So[m] the Pharisees[n] went out immediately and began plotting with the Herodians,[o] as to how they could assassinate[p] him.

Crowds by the Sea

Then[q] Jesus went away with his disciples to the sea, and a great multitude from Galilee followed him.[r] And from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan River,[s] and around Tyre and Sidon[t] a great multitude came to him when they heard about the things he had done. Because of the crowd, he told his disciples to have a small boat[u] ready for him so the crowd[v] would not press toward him. 10 For he had healed many, so that all who were afflicted with diseases pressed toward him in order to touch him. 11 And whenever the unclean spirits[w] saw him, they fell down before him and cried out, “You are the Son of God.” 12 But[x] he sternly ordered them not to make him known.[y]

Appointing the Twelve Apostles

13 Now[z] Jesus went up the mountain[aa] and called for those he wanted, and they came to him. 14 He[ab] appointed twelve[ac] so that they would be with him and he could send them to preach 15 and to have authority to cast out demons. 16 [ad] To Simon[ae] he gave the name Peter; 17 to James and his brother John, the sons of Zebedee,[af] he gave the name Boanerges (that is, “sons of thunder”); 18 and Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew,[ag] Matthew, Thomas,[ah] James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus,[ai] Simon the Zealot,[aj] 19 and Judas Iscariot,[ak] who betrayed him.[al]

Jesus and Beelzebul

20 Now[am] Jesus[an] went home, and a crowd gathered so that they were not able to eat. 21 When his family[ao] heard this they went out to restrain him, for they said, “He is out of his mind.” 22 The experts in the law[ap] who came down from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Beelzebul,”[aq] and, “By the ruler[ar] of demons he casts out demons!” 23 So[as] he called them and spoke to them in parables:[at] “How can Satan cast out Satan? 24 If[au] a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom will not be able to stand. 25 If a house is divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand. 26 And if Satan rises against himself and is divided, he is not able to stand and his end has come. 27 But no one is able to enter a strong man’s[av] house and steal his property unless he first ties up the strong man. Then he can thoroughly plunder his house.[aw] 28 I tell you the truth,[ax] people will be forgiven for all sins, even all the blasphemies they utter.[ay] 29 But whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven, but is guilty of an eternal sin”[az] 30 (because they said, “He has an unclean spirit”[ba]).

Jesus’ True Family

31 Then[bb] Jesus’[bc] mother and his brothers[bd] came. Standing[be] outside, they sent word to him, to summon him. 32 A crowd was sitting around him and they said to him, “Look, your mother and your brothers[bf] are outside looking for you.” 33 He answered them and said, “Who are my mother and my brothers?”[bg] 34 And looking at those who were sitting around him in a circle, he said, “Here[bh] are my mother and my brothers! 35 For whoever does the will of God is[bi] my brother and sister and mother.”


  1. Mark 3:1 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  2. Mark 3:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Mark 3:1 sn See the note on synagogue in 1:21.
  4. Mark 3:1 sn Withered means the man’s hand was shrunken and paralyzed.
  5. Mark 3:2 sn The term translated watched…closely is emotive, since it carries negative connotations. It means they were watching him out of the corner of their eye or spying on him.
  6. Mark 3:2 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  7. Mark 3:2 sn The background for this is the view that only if life was endangered should one attempt to heal on the Sabbath (see the Mishnah, m. Shabbat 6.3; 12.1; 18.3; 19.2; m. Yoma 8.6).
  8. Mark 3:3 tn Grk “Stand up in the middle.”sn Most likely synagogues were arranged with benches along the walls and open space in the center for seating on the floor.
  9. Mark 3:4 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  10. Mark 3:5 tn The aorist participle περιβλεψάμενος (periblepsamenos) has been translated as antecedent (prior) to the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as contemporaneous (“Looking around…he said”).
  11. Mark 3:5 tn This term is a collective singular in the Greek text.
  12. Mark 3:5 sn The passive was restored points to healing by God. Now the question became: Would God exercise his power through Jesus, if what Jesus was doing were wrong? Note also Jesus’ “labor.” He simply spoke and it was so.
  13. Mark 3:6 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  14. Mark 3:6 sn See the note on Pharisees in 2:16.
  15. Mark 3:6 tn Grk inserts “against him” after “Herodians.” This is somewhat redundant in English and has not been translated.sn The Herodians are mentioned in the NT only once in Matt (22:16 = Mark 12:13) and twice in Mark (3:6; 12:13; some mss also read “Herodians” instead of “Herod” in Mark 8:15). It is generally assumed that as a group the Herodians were Jewish supporters of the Herodian dynasty (or of Herod Antipas in particular). In every instance they are linked with the Pharisees. This probably reflects agreement regarding political objectives (nationalism as opposed to submission to the yoke of Roman oppression) rather than philosophy or religious beliefs.
  16. Mark 3:6 tn Grk “destroy.”
  17. Mark 3:7 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Mark 3:7 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  19. Mark 3:8 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. The region referred to here is sometimes known as Transjordan (i.e., “across the Jordan”).
  20. Mark 3:8 sn These last two locations, Tyre and Sidon, represented an expansion outside of traditional Jewish territory. Jesus’ reputation continued to expand into new regions.
  21. Mark 3:9 sn See the note at Mark 1:19 for a description of the first-century fishing boat discovered in 1986 near Tiberias on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
  22. Mark 3:9 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. Mark 3:11 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.
  24. Mark 3:12 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  25. Mark 3:12 sn Jesus did not permit the demons to make him known because the time for such disclosure was not yet at hand, and such a revelation would have certainly been misunderstood by the people. In all likelihood, if the people had understood him early on to be the Son of God, or Messiah, they would have reduced his mission to one of political deliverance from Roman oppression (cf. John 6:15). Jesus wanted to avoid, as much as possible, any premature misunderstanding about who he was and what he was doing. However, at the end of his ministry, he did not deny such a title when the high priest asked him (14:61-62).
  26. Mark 3:13 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  27. Mark 3:13 tn Or “up a mountain” (εἰς τὸ ὅρος, eis to horos).sn The expression up the mountain here may be idiomatic or generic, much like the English “he went to the hospital” (cf. 15:29), or even intentionally reminiscent of Exod 24:12 (LXX), since the genre of the Sermon on the Mount seems to be that of a new Moses giving a new law.
  28. Mark 3:14 tn Grk “And he.”
  29. Mark 3:14 tc The phrase “whom he named apostles” is lacking in the majority of mss (A C2 D L ƒ1 33 565 579 1241 1424 M latt sy; SBL). Several primary Alexandrian and other key witnesses (א B C* W Δ Θ ƒ13 28 co) include the phrase, rendering the external evidence strongly in favor of this reading. It is possible that the Alexandrian witnesses have inserted these words to bring the text in line with Luke 6:13 (TCGNT 69), but against this is the internal evidence of Mark’s style: Mark tends toward gratuitous redundancy. However, significant Western and Byzantine mss along with other authorities lack the clause, which is against the Byzantine tendencies. The key issue, however, is that both the wording of the clause and its location in the verse varies significantly among the witnesses, which suggests that it was indeed borrowed from the Lukan parallel. The NA28 puts the words in brackets indicating doubts about their authenticity.
  30. Mark 3:16 tc The phrase “he appointed twelve” at the beginning of v. 16 is lacking in the majority of mss (A C2 D L Θ ƒ1 33 700 1241 1424 M lat sy bo), including several key witnesses. Some significant authorities include the phrase (א B C* Δ 565 579 pc). The omission may have been caused by haplography in combination with homoioarcton: The first word of the clause in question is καί (kai), and the first word after the clause in question is also καί. And the first two letters of the second word, in each instance, are επ (ep). Early scribes may have jumped accidentally from the first καί to the second, omitting the intervening material. Metzger suggests that “the clause seems to be needed in order to pick up the thread of ver. 14 after the parenthesis ἵναδαιμόνια” (TCGNT 69). This seems to be a stretch. Further, the external evidence in favor of the words is not as compelling as it could be (the addition of “whom he named apostles” in 3:14 actually has stronger evidence, yet we considered it spurious). A decision is difficult but the shorter reading is preferred. NA28 puts the words in brackets.
  31. Mark 3:16 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Simon (that is, Peter) is always mentioned first (see also Matt 10:1-4; Luke 6:13-16; Acts 1:13) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.
  32. Mark 3:17 tn Grk “to James, the son of Zebedee, and John, the brother of James.”
  33. Mark 3:18 sn Bartholomew (meaning “son of Tolmai” in Aramaic) could be another name for Nathanael mentioned in John 1:45.
  34. Mark 3:18 sn This is the “doubting Thomas” of John 20:24-29.
  35. Mark 3:18 tc This disciple is called Λεββαῖον (Lebbaion, “Lebbaeus”) in D it; see the discussion of the parallel text in Matt 10:3 where conflation occurs among other witnesses as well.
  36. Mark 3:18 tn Grk “the Cananean,” but according to both BDAG 507 s.v. Καναναῖος and L&N 11.88, this term has no relation at all to the geographical terms for Cana or Canaan, but is derived from the Aramaic term for “enthusiast, zealot” (see Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), possibly because of an earlier affiliation with the party of the Zealots. He may not have been technically a member of the particular Jewish nationalistic party known as “Zealots” (since according to some scholars this party had not been organized at that time), but simply someone who was zealous for Jewish independence from Rome, in which case the term would refer to his temperament.
  37. Mark 3:19 sn There is some debate about what the name Iscariot means. It probably alludes to a region in Judea and thus might make Judas the only non-Galilean in the group. Several explanations for the name Iscariot have been proposed, but it is probably transliterated Hebrew with the meaning “man of Kerioth” (there are at least two villages that had that name). For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 1:546; also D. A. Carson, John, 304.
  38. Mark 3:19 tn Grk “who even betrayed him.”
  39. Mark 3:20 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  40. Mark 3:20 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  41. Mark 3:21 tc Western witnesses D W it, instead of reading οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ (hoi parautou, here translated “family”), have περὶ αὐτοῦ οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ λοιποί (peri autou hoi grammateis kai hoi loipoi, “[when] the scribes and others [heard] about him”). But this reading is obviously motivated, for it removes the embarrassing statement about Jesus’ family’s opinion of him as “out of his mind” and transfers this view to the Lord’s opponents. The fact that virtually all other witnesses have οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ here, coupled with the strong internal evidence for the shorter reading, shows this Western reading to be secondary.tn On the meaning “family” for οἱ παρ᾿ αὐτοῦ (hoi parautou), see BDAG 756-57 s.v. παρά A.3.b.β.ב.sn The incident involving the religious leaders accusing Jesus of being in league with the devil (3:22-30) is sandwiched between Mark’s mention of Jesus’ family coming to restrain him (the Greek word for restrain here is also used to mean arrest; see Mark 6:17; 12:12; 14:1, 44, 46, 49, 51) because they thought he was out of his mind (3:21). It is probably Mark’s intention in this structure to show that Jesus’ family is to be regarded as not altogether unlike the experts in the law [scribes] in their perception of the true identity of Jesus; they are incorrect in their understanding of him as well. The tone is obviously one of sadness and the emphasis on Jesus’ true family in vv. 31-35 serves to underscore the comparison between his relatives and the scribes on the one hand, and those who truly obey God on the other.
  42. Mark 3:22 tn Or “The scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  43. Mark 3:22 tn Grk “He has Beelzebul.”sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people, particularly here the experts in the law, recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical.
  44. Mark 3:22 tn Or “prince.”
  45. Mark 3:23 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  46. Mark 3:23 sn Jesus spoke two parables to demonstrate the absurdity of the thinking of the religious leaders who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. The first parable (vv. 23-26) teaches that if Jesus cast out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. The second parable (v. 27) about tying up a strong man proves that Jesus does not need to align himself with the devil because Jesus is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (1:12-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan (a position for which they will be held accountable, 3:29-30). For an explanation of what a parable is, see the note on parables in 4:2.
  47. Mark 3:24 sn The three conditional statements in vv. 24-26 express the logical result of the assumption that Jesus heals by Satan’s power, expressed by the religious leaders. The point is clear: If the leaders are correct, then Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal.
  48. Mark 3:27 sn The strong man here pictures Satan.
  49. Mark 3:27 sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming.
  50. Mark 3:28 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  51. Mark 3:28 tn Grk “all the sins and blasphemies they may speak will be forgiven the sons of men.”
  52. Mark 3:29 sn Is guilty of an eternal sin. This passage has troubled many people, who have wondered whether or not they have committed this eternal sin. Three things must be kept in mind: (1) the nature of the sin is to ascribe what is the obvious work of the Holy Spirit (e.g., releasing people from Satan’s power) to Satan himself; (2) it is not simply a momentary doubt or sinful attitude, but is indeed a settled condition which opposes the Spirit’s work, as typified by the religious leaders who opposed Jesus; and (3) a person who is concerned about it has probably never committed this sin, for those who commit it here (i.e., the religious leaders) are not in the least concerned about Jesus’ warning. On this last point see W. W. Wessel, “Mark,” EBC 8:645-46.
  53. Mark 3:30 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.
  54. Mark 3:31 tn Grk “And.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  55. Mark 3:31 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  56. Mark 3:31 sn The issue of whether Jesus had brothers (siblings) has had a long history in the church. Epiphanius, in the 4th century, argued that Mary was a perpetual virgin and had no offspring other than Jesus. Others argued that these brothers were really cousins. Nothing in the text suggests any of this. See also John 7:3.
  57. Mark 3:31 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  58. Mark 3:32 tc ‡ Many mss read “and your sisters” here after “your brothers” (A D Γ 700 pm it). However, the pedigree of several of the mss which lack this phrase is considerable (א B C K L W Δ Θ ƒ1,13 28 33 565 892 1241 1424 2542 pm lat sy). It seems likely that this phrase was added by an early Western scribe to harmonize this statement with Jesus’ response in v. 35. NA27 has the words in brackets, indicating some doubt as to their authenticity.
  59. Mark 3:33 tn Grk “Who is my mother and my brothers?” The use of the singular verb ἐστιν (estin) here singles out Mary above Jesus’ brothers, giving her special prominence (see ExSyn 401-2). This is slightly unnatural in English since the predicate nominative is plural, though, so a plural verb was used in the translation.
  60. Mark 3:34 tn Grk “Behold my mother and my brothers.”
  61. Mark 3:35 tn The pleonastic pronoun οὗτος (houtos, “this one”) which precedes this verb has not been translated.
New English Translation (NET)

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