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17:16 A hand . . . the Lord. The Hebrew is difficult to translate and interpret (cf. text note). The central message is nevertheless clear: God gives Israel the victory, and the continuing warfare between Israel and Amalek is the Lord’s. On the historic enmity between Israel and Amalek, see Num. 24:20; Deut. 25:17; 1 Sam. 15:2–33; 27:8, 9; 30:1–20; 2 Sam. 8:11, 12; 1 Chr. 4:42, 43; Esth. 3:1 note.