For the last chapter and a half, John's vision has been more auditory than visual. Not since the bright angel of 18:1 has he focused on something about which he said, "I saw" (Greek eidon). Instead he has attended to voices and messages from heaven that he quotes verbatim, sometimes explicitly claiming, "I heard" (Greek ekousa, 18:4; 19:1, 6).
Now the visual aspect surfaces again. The account of the long-awaited battle between good and evil, as well as the millennium, the last judgment, and the new heaven and earth (19:11—21:8), is punctuated repeatedly by the expression I saw (19:11, 17, 19; 20:1, 4, 11, 12; 21:1, 2). The first three of these occurrences divide the battle story as follows: the mounted general and his armies (vv. 11-16), the invitation to birds of prey to feast upon the slain (vv. 17-18) and the battle itself (vv. 19-21). The invitation and the battle will be viewed together.
IVP New Testament Commentaries are made available by the generosity of InterVarsity Press.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your free trial.
Starting your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus is easy. You’re already logged in with your Bible Gateway account. The next step is to enter your payment information. Your credit card won’t be charged until the trial period is over. You can cancel anytime during the trial period.
Click the button below to continue.
Step 1 - Create an account or log in to start your subscription.
You’ve already claimed your free trial of Bible Gateway Plus. To subscribe at our regular subscription rate of $3.99/month, click the button below.
Upgrade to remove banner ads and unlock new features!
You've successfully created your account! For the ultimate Bible Gateway experience, consider upgrading Bible Gateway Plus to get the most out of your new account. For just a few dollars each month, a Bible Gateway Plus upgrade gives you:
• A complete digital Bible study library integrated with your Bible Gateway account, with no expensive software to install.
• Access to 40+ study & reference books including the NIV Study Bible, the Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary, and the MacArthur Study Bible.
• Special during April only: full access to the NIV Cultural Backgrounds Study Bible
• An ad-free Bible Gateway experience.
• A risk-free, 30-day trial—you can cancel any time.