1:9Lord of hosts. This designation of God presents Him as a divine warrior (13:4; 30:27; 40:10; 42:13, 25; 59:17; 66:15, 16), the commander over all troops whether in heaven or on earth. Israel’s survival ultimately is not due to the enemy’s weakness, but to God’s sovereign power.
a few survivors. The Lord will not overturn His promise. Even in the midst of judgment He will preserve a remnant. Paul quotes this verse in Rom. 9:29, presenting the idea of a remnant taken out of a larger group as an expression of the electing grace of God. In Rom. 9:27 he quotes from Isaiah’s teaching about the remnant at 10:20–23. See also Is. 4:3; 7:3 and note; 11:11, 12, 16; 28:5; 37:31, 32; 46:3.
Sodom . . . Gomorrah. God’s people have become like the wicked inhabitants of Canaan, whose cities were destroyed (1:10; Gen. 18:20, 21; 19:24, 25). The fate of Sodom and Gomorrah typifies the terrible judgment of God on the kingdoms of this world (3:9; 13:19; Luke 17:28, 29; 2 Pet. 2:6–10; Jude 7; Rev. 11:8).
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