1:4I will send a fire. This refrain in each of the messages is also found in Hosea (8:14) and Jeremiah (17:27; 21:14; 29:27; 50:32). Fire was widely understood in the ancient Near East to be an instrument of divine judgment. It was often used in warfare, and was considered one way that a god purged a rebellious people. This pagan understanding also reflects a truth revealed in Scripture: the true God will in fact judge by fire (2 Pet. 3:7 note).
Hazael. The king of Syria (c. 841–801 b.c.), whose reign was predicted by the prophet Elisha (2 Kin. 8:13).
strongholds. These seem to have been fortified citadel-palaces of the nobility.
Ben-hadad. This is a throne name, like “Pharaoh” in Egypt. Probably the third king with this name is meant. The first assisted Judah’s king Asa against Israel’s Baasha (1 Kin. 15:18–20). The second, Ben-hadad II, was assassinated by the usurper Hazael (2 Kin. 8:14, 15). Hazael’s son, Ben-hadad III, was contemporary with Jehoahaz of Israel (2 Kin. 13:25). It was he who made Israel’s army “like the dust at threshing” (2 Kin. 13:7).
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your free trial.
Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. You’re already logged in with your Bible Gateway account. The next step is to enter your payment information. Your credit card won’t be charged until the trial period is over. You can cancel anytime during the trial period.
Click the button below to continue.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your subscription.
You’ve already claimed your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus. To subscribe at our regular subscription rate of $3.99/month, click the button below.
Now that you've created a Bible Gateway account, upgrade to Bible Gateway Plus, the ultimate online Bible reading & study experience!
Bible Gateway Plus supercharges your account by greatly expanding your study library and reducing ads on Bible Gateway. It transforms Bible Gateway into your own personal Bible study toolkit! Try it free for 30 days to see how it transforms your Bible reading and understanding.