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51 Thus says the Lord:
I am going to stir up a destructive wind[a]
    against Babylon
    and against the inhabitants of Leb-qamai,[b](A)
and I will send winnowers to Babylon,
    and they shall winnow her.
They shall empty her land
    when they come against her from every side
    on the day of trouble.(B)
Let not the archer bend his bow,
    and let him not array himself in his coat of mail.
Do not spare her young men;
    utterly destroy her entire army.(C)
They shall fall down slain in the land of the Chaldeans
    and wounded in her streets.
Indeed, Israel and Judah have not been forsaken
    by their God, the Lord of hosts,
though their land is full of guilt
    before the Holy One of Israel.(D)

Flee from the midst of Babylon;
    save your lives, each of you!
Do not perish because of her guilt,
    for this is the time of the Lord’s vengeance;
    he is repaying her what is due.(E)
Babylon was a golden cup in the Lord’s hand,
    making all the earth drunken;
the nations drank of her wine,
    and so the nations went mad.(F)
Suddenly Babylon has fallen and is shattered;
    wail for her!
Bring balm for her wound;
    perhaps she may be healed.(G)
We tried to heal Babylon,
    but she could not be healed.
Forsake her, and let each of us go
    to our own country,
for her judgment has reached up to heaven
    and has been lifted up even to the skies.(H)
10 The Lord has brought forth our vindication;
    come, let us declare in Zion
    the work of the Lord our God.(I)

11 Sharpen the arrows!
    Fill the quivers!

The Lord has stirred up the spirit of the kings of the Medes because his purpose concerning Babylon is to destroy it, for that is the vengeance of the Lord, vengeance for his temple.(J)

12 Raise a standard against the walls of Babylon;
    make the watch strong;
post sentinels;
    prepare the ambushes,
for the Lord has both planned and done
    what he spoke concerning the inhabitants of Babylon.(K)
13 You who live by mighty waters,
    rich in treasures,
your end has come;
    the thread of your life is cut.(L)
14 The Lord of hosts has sworn by himself:
Surely I will fill you with troops like a swarm of locusts,
    and they shall raise a shout of victory over you.(M)

15 It is he who made the earth by his power,
    who established the world by his wisdom
and by his understanding stretched out the heavens.(N)
16 When he utters his voice there is a tumult of waters in the heavens,
    and he makes the mist rise from the ends of the earth.
He makes lightnings for the rain,
    and he brings out the wind from his storehouses.(O)
17 Everyone is stupid and without knowledge;
    goldsmiths are all put to shame by their idols,
for their images are false,
    and there is no breath in them.(P)
18 They are worthless, a work of delusion;
    at the time of their punishment they shall perish.(Q)
19 Not like these is the portion of Jacob,
    for he is the one who formed all things,
and Israel is the tribe of his inheritance;
    the Lord of hosts is his name.(R)

Israel the Creator’s Instrument

20 You are my war club, my weapon of battle:
with you I smash nations;
    with you I destroy kingdoms;(S)
21 with you I smash the horse and its rider;
    with you I smash the chariot and the charioteer;
22 with you I smash man and woman;
    with you I smash the old man and the boy;
with you I smash the young man and the girl;(T)
23     with you I smash shepherds and their flocks;
with you I smash farmers and their teams;
    with you I smash governors and deputies.

The Doom of Babylon

24 I will repay Babylon and all the inhabitants of Chaldea before your very eyes for all the wrong that they have done in Zion, says the Lord.(U)

25 I am against you, O destroying mountain,
            says the Lord,
    that destroys the whole earth;
I will stretch out my hand against you
    and roll you down from the crags
    and make you a burned-out mountain.(V)
26 No stone shall be taken from you for a corner
    and no stone for a foundation,
but you shall be a perpetual waste,
    says the Lord.(W)

27 Raise a standard in the land;
    blow the trumpet among the nations;
prepare the nations for war against her;
    summon against her the kingdoms,
    Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz;
appoint a marshal against her;
    bring up horses like bristling locusts.(X)
28 Prepare the nations for war against her,
    the kings of the Medes, with their governors and deputies,
    and every land under their dominion.
29 The land trembles and writhes,
    for the Lord’s purposes against Babylon stand,
to make the land of Babylon a desolation,
    without inhabitant.(Y)
30 The warriors of Babylon have given up fighting;
    they remain in their strongholds;
their strength has failed;
    they have become women;
her buildings are set on fire;
    her bars are broken.(Z)
31 One runner runs to meet another,
    and one messenger to meet another,
to tell the king of Babylon
    that his city is taken from end to end:(AA)
32 the fords have been seized,
    the marshes have been burned with fire,
    and the soldiers are in panic.(AB)
33 For thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel:
Daughter Babylon is like a threshing floor
    at the time when it is trodden;
yet a little while
    and the time of her harvest will come.(AC)

34 “King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon has devoured me;
    he has crushed me;
he has made me an empty vessel;
    he has swallowed me like a monster;
he has filled his belly with my delicacies;
    he has spewed me out.(AD)
35 May my torn flesh be avenged on Babylon,”
    the inhabitants of Zion shall say.
“May my blood be avenged on the inhabitants of Chaldea,”
    Jerusalem shall say.(AE)
36 Therefore thus says the Lord:
I am going to defend your cause
    and take vengeance for you.
I will dry up her sea
    and make her fountain dry,(AF)
37 and Babylon shall become a heap of ruins,
    a den of jackals,
an object of horror and of hissing,
    without inhabitant.(AG)

38 Like lions they shall roar together;
    they shall growl like lions’ whelps.
39 When they are inflamed, I will set out their drink
    and make them drunk, until they become merry
and then sleep a perpetual sleep
    and never wake, says the Lord.(AH)
40 I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter,
    like rams and goats.(AI)

41 How Sheshach[c] is taken;
    the pride of the whole earth seized!
How Babylon has become
    an object of horror among the nations!(AJ)
42 The sea has risen over Babylon;
    she has been covered by its tumultuous waves.(AK)
43 Her cities have become an object of horror,
    a land of drought and a desert,
a land in which no one lives
    and through which no mortal passes.(AL)
44 I will punish Bel in Babylon
    and make him disgorge what he has swallowed.
The nations shall no longer stream to him;
    the wall of Babylon has fallen.(AM)

45 Come out of her, my people!
    Save your lives, each of you,
    from the fierce anger of the Lord!(AN)
46 Do not be fainthearted or fearful
    at the rumors heard in the land—
one year one rumor comes,
    the next year another,
rumors of violence in the land
    and of ruler against ruler.(AO)

47 Assuredly, the days are coming
    when I will punish the images of Babylon;
her whole land shall be put to shame,
    and all her slain shall fall in her midst.(AP)
48 Then the heavens and the earth
    and all that is in them
shall shout for joy over Babylon,
    for the destroyers shall come against her out of the north,
            says the Lord.(AQ)
49 Babylon must fall for the slain of Israel,
    as the slain of all the earth have fallen because of Babylon.(AR)

50 You survivors of the sword,
    go; do not linger!
Remember the Lord in a distant land,
    and let Jerusalem come into your mind:(AS)
51 We are put to shame, for we have heard insults;
    dishonor has covered our faces,
for aliens have come
    into the holy places of the Lord’s house.(AT)

52 Therefore the time is surely coming, says the Lord,
    when I will punish her idols,
and through all her land
    the wounded shall groan.(AU)
53 Though Babylon should mount up to heaven,
    and though she should fortify her strong height,
from me destroyers would come upon her,
    says the Lord.(AV)

54 Listen!—a cry from Babylon!
    A great crashing from the land of the Chaldeans!(AW)
55 For the Lord is laying Babylon waste
    and stilling her loud clamor.
Their waves roar like mighty waters;
    the sound of their clamor resounds,(AX)
56 for a destroyer has come against her,
    against Babylon;
her warriors are taken;
    their bows are broken,
for the Lord is a God of recompense;
    he will repay in full.(AY)
57 I will make her officials and her sages drunk,
    also her governors, her deputies, and her warriors;
they shall sleep a perpetual sleep and never wake,
    says the King, whose name is the Lord of hosts.(AZ)

58 Thus says the Lord of hosts:
The broad wall of Babylon
    shall be leveled to the ground,
and her high gates
    shall be burned with fire.
The peoples exhaust themselves for nothing,
    the nations only for fire,
    and they have become weary.(BA)

Jeremiah’s Command to Seraiah

59 The word that the prophet Jeremiah commanded Seraiah son of Neriah son of Mahseiah, when he went with King Zedekiah of Judah to Babylon, in the fourth year of his reign. Seraiah was the quartermaster.(BB) 60 Jeremiah wrote in a[d] scroll all the disasters that would come on Babylon, all these words that are written concerning Babylon.(BC) 61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah: “When you come to Babylon, see that you read all these words, 62 and say, ‘O Lord, you yourself threatened to destroy this place so that neither humans nor animals shall live in it, and it shall be desolate forever.’(BD) 63 When you finish reading this scroll, tie a stone to it, and throw it into the middle of the Euphrates,(BE) 64 and say, ‘Thus shall Babylon sink, to rise no more, because of the disasters that I am bringing on her.’ ”[e]

Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.(BF)

The Destruction of Jerusalem Reviewed

52 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he began to reign; he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. His mother’s name was Hamutal daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.(BG) He did what was evil in the sight of the Lord, just as Jehoiakim had done.(BH) Indeed, Jerusalem and Judah so angered the Lord that he expelled them from his presence.

Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.(BI) And in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon came with all his army against Jerusalem, and they laid siege to it; they built siegeworks against it all around.(BJ) So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. On the ninth day of the fourth month the famine became so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land.(BK) Then a breach was made in the city wall,[f] and all the soldiers fled and went out from the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, by the King’s Garden, though the Chaldeans were all around the city. They went in the direction of the Arabah.(BL) But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho, and all his army was scattered, deserting him.(BM) Then they captured the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah in the land of Hamath, and he passed sentence on him.(BN) 10 The king of Babylon killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes and also killed all the officers of Judah at Riblah.(BO) 11 He put out the eyes of Zedekiah and bound him in fetters, and the king of Babylon took him to Babylon and put him in prison until the day of his death.(BP)

12 In the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month—which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon—Nebuzaradan, the captain of the bodyguard who served the king of Babylon, entered Jerusalem.(BQ) 13 He burned the house of the Lord, the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; every great house he burned down.(BR) 14 All the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down all the walls around Jerusalem.(BS) 15 Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried into exile some of the poorest of the people and the rest of the people who were left in the city and the deserters who had defected to the king of Babylon, together with the rest of the artisans.(BT) 16 But Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard left some of the poorest people of the land to be vinedressers and tillers of the soil.(BU)

17 The pillars of bronze that were in the house of the Lord, and the stands and the bronze sea that were in the house of the Lord, the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried all the bronze to Babylon.(BV) 18 They took away the pots, the shovels, the snuffers, the basins, the ladles, and all the vessels of bronze used in the temple service.(BW) 19 The captain of the guard took away the small bowls also, the firepans, the basins, the pots, the lampstands, the ladles, and the bowls for libation, both those of gold and those of silver.(BX) 20 As for the two pillars, the one sea, the twelve bronze bulls that were under the stands, which King Solomon had made for the house of the Lord, the bronze of all these vessels was beyond weighing.(BY) 21 As for the pillars, the height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits; its circumference was twelve cubits; it was hollow, and its thickness was four fingers.(BZ) 22 Upon it was a capital of bronze; the height of the capital was five cubits; latticework and pomegranates, all of bronze, encircled the top of the capital. And the second pillar had the same, with pomegranates.(CA) 23 There were ninety-six pomegranates on the sides; all the pomegranates encircling the latticework numbered one hundred.

24 The captain of the guard took the chief priest Seraiah, the second priest Zephaniah, and the three guardians of the threshold.(CB) 25 From the city he took an officer who had been in command of the soldiers, seven men of the king’s council who were found in the city; the secretary of the commander of the army who mustered the people of the land; and sixty men of the people of the land who were found inside the city. 26 Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard took them and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah.(CC) 27 And the king of Babylon struck them down and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah went into exile out of its land.(CD)

28 This is the number of the people whom Nebuchadrezzar took into exile: in the seventh year, three thousand twenty-three Judeans;(CE) 29 in the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar he took into exile from Jerusalem eight hundred thirty-two persons; 30 in the twenty-third year of Nebuchadrezzar, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard took into exile of the Judeans seven hundred forty-five persons; all the persons were four thousand six hundred.(CF)

Jehoiachin Favored in Captivity

31 In the thirty-seventh year of the exile of King Jehoiachin of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-fifth day of the month, King Evil-merodach of Babylon, in the year he began to reign, showed favor to King Jehoiachin of Judah and brought him out of prison;(CG) 32 he spoke kindly to him and gave him a seat above the seats of the other kings who were with him in Babylon. 33 So Jehoiachin put aside his prison clothes, and every day of his life he dined regularly at the king’s table.(CH) 34 For his allowance, a regular daily allowance was given him by the king of Babylon, as long as he lived, up to the day of his death.(CI)


  1. 51.1 Or stir up the spirit of a destroyer
  2. 51.1 That is, Chaldea
  3. 51.41 That is, Babylon
  4. 51.60 Or one
  5. 51.64 Gk: Heb on her. And they shall weary themselves
  6. 52.7 Heb lacks wall

The Earthly and the Heavenly Sanctuaries

Now[a] the first covenant had regulations for worship and an earthly sanctuary. For a tent[b] was constructed, the first one, in which were the lampstand, the table, and the bread of the Presence;[c] this is called the holy place.(A) Behind the second curtain was a tent[d] called the holy of holies.(B) In it stood the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which there were a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant;(C) above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat.[e] Of these things we cannot speak now in detail.(D)

These preparations having thus been made, the priests go continually into the first tent[f] to carry out their ritual duties, but only the high priest goes into the second, and he but once a year and not without taking the blood that he offers for himself and for the sins committed unintentionally by the people.(E) By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the sanctuary has not yet been disclosed as long as the first tent[g] is still standing.(F) This is a symbol[h] of the present time, indicating that gifts and sacrifices are offered that cannot perfect the conscience of the worshiper(G) 10 but deal only with food and drink and various baptisms, regulations for the body imposed until the time comes to set things right.(H)

11 But when Christ came as a high priest of the good things that have come,[i] then through the greater and more perfect tent[j] (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation),(I) 12 he entered once for all into the holy place, not with the blood of goats and calves but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption.(J) 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the sprinkling of the ashes of a heifer sanctifies those who have been defiled so that their flesh is purified,(K) 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit[k] offered himself without blemish to God, purify our[l] conscience from dead works to worship the living God!(L)

15 For this reason he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, because a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions under the first covenant.[m](M) 16 Where a will[n] is involved, the death of the one who made it must be established. 17 For a will[o] takes effect only at death, since it is not in force as long as the one who made it is alive. 18 Hence not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood.(N) 19 For when every commandment had been told to all the people by Moses in accordance with the law, he took the blood of calves and goats,[p] with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the scroll itself and all the people,(O) 20 saying, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has ordained for you.” 21 And in the same way he sprinkled with the blood both the tent[q] and all the vessels used in worship.(P) 22 Indeed, under the law almost everything is purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness of sins.(Q)

Christ’s Sacrifice Takes Away Sin

23 Thus it was necessary for the sketches of the heavenly things to be purified with these rites, but the heavenly things themselves need better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made by human hands, a mere copy of the true one, but he entered into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf.(R) 25 Nor was it to offer himself again and again, as the high priest enters the holy place year after year with blood that is not his own, 26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to remove sin by the sacrifice of himself.(S) 27 And just as it is appointed for mortals to die once and after that the judgment,(T) 28 so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.(U)


  1. 9.1 Other ancient authorities add even
  2. 9.2 Or tabernacle
  3. 9.2 Gk the presentation of the loaves
  4. 9.3 Or tabernacle
  5. 9.5 Or the place of atonement
  6. 9.6 Or tabernacle
  7. 9.8 Or tabernacle
  8. 9.9 Gk parable
  9. 9.11 Other ancient authorities read good things to come
  10. 9.11 Or tabernacle
  11. 9.14 Other ancient authorities read Holy Spirit
  12. 9.14 Other ancient authorities read your
  13. 9.15 The Greek word used here means both covenant and will
  14. 9.16 The Greek word used here means both covenant and will
  15. 9.17 The Greek word used here means both covenant and will
  16. 9.19 Other ancient authorities lack and goats
  17. 9.21 Or tabernacle