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Reformation Study Bible – Amos 1:6
Amos 1:6

1:6 Gaza. The southernmost of the five Philistine royal cities, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza. Located between Egypt and Canaan, Gaza was a natural center for trade.

whole people. That is, an entire group of exiles (also v. 9). The Philistine trade included slaves. Prisoners of war usually became slaves, but here a whole population was sold into slavery. The apparent reference is to the capture and sale of Israelites during the reign of Jehoram (2 Chr. 21:16, 17; Joel 3:3, 6).

to Edom. This ancient brother of Israel (Gen. 25:30) received Israelites as slaves from the Philistines. For its role in this unbrotherly sin, Gaza, which stands for Philistia as a whole, is now sentenced.