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Judgment on Moab

48 Concerning Moab.

Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel:

Alas for Nebo, it is laid waste!
    Kiriathaim is put to shame; it is taken;
the fortress is put to shame and broken down;(A)
    the renown of Moab is no more.
In Heshbon they planned evil against her:
    “Come, let us cut her off from being a nation!”
You also, O Madmen, shall be brought to silence;[a]
    the sword shall pursue you.(B)

Listen! A cry goes up from Horonaim:
    “Desolation and great destruction!”(C)
“Moab is destroyed!”
    her little ones cry out.
For at the ascent of Luhith
    they go[b] up weeping bitterly;
for at the descent of Horonaim
    they have heard the distressing cry of anguish.(D)
Flee! Save yourselves!
    Be like a wild ass[c] in the desert!(E)

Surely, because you trusted in your strongholds[d] and your treasures,
    you also shall be taken;
Chemosh shall go out into exile,
    with his priests and his attendants.(F)
The destroyer shall come upon every town,
    and no town shall escape;
the valley shall perish,
    and the plain shall be destroyed,
    as the Lord has spoken.(G)

Set aside salt for Moab,
    for she will surely fall;
her towns shall become a desolation,
    with no inhabitant in them.(H)

10 Accursed is the one who is slack in doing the work of the Lord, and accursed is the one who keeps back the sword from bloodshed.(I)

11 Moab has been at ease from his youth,
    settled like wine[e] on its dregs;
he has not been emptied from vessel to vessel,
    nor has he gone into exile;
therefore his flavor has remained,
    and his aroma is unspoiled.(J)

12 Therefore, the time is surely coming, says the Lord, when I shall send to him decanters to decant him and empty his vessels and break his jars in pieces. 13 Then Moab shall be ashamed of Chemosh, as the house of Israel was ashamed of Bethel, their confidence.(K)

14 How can you say, “We are heroes
    and mighty warriors”?(L)
15 Moab is destroyed, and his towns have gone up,
    and the choicest of his young men have gone down to slaughter,
    says the King, whose name is the Lord of hosts.(M)
16 The calamity of Moab is near at hand,
    and his doom approaches swiftly.(N)
17 Mourn over him, all you his neighbors,
    and all who know his name;
say, “How the mighty scepter is broken,
    the glorious staff!”(O)

18 Come down from glory
    and sit on the parched ground,
    enthroned daughter Dibon!
For the destroyer of Moab has come up against you;
    he has destroyed your strongholds.(P)
19 Stand by the road and watch,
    you inhabitant of Aroer!
Ask the man fleeing and the woman escaping;
    say, “What has happened?”(Q)
20 Moab is put to shame, for it is broken down;
    wail and cry!
Tell it by the Arnon
    that Moab is laid waste.(R)

21 Judgment has come upon the tableland, upon Holon, and Jahzah, and Mephaath, 22 and Dibon, and Nebo, and Beth-diblathaim, 23 and Kiriathaim, and Beth-gamul, and Beth-meon, 24 and Kerioth, and Bozrah, and all the towns of the land of Moab, far and near.(S) 25 The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken, says the Lord.(T)

26 Make him drunk because he magnified himself against the Lord; let Moab wallow in his vomit; he, too, shall become a laughingstock.(U) 27 Israel was a laughingstock for you, though he was not caught among thieves, but whenever you spoke of him you shook your head!(V)

28 Leave the towns, and live on the rock,
    O inhabitants of Moab!
Be like the dove that nests
    on the sides of the mouth of a gorge.(W)
29 We have heard of the pride of Moab—
    he is very proud—
of his loftiness, his pride, and his arrogance,
    and the haughtiness of his heart.(X)
30 I myself know his insolence, says the Lord;
    his boasts are false;
    his deeds are false.(Y)
31 Therefore I wail for Moab;
    I cry out for all Moab;
    for the people of Kir-heres I mourn.(Z)
32 More than for Jazer I weep for you,
    O vine of Sibmah!
Your branches crossed over the sea,
    reached as far as Jazer;[f]
upon your summer fruits and your vintage
    the destroyer has fallen.(AA)
33 Gladness and joy have been taken away
    from the fruitful land of Moab;
I have stopped the wine from the winepresses;
    no one treads them with shouts of joy;
    the shouting is not the shout of joy.(AB)

34 From the cry of Heshbon to Elealeh as far as Jahaz they utter their voice, from Zoar to Horonaim and Eglath-shelishiyah. For even the waters of Nimrim have become desolate.(AC) 35 And I will bring to an end in Moab, says the Lord, those who offer sacrifice at a high place and make offerings to their gods.(AD) 36 Therefore my heart moans for Moab like a flute, and my heart moans like a flute for the people of Kir-heres, for the riches they gained have perished.(AE)

37 For every head is shaved and every beard cut off; on all the hands there are gashes and on the loins sackcloth.(AF) 38 On all the housetops of Moab and in the squares there is nothing but lamentation, for I have broken Moab like a vessel that no one wants, says the Lord.(AG) 39 How it is broken! How they wail! How Moab has turned his back in shame! So Moab has become a derision and a horror to all his neighbors.(AH)

40 For thus says the Lord:
Look, he shall swoop down like an eagle
    and spread his wings against Moab;(AI)
41 the towns[g] shall be taken
    and the strongholds seized.
The hearts of the warriors of Moab, on that day,
    shall be like the heart of a woman in labor.(AJ)
42 Moab shall be destroyed as a people,
    because he magnified himself against the Lord.(AK)
43 Terror, pit, and trap
    are before you, O inhabitants of Moab!
            says the Lord.(AL)
44 Everyone who flees from the terror
    shall fall into the pit,
and everyone who climbs out of the pit
    shall be caught in the trap.
For I will bring these things[h] upon Moab
    in the year of their punishment,
            says the Lord.(AM)

45 In the shadow of Heshbon
    fugitives stop exhausted,
for a fire has gone out from Heshbon,
    a flame from the house of Sihon;
it has destroyed the forehead[i] of Moab,
    the scalp of the people of tumult.[j](AN)
46 Woe to you, O Moab!
    The people of Chemosh have perished,
for your sons have been taken captive
    and your daughters into captivity.(AO)
47 Yet I will restore the fortunes of Moab
    in the latter days, says the Lord.
Thus far is the judgment on Moab.(AP)

Judgment on the Ammonites

49 Concerning the Ammonites.

Thus says the Lord:

Has Israel no sons?
    Has he no heir?
Why then has Milcom[k] dispossessed Gad
    and his people settled in its towns?(AQ)
Therefore, the time is surely coming,
    says the Lord,
when I will sound the battle alarm
    against Rabbah of the Ammonites;
it shall become a desolate mound,
    and its villages shall be burned with fire;
then Israel shall dispossess those who dispossessed him,
    says the Lord.(AR)

Wail, O Heshbon, for Ai is laid waste!
    Cry out, O daughters[l] of Rabbah!
Put on sackcloth,
    lament, and slash yourselves with whips![m]
For Milcom[n] shall go into exile,
    with his priests and his attendants.(AS)
Why do you boast in your strength?
    Your strength is ebbing,
O faithless daughter.
    Who trusted in her treasures, saying,[o]
    “Who will attack me?”(AT)
I am going to bring terror upon you,
    says the Lord God of hosts,
    from all your neighbors,
and you will be scattered, each headlong,
    with no one to gather the fugitives.(AU)

But afterward I will restore the fortunes of the Ammonites, says the Lord.(AV)

Judgment on Edom

Concerning Edom.

Thus says the Lord of hosts:

Is there no longer wisdom in Teman?
    Has counsel perished from the prudent?
    Has their wisdom vanished?(AW)
Flee; turn back; get down low,
    inhabitants of Dedan!
For I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him,
    the time when I punish him.(AX)
If grape gatherers came to you,
    would they not leave gleanings?
If thieves came by night,
    even they would pillage only what they wanted.(AY)
10 But as for me, I have stripped Esau bare;
    I have uncovered his hiding places,
    and he is not able to conceal himself.
His offspring are destroyed, his kinsfolk
    and his neighbors, and he is no more.(AZ)
11 Leave your orphans; I will keep them alive,
    and let your widows trust in me.(BA)

12 For thus says the Lord: If those who do not deserve to drink the cup still have to drink it, shall you be the one to go unpunished? You shall not go unpunished; you must drink it.(BB) 13 For by myself I have sworn, says the Lord, that Bozrah shall become an object of horror and ridicule, a waste, and an object of cursing, and all her towns shall be perpetual wastes.(BC)

14 I have heard tidings from the Lord,
    and a messenger has been sent among the nations:
“Gather yourselves together and come against her,
    and rise up for battle!”(BD)
15 For I will make you least among the nations,
    despised by humankind.
16 The terror you inspire
    and the pride of your heart have deceived you,
you who live in the clefts of the rock,[p]
    who hold the height of the hill.
Although you make your nest as high as the eagle’s,
    from there I will bring you down,
            says the Lord.(BE)

17 Edom shall become an object of horror; everyone who passes by it will be horrified and will hiss because of all its disasters.(BF) 18 As when Sodom and Gomorrah and their neighbors were overthrown, says the Lord, no one shall live there, nor shall anyone settle in it.(BG) 19 Like a lion coming up from the thickets of the Jordan to a perennial pasture, I will suddenly chase Edom[q] away from it, and I will appoint over it whomever I choose.[r] For who is like me? Who can summon me? Who is the shepherd who can stand before me?(BH) 20 Therefore hear the plan that the Lord has made against Edom and the purposes that he has formed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely the little ones of the flock shall be dragged away; surely their fold shall be appalled at their fate.(BI) 21 At the sound of their fall the earth shall tremble; the sound of their cry shall be heard at the Red Sea.[s](BJ) 22 Look, he shall mount up and swoop down like an eagle and spread his wings against Bozrah, and the heart of the warriors of Edom on that day shall be like the heart of a woman in labor.(BK)

Judgment on Damascus

23 Concerning Damascus.

Hamath and Arpad are confounded,
    for they have heard bad news;
they melt in fear; they are troubled like the sea[t]
    that cannot be quiet.(BL)
24 Damascus has become feeble; she turned to flee,
    and panic seized her;
anguish and pangs seize her,
    as of a woman in labor.
25 How is the famous city not forsaken,[u]
    the town of my joy?[v](BM)
26 Therefore her young men shall fall in her squares,
    and all her soldiers shall be destroyed on that day,
            says the Lord of hosts.(BN)
27 And I will kindle a fire at the wall of Damascus,
    and it shall devour the strongholds of Ben-hadad.(BO)

Judgment on Kedar and Hazor

28 Concerning Kedar and the kingdoms of Hazor that King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon defeated.

Thus says the Lord:
Rise up; advance against Kedar!
    Destroy the people of the east!(BP)
29 They take their tents and their flocks,
    their curtains and all their goods;
they carry off their camels for themselves,
    and a cry shall go up: “Terror is all around!”(BQ)
30 Flee; wander far away; hide in deep places,
    O inhabitants of Hazor!
            says the Lord.
For King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon
    has made a plan against you
    and formed a purpose against you.(BR)

31 Rise up; advance against a nation at ease,
    that lives secure,
            says the Lord,
that has no gates or bars,
    that lives alone.(BS)
32 Their camels shall become plunder;
    their herds of cattle a spoil.
I will scatter to every wind
    those who have shaved temples,
and I will bring calamity
    against them from every side,
            says the Lord.(BT)
33 Hazor shall become a lair of jackals,
    an everlasting waste;
no one shall live there,
    nor shall anyone settle in it.(BU)

Judgment on Elam

34 The word of the Lord that came to the prophet Jeremiah concerning Elam, at the beginning of the reign of King Zedekiah of Judah.(BV)

35 Thus says the Lord of hosts: I am going to break the bow of Elam, the mainstay of their might,(BW) 36 and I will bring upon Elam the four winds from the four quarters of heaven, and I will scatter them to all these winds, and there shall be no nation to which the exiles from Elam shall not come.(BX) 37 I will terrify Elam before their enemies and before those who seek their life; I will bring disaster upon them, my fierce anger, says the Lord. I will send the sword after them until I have consumed them,(BY) 38 and I will set my throne in Elam and destroy their king and officials, says the Lord.

39 But in the latter days I will restore the fortunes of Elam, says the Lord.


  1. 48.2 The place name Madmen sounds like the Hebrew verb to be silent
  2. 48.5 Syr Tg: Heb he goes
  3. 48.6 Gk: Heb like Aroer
  4. 48.7 Gk: Heb works
  5. 48.11 Heb lacks like wine
  6. 48.32 Heb mss: MT the sea of Jazer
  7. 48.41 Or Kerioth
  8. 48.44 Gk Syr: Heb bring upon it
  9. 48.45 Or borderland
  10. 48.45 Or of Shaon
  11. 49.1 Gk Vg Syr: Heb their king
  12. 49.3 Or villages
  13. 49.3 Cn: Meaning of Heb uncertain
  14. 49.3 Gk Vg Syr: Heb their king
  15. 49.4 Gk: Heb lacks saying
  16. 49.16 Or of Sela
  17. 49.19 Heb him
  18. 49.19 Meaning of Heb uncertain
  19. 49.21 Or Sea of Reeds
  20. 49.23 Cn: Heb there is trouble in the sea
  21. 49.25 Vg: Heb is not forsaken
  22. 49.25 Syr Vg Tg: Heb the town of my joy

The Priestly Order of Melchizedek

This “Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him,”(A) and to him Abraham apportioned “one-tenth of everything.” His name, in the first place, means “king of righteousness”; next, he is also king of Salem, that is, “king of peace.” Without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life but resembling the Son of God, he remains a priest forever.(B)

See how great he is! Even[a] Abraham the patriarch gave him a tenth of the spoils.(C) And those descendants of Levi who receive the priestly office have a commandment in the law to collect tithes[b] from the people, that is, from their kindred, though these also are descended from Abraham.(D) But this man, who does not belong to their ancestry, collected tithes[c] from Abraham and blessed him who had received the promises.(E) It is beyond dispute that the inferior is blessed by the superior. In the one case, tithes are received by those who are mortal; in the other, by one of whom it is testified that he lives.(F) One might even say that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid tithes through Abraham, 10 for he was still in the loins of his ancestor when Melchizedek met him.

Another Priest, Like Melchizedek

11 Now if perfection had been attainable through the Levitical priesthood—for the people received the law under this priesthood—what further need would there have been to speak of another priest arising according to the order of Melchizedek rather than one according to the order of Aaron?(G) 12 For when there is a change in the priesthood, there is necessarily a change in the law as well. 13 Now the one of whom these things are spoken belonged to another tribe, from which no one has ever served at the altar. 14 For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, and in connection with that tribe Moses said nothing about priests.(H)

15 It is even more obvious when another priest arises, resembling Melchizedek, 16 one who has become a priest, not through a legal requirement concerning physical descent but through the power of an indestructible life.(I) 17 For it is attested of him,

“You are a priest forever,
    according to the order of Melchizedek.”(J)

18 There is, on the one hand, the abrogation of an earlier commandment because it was weak and ineffectual(K) 19 (for the law made nothing perfect); there is, on the other hand, the introduction of a better hope through which we approach God.(L)

20 This was confirmed with an oath, for others have become priests without an oath, 21 but this one became a priest with an oath because of the one who said to him,

“The Lord has sworn
    and will not change his mind,
‘You are a priest forever’ ”[d](M)

22 accordingly Jesus has also become the guarantor of a better covenant.(N)

23 Furthermore, the former priests were many in number because they were prevented by death from continuing in office, 24 but he holds his priesthood permanently because he continues forever. 25 Consequently, he is able for all time to save[e] those who approach God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them.(O)

26 For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, blameless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.(P) 27 Unlike the other[f] high priests, he has no need to offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins and then for those of the people; this he did once for all when he offered himself.(Q) 28 For the law appoints as high priests humans, who are subject to weakness, but the word of the oath, which came later than the law, appoints a Son who has been made perfect forever.(R)


  1. 7.4 Other ancient authorities lack Even
  2. 7.5 Or a tenth
  3. 7.6 Or a tenth
  4. 7.21 Other ancient witnesses add according to the order of Melchizedek
  5. 7.25 Or able to save completely
  6. 7.27 Gk lacks other