15:45living being . . . life-giving spirit. Paul clarifies his meaning by continuing the contrast between the first and the last Adam (vv. 21, 22 note). The Greek word translated “being” (psyche) is related to the word translated “natural” in v. 44 (psychikos), while the word “spirit” (pneuma) corresponds to “spiritual” (pneumatikos). The words “life-giving spirit” are most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit. Jesus and the Holy Spirit are not the same Person, but He and the Spirit are identified in terms of their presence and activity in the church. This identity, known to us because Jesus too is life-giving, is the fulfillment of Jesus’ role as Messiah and commenced with His resurrection and ascension. To be in Christ is to be in the Spirit also (6:11, 15, 19; 12:19). The association of Christ, the Holy Spirit, and life is apparent in Rom. 8:9–11 and 2 Cor. 3:6, 17, 18.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your free trial.
Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. You’re already logged in with your Bible Gateway account. The next step is to enter your payment information. Your credit card won’t be charged until the trial period is over. You can cancel anytime during the trial period.
Click the button below to continue.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your subscription.
You’ve already claimed your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus. To subscribe at our regular subscription rate of $3.99/month, click the button below.
Upgrade to remove banner ads and unlock new features!
You've successfully created your account! For the ultimate Bible Gateway experience, consider upgrading Bible Gateway Plus to get the most out of your new account. For just a few dollars each month, a Bible Gateway Plus upgrade gives you:
• A complete digital Bible study library integrated with your Bible Gateway account, with no expensive software to install.
• Access to 40+ study & reference books including the NIV Study Bible, the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, and the MacArthur Study Bible.
• Special during April only: full access to the NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible
• An ad-free Bible Gateway experience.
• A risk-free, 30-day trial—you can cancel any time.