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1 Chronicles 18 New English Translation (NET Bible)

David Conquers the Neighboring Nations

18 Later David defeated the Philistines and subdued them. He took Gath and its surrounding towns[a] away from the Philistines.[b]

He defeated the Moabites; the Moabites became David’s subjects and brought tribute.[c]

David defeated King Hadadezer of Zobah as far as Hamath, when he went to extend his authority[d] to the Euphrates River.[e] David seized from him 1,000 chariots, 7,000 charioteers,[f] and 20,000 infantrymen . David cut the hamstrings of all but 100 of Hadadezer’s[g] chariot horses.[h] The Arameans of Damascus came to help King Hadadezer of Zobah, but David killed 22,000 of the Arameans. David placed garrisons in the territory of the Arameans of Damascus;[i] the Arameans became David’s subjects and brought tribute. The Lord protected[j] David wherever he campaigned.[k] David took the golden shields which Hadadezer’s servants had carried[l] and brought them to Jerusalem. From Tibhath[m] and Kun,[n] Hadadezer’s cities, David took a great deal of bronze. (Solomon used it to make the big bronze basin called “The Sea,”[o] the pillars, and other bronze items.)

When King Tou[p] of Hamath heard that David had defeated the entire army of King Hadadezer of Zobah, 10 he sent his son Hadoram[q] to King David to extend his best wishes[r] and to pronounce a blessing on him for his victory over Hadadezer, for Tou had been at war with Hadadezer.[s] He also sent various items made of gold, silver, and bronze.[t] 11 King David dedicated these things to the Lord,[u] along with the silver and gold which he had carried off from all the nations, including[v] Edom,[w] Moab, the Ammonites, the Philistines, and Amalek.

12 Abishai son of Zeruiah[x] killed 18,000 Edomites in the Valley of Salt. 13 He placed garrisons in Edom, and all the Edomites became David’s subjects. The Lord protected[y] David wherever he campaigned.[z]

David’s Officials

14 David reigned over all Israel; he guaranteed justice for all his people.[aa] 15 Joab son of Zeruiah was commanding general of[ab] the army; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud was secretary; 16 Zadok son of Ahitub and Abimelech son of Abiathar were priests; Shavsha[ac] was scribe; 17 Benaiah son of Jehoiada supervised[ad] the Kerethites and Pelethites; and David’s sons were the king’s leading officials.[ae]


  1. 1 Chronicles 18:1 tn 2 Sam 8:1 identifies this region as “Metheg Ammah.”
  2. 1 Chronicles 18:1 tn Heb “from the hand of the Philistines.” Here “hand” is figurative language for “control.”
  3. 1 Chronicles 18:2 tn Heb “carriers of tribute,” i.e., tribute payers.
  4. 1 Chronicles 18:3 tn Heb “hand.”
  5. 1 Chronicles 18:3 tn Heb “when he went to set up his hand at the Euphrates River.” The Hebrew word יָד (yad, “hand”) is usually understood to mean “control” or “dominion” here. However, since יָד does occasionally refer to a monument, perhaps one could translate, “to set up his monument at the Euphrates River” (i.e., as a visible marker of the limits of his dominion). For another example of the Hiphil of נָצַב (natsav) used with יָד (“monument”), see 1 Sam 15:12.
  6. 1 Chronicles 18:4 tn Or “horsemen.”
  7. 1 Chronicles 18:4 tn Heb “his”; the referent (Hadadezer) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  8. 1 Chronicles 18:4 tn Heb “and David cut the hamstrings of all the chariot horses, and he left from them one hundred chariot horses.”
  9. 1 Chronicles 18:6 tc Heb “and David placed in Aram of Damascus.” The object נְצִיבִים (netsivim, “garrisons”) appears to have been accidentally omitted from the text. See v. 13, as well as the parallel passage in 2 Sam 8:6, which includes it.
  10. 1 Chronicles 18:6 tn Or “delivered.”
  11. 1 Chronicles 18:6 tn Or “wherever he went.”
  12. 1 Chronicles 18:7 tn Heb “which were upon the servants of Hadadezer.”
  13. 1 Chronicles 18:8 tn The MT reads “Tibhath” here, a variant name for Tebah (cf. 2 Sam 8:8). Some English translations substitute the other version of the name here (e.g., NIV, NLT), while others follow the reading of the Hebrew text at this point (e.g., NAB, NASB, NRSV).
  14. 1 Chronicles 18:8 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:8 has the variant name “Berothai.”
  15. 1 Chronicles 18:8 tn Heb “the sea of bronze,” or “[the] sea, the bronze one.” See the note at 1 Kgs 7:23.
  16. 1 Chronicles 18:9 tn The name is spelled “Toi” in the parallel text in 2 Sam 8:9.
  17. 1 Chronicles 18:10 tn The name is spelled “Joram” in the parallel text in 2 Sam 8:10.
  18. 1 Chronicles 18:10 tn Heb “to ask concerning him for peace.”
  19. 1 Chronicles 18:10 tn Heb “and to bless him because he fought with Hadadezer and defeated him, for Hadadezer was a man of battles with Tou.”
  20. 1 Chronicles 18:10 tn Heb “[along with] all items of gold and silver and bronze.”
  21. 1 Chronicles 18:11 tn Heb “also them King David made holy to the Lord.”
  22. 1 Chronicles 18:11 tn Heb “from.”
  23. 1 Chronicles 18:11 tc The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:12 of the MT reads “Aram.” However, a few Hebrew mss along with the LXX and Syriac of 2 Sam 8:12 read “Edom” in agreement with 1 Chr 18:11 (cf. 2 Sam 8:14).
  24. 1 Chronicles 18:12 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:13 attributes this victory to David.
  25. 1 Chronicles 18:13 tn Or “delivered.”
  26. 1 Chronicles 18:13 tn Or “wherever he went.”
  27. 1 Chronicles 18:14 tn Heb “and he was doing what is just and fair for all his people.”
  28. 1 Chronicles 18:15 tn Heb “over.”
  29. 1 Chronicles 18:16 tn The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:17 has the variant spelling “Seraiah.”
  30. 1 Chronicles 18:17 tn Heb “[was] over.”
  31. 1 Chronicles 18:17 tn Heb “and the sons of David [were] the first ones at the hand of David.” The parallel text of 2 Sam 8:18 identifies them as “priests” (see sn there on the word “priests”).
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 47 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 47[a]

For the music director, by the Korahites; a psalm.

47 All you nations, clap your hands.
Shout out to God in celebration.[b]
For the Lord Most High[c] is awe-inspiring;[d]
he is the great king who rules the whole earth![e]
He subdued nations beneath us[f]
and countries[g] under our feet.
He picked out for us a special land[h]
to be a source of pride for[i] Jacob,[j] whom he loves.[k] (Selah)
God has ascended his throne[l] amid loud shouts;[m]
the Lord has ascended amid the blaring of ram’s horns.[n]
Sing to God! Sing!
Sing to our king! Sing!
For God is king of the whole earth.
Sing a well-written song.[o]
God reigns[p] over the nations.
God sits on his holy throne.
The nobles of the nations assemble,
along with the people of the God of Abraham,[q]
for God has authority over the rulers[r] of the earth.
He is highly exalted.[s]


  1. Psalm 47:1 sn Psalm 47. In this hymn the covenant community praises the Lord as the exalted king of the earth who has given them victory over the nations and a land in which to live.
  2. Psalm 47:1 tn Heb “Shout to God with [the] sound of a ringing cry!”
  3. Psalm 47:2 sn The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן, ʿelyon) pictures the Lord as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked.
  4. Psalm 47:2 tn Or “awesome.” The Niphal participle נוֹרָא (noraʾ), when used of God in the psalms, focuses on the effect that his royal splendor and powerful deeds have on those witnessing his acts (Pss 66:3, 5; 68:35; 76:7, 12; 89:7; 96:4; 99:3; 111:9). Here it refers to his capacity to fill his defeated foes with terror and his people with fearful respect.
  5. Psalm 47:2 tn Heb “a great king over all the earth.”
  6. Psalm 47:3 tn On the meaning of the verb דָּבַר (davar, “subdue”), a homonym of דָּבַר (“speak”), see HALOT 209-10 s.v. I דבר. See also Ps 18:47 and 2 Chr 22:10. The preterite form of the verb suggests this is an historical reference and the next verse, which mentions the gift of the land, indicates that the conquest under Joshua is in view.
  7. Psalm 47:3 tn Or “peoples” (see Pss 2:1; 7:7; 9:8; 44:2).
  8. Psalm 47:4 tn Heb “he chose for us our inheritance.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite (see “subdued” in v. 3).
  9. Psalm 47:4 tn Heb “the pride of.” The phrase is appositional to “our inheritance,” indicating that the land is here described as a source of pride to God’s people.
  10. Psalm 47:4 tn That is, Israel.
  11. Psalm 47:4 sn Jacob whom he loves. The Lord’s covenantal devotion to his people is in view.
  12. Psalm 47:5 sn God ascended his throne. In the context of vv. 3-4, which refer to the conquest of the land under Joshua, v. 5 is best understood as referring to an historical event. When the Lord conquered the land and placed his people in it, he assumed a position of kingship, as predicted by Moses (see Exod 15:17-18, as well as Ps 114:1-2). That event is here described metaphorically in terms of a typical coronation ceremony for an earthly king (see 2 Sam 15:10; 2 Kgs 9:13). Verses 1-2, 8-9 focus on God’s continuing kingship, which extends over all nations.
  13. Psalm 47:5 tn Heb “God ascended amid a shout.” The words “his throne” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The Lord’s coronation as king is described here (see v. 8). Here the perfect probably has a present perfect function, indicating a completed action with continuing effects.
  14. Psalm 47:5 tn Heb “the Lord amid the sound of the ram horn.” The verb “ascended” is understood by ellipsis; see the preceding line.
  15. Psalm 47:7 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term also occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142. Here, in a context of celebration, the meaning “skillful, well-written” would fit particularly well.
  16. Psalm 47:8 tn When a new king was enthroned, his followers would acclaim him king using this enthronement formula (Qal perfect 3ms מָלַךְ, malakh, “to reign,” followed by the name of the king). See 2 Sam 15:10; 1 Kgs 1:11, 13, 18; 2 Kgs 9:13, as well as Isa 52:7. In this context the perfect verbal form is generalizing, but the declaration logically follows the historical reference in v. 5 to the Lord’s having ascended his throne.
  17. Psalm 47:9 tc The words “along with” do not appear in the MT. However, the LXX has “with,” suggesting that the original text may have read עִם עַם (ʿim ʿam, “along with the people”). In this case the MT is haplographic, having dropped one set of עם (ʿayin-mem). Another option is that the LXX is simply and correctly interpreting “people” as an adverbial accusative and supplying the appropriate preposition.
  18. Psalm 47:9 tn Heb “for to God [belong] the shields of the earth.” Perhaps the rulers are called “shields” because they are responsible for protecting their people. See Ps 84:9, where the Davidic king is called “our shield,” and perhaps also Hos 4:18.
  19. Psalm 47:9 tn The verb עָלָה (ʿalah, “ascend”) appears once more (see v. 5), though now in the Niphal stem.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Mark 14:32-72 New English Translation (NET Bible)


32 Then[a] they went to a place called Gethsemane, and Jesus[b] said to his disciples, “Sit here while I pray.” 33 He took Peter, James,[c] and John with him, and became very troubled and distressed. 34 He said to them, “My soul is deeply grieved, even to the point of death. Remain here and stay alert.” 35 Going a little farther, he threw himself to the ground and prayed that if it were possible the hour would pass from him. 36 He said, “Abba,[d] Father, all things are possible for you. Take this cup[e] away from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.” 37 Then[f] he came and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “Simon, are you sleeping? Couldn’t you stay awake for one hour? 38 Stay awake and pray that you will not fall into temptation. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 39 He went away again and prayed the same thing. 40 When he came again he found them sleeping; they could not keep their eyes open.[g] And they did not know what to tell him. 41 He came a third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting?[h] Enough of that![i] The hour has come. Look, the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. 42 Get up, let us go. Look! My betrayer[j] is approaching!”

Betrayal and Arrest

43 Right away, while Jesus[k] was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, arrived.[l] With him came a crowd armed with swords and clubs, sent by the chief priests and experts in the law[m] and elders. 44 (Now the betrayer[n] had given them a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the man. Arrest him and lead him away under guard.”)[o] 45 When Judas[p] arrived, he went up to Jesus[q] immediately and said, “Rabbi!” and kissed[r] him. 46 Then they took hold of him[s] and arrested him. 47 One of the bystanders drew his sword and struck the high priest’s slave,[t] cutting off his ear. 48 Jesus said to them, “Have you come with swords and clubs to arrest me like you would an outlaw?[u] 49 Day after day I was with you, teaching in the temple courts, yet[v] you did not arrest me. But this has happened so that[w] the scriptures would be fulfilled.” 50 Then[x] all the disciples[y] left him and fled. 51 A young man was following him, wearing only a linen cloth. They tried to arrest him, 52 but he ran off naked,[z] leaving his linen cloth behind.

Condemned by the Sanhedrin

53 Then[aa] they led Jesus to the high priest, and all the chief priests and elders and experts in the law[ab] came together. 54 And Peter had followed him from a distance, up to the high priest’s courtyard. He[ac] was sitting with the guards[ad] and warming himself by the fire. 55 The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find anything. 56 Many gave false testimony against him, but their testimony did not agree. 57 Some stood up and gave this false testimony against him:[ae] 58 “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands and in three days build another not made with hands.’” 59 Yet even on this point their testimony did not agree. 60 Then[af] the high priest stood up before them[ag] and asked Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is this that they are testifying against you?” 61 But he was silent and did not answer. Again the high priest questioned him,[ah] “Are you the Christ,[ai] the Son of the Blessed One?” 62 “I am,” said Jesus, “and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand[aj] of the Power[ak] and coming with the clouds of heaven.”[al] 63 Then the high priest tore his clothes and said, “Why do we still need witnesses? 64 You have heard the blasphemy! What is your verdict?”[am] They all condemned him as deserving death. 65 Then[an] some began to spit on him, and to blindfold him, and to strike him with their fists, saying, “Prophesy!” The guards also took him and beat[ao] him.

Peter’s Denials

66 Now[ap] while Peter was below in the courtyard, one of the high priest’s slave girls[aq] came by. 67 When she saw Peter warming himself, she looked directly at him and said, “You also were with that Nazarene, Jesus.” 68 But he denied it:[ar] “I don’t even understand what you’re talking about!”[as] Then[at] he went out to the gateway, and a rooster crowed.[au] 69 When the slave girl saw him, she began again to say to the bystanders, “This man is one of them.” 70 But he denied it again. A short time later the bystanders again said to Peter, “You must be[av] one of them, because you are also a Galilean.” 71 Then he began to curse, and he swore with an oath, “I do not know this man you are talking about!” 72 Immediately a rooster[aw] crowed a second time. Then[ax] Peter remembered what Jesus had said to him: “Before a rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times.” And he broke down and wept.[ay]


  1. Mark 14:32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  2. Mark 14:32 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Mark 14:33 tn Grk “and James,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
  4. Mark 14:36 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father.” Jesus used the term as a sign of his intimate relationship with God.sn This Aramaic word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated “father.” It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in English. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, “abbot.” Over the past fifty years a lot has been written about this term and Jesus’ use of it. Joachim Jeremias argued that Jesus routinely addressed God using this Aramaic word, and he also noted this was a “child’s word,” leading many to conclude its modern equivalent was “Daddy.” This conclusion Jeremias soon modified (the term on occasion is used of an adult son addressing his father) but the simplistic equation of abba with “Daddy” is still heard in some circles today. Nevertheless, the term does express a high degree of closeness with reverence, and in addition to the family circle could be used by disciples of a much loved and revered teacher.
  5. Mark 14:36 sn This cup alludes to the wrath of God that Jesus would experience (in the form of suffering and death) for us. See Pss 11:6; 75:8-9; Isa 51:17, 19, 22 for this figure.
  6. Mark 14:37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  7. Mark 14:40 tn Grk “because their eyes were weighed down,” an idiom for becoming extremely or excessively sleepy (L&N 23.69).
  8. Mark 14:41 tn Or “Sleep on, and get your rest.” This sentence can be taken either as a question or a sarcastic command.
  9. Mark 14:41 tc Codex D (with some support with minor variation from W Θ ƒ13 565 2542 it) reads, “Enough of that! It is the end and the hour has come.” Evidently, this addition highlights Jesus’ assertion that what he had predicted about his own death was now coming true (cf. Luke 22:37). Even though the addition highlights the accuracy of Jesus’ prediction, it should not be regarded as part of the text of Mark, since it receives little support from the rest of the witnesses and because D especially is prone to expand the wording of a text.
  10. Mark 14:42 tn Grk “the one who betrays me.”
  11. Mark 14:43 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  12. Mark 14:43 tn Or “approached.” This is a different verb than the one translated “arrived” in Matt 26:47 and below in v. 45, although in this context the meanings probably overlap.
  13. Mark 14:43 tn Or “from the chief priests, scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  14. Mark 14:44 tn Grk “the one who betrays him.”
  15. Mark 14:44 sn This remark is parenthetical within the narrative and has thus been placed in parentheses.
  16. Mark 14:45 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Judas) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  17. Mark 14:45 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  18. Mark 14:45 sn Judas’ act of betrayal when he kissed Jesus is especially sinister when it is realized that it was common in the culture of the times for a disciple to kiss his master when greeting him.
  19. Mark 14:46 tn Grk “put their hands on him.”
  20. Mark 14:47 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 10:44.
  21. Mark 14:48 tn Or “a revolutionary.” This term can refer to one who stirs up rebellion: BDAG 594 s.v. λῃστής 2 has “revolutionary, insurrectionist,” citing evidence from Josephus (J. W. 2.13.2-3 [2.253-254]). However, this usage generally postdates Jesus’ time. It does refer to a figure of violence. Luke uses the same term for the highwaymen who attack the traveler in the parable of the good Samaritan (Luke 10:30).
  22. Mark 14:49 tn Grk “and”; καί (kai) is elastic enough to be used contrastively on occasion, as here.
  23. Mark 14:49 tn Grk “But so that”; the verb “has happened” is implied.
  24. Mark 14:50 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  25. Mark 14:50 tn Grk “they”; the referent (Jesus’ disciples) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  26. Mark 14:52 sn The statement he ran off naked is probably a reference to Mark himself, traditionally assumed to be the author of this Gospel. Why he was wearing only an outer garment and not the customary tunic as well is not mentioned. W. L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 527-28, says that Mark probably mentioned this episode so as to make it clear that “all fled, leaving Jesus alone in the custody of the police.”
  27. Mark 14:53 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  28. Mark 14:53 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  29. Mark 14:54 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  30. Mark 14:54 sn The guards would have been the guards of the chief priests who had accompanied Judas to arrest Jesus.
  31. Mark 14:57 tn Grk “Some standing up gave false testimony against him, saying.”
  32. Mark 14:60 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  33. Mark 14:60 tn Grk “in the middle.”
  34. Mark 14:61 tn Grk “questioned him and said to him.”
  35. Mark 14:61 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
  36. Mark 14:62 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1. This is a claim that Jesus shares authority with God in heaven. Those present may have thought they were his judges, but, in fact, the reverse was true.
  37. Mark 14:62 sn The expression the right hand of the Power is a circumlocution for referring to God. Such indirect references to God were common in 1st century Judaism out of reverence for the divine name.
  38. Mark 14:62 sn An allusion to Dan 7:13.
  39. Mark 14:64 tn Grk “What do you think?”
  40. Mark 14:65 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  41. Mark 14:65 tn For the translation of ῥάπισμα (rhapisma), see L&N 19.4.
  42. Mark 14:66 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  43. Mark 14:66 tn The Greek term here is παιδίσκη (paidiskē), referring to a slave girl or slave woman.
  44. Mark 14:68 tn Grk “he denied it, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
  45. Mark 14:68 tn Grk “I do not know or understand what you are saying.” In the translation this is taken as a hendiadys (a figure of speech where two terms express a single meaning, usually for emphatic reasons).
  46. Mark 14:68 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  47. Mark 14:68 tc Several significant witnesses (א B L W Ψ* 579 892) lack the words “and a rooster crowed.” The fact that such good and early Alexandrian witnesses lack these words makes this textual problem difficult to decide, especially because the words receive support from other witnesses, some of which are fairly decent (A C D Θ Ψc 067 ƒ1,13 33 [1424] M lat). The omission could have been intentional on the part of some Alexandrian scribes who wished to bring this text in line with the other Gospel accounts that only mention a rooster crowing once (Matt 26:74; Luke 22:60; John 18:27). The insertion could be an attempt to make the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy in 14:30 more explicit. Internally, the words “and a rooster crowed” fit Mark’s Gospel here, not only in view of 14:30, “before a rooster crows twice,” but also in view of the mention of “a second time” in 14:72 (a reading which is much more textually secure). Nevertheless, a decision is difficult.tn A real rooster crowing is probably in view here (rather than the Roman trumpet call known as gallicinium), in part due to the fact that Mark mentions the rooster crowing twice. See the discussion at Matt 26:74.
  48. Mark 14:70 tn Grk “Truly you are.”
  49. Mark 14:72 tn This occurrence of the word ἀλέκτωρ (alektōr, “rooster”) is anarthrous and consequently may not point back explicitly to the rooster which had crowed previously in v. 68. The reason for the anarthrous construction is most likely to indicate generically that some rooster crowed. Further, the translation of ἀλέκτωρ as an indefinite noun retains the subtlety of the Greek in only hinting at the Lord’s prediction v. 30. See also NAB, TEV, NASB.
  50. Mark 14:72 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  51. Mark 14:72 tn Grk “he wept deeply.”
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.


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