4:5lightning. God exhibits His power in a manner analogous to His self-revelation at Mount Sinai (Ex. 19:16–19) and other divine appearances (8:5; 11:19; 16:18; Ps. 18:11–15; Ezek. 1:4). He reminds the church of the power of His voice (1:10, 15 and notes) and the final shaking of creation still to come (11:19; 21:1; Heb. 12:25–27).
seven torches. See note 1:12; cf. Zech. 4:2, 6. The sevenfold light of the Holy Spirit is the original light of which the seven-branched lampstand of Ex. 25:31–40 was a copy. The similarities with 1:12 suggest that the seven churches, as a true temple of God, are to give out light reflecting the very presence of God through His Spirit.
seven spirits of God. The Holy Spirit (1:4 note).
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