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1:13 sealed. Like the indelible impression made by a king’s signet ring, the Holy Spirit is an inward mark of God’s ownership of His people. See “Salvation” at 2 Cor. 6:5.
the promised Holy Spirit. As Jesus says in Luke 24:49, the Holy Spirit is the promise of the Father. Remarkably, this promise is extended to Gentiles, as well as Jews, on the basis of their trusting Christ (Ezek. 36:26, 27; Joel 2:28; John 14–16; Acts 1:4, 5; 2:33, 38, 39; Gal. 3:14; 4:6).