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10:22 Elam. See 14:1, 9; Is. 11:11; Ezra 4:9.
Asshur. An ancestor of the Assyrians. Though a mixed people (cf. v. 11), the Assyrians were predominantly Semitic.
Arpachshad. The third son of Shem and the first born after the Flood (11:10), he was the ancestor of many Semitic tribes, including the Hebrews (cf. Luke 3:36).
Lud. Cf. v. 13. Perhaps the Lydians of Asia Minor (Is. 66:19; Ezek. 27:10).
Aram. The patriarchs had close relations with the Arameans (see 25:20; 31:20; Deut. 26:5).