1:1 Paul and Timothy. Timothy, present at the founding of the Philippian church (Acts 16), is known to the readers (2:22). Elsewhere Paul calls himself “an apostle” and Timothy “our brother” (2 Cor. 1:1; Col. 1:1).
servants. A “servant” is a slave (text note). Timothy is like a son to Paul (2:22), but both are under Christ the Lord.
in Christ Jesus. One of Paul’s favorite ways of describing the believer’s union with Christ. This phrase occurs ten times in Philippians.
overseers and deacons. These terms designate the twofold leadership in the church at Philippi (1 Tim. 3:1–13).