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Unfaithful Israel

If[a] a man divorces his wife
    and she goes from him
and becomes another man’s wife,
    will he return to her?
Would not such a land be greatly polluted?
You have prostituted yourself with many lovers,
    and would you return to me?
            says the Lord.(A)
Look up to the bare heights[b] and see!
    Where have you not been lain with?
By the waysides you sat waiting for lovers,
    like a nomad in the wilderness.
You have polluted the land
    with your prostitutions and wickedness.(B)
Therefore the showers have been withheld,
    and the spring rain has not come,
yet you have the forehead of a prostitute;
    you refuse to be ashamed.(C)
Have you not just now called to me,
    “My Father, you are the friend of my youth—(D)
will he be angry forever,
    will he be indignant to the end?”
This is how you have spoken,
    but you have done all the evil that you could.(E)

A Call to Repentance

The Lord said to me in the days of King Josiah: Have you seen what she did, that faithless one, Israel, how she went up on every high hill and under every green tree and prostituted herself there?(F) And I thought, “After she has done all this she will return to me,” but she did not return, and her false sister Judah saw it.(G) She[c] saw that for all the adulteries of that faithless one, Israel, I had sent her away with a decree of divorce, yet her false sister Judah did not fear, but she also went and prostituted herself.(H) Because she took her prostitution so lightly, she polluted the land, committing adultery with stone and tree.(I) 10 Yet for all this her false sister Judah did not return to me with her whole heart but only in pretense, says the Lord.(J)

11 Then the Lord said to me: Faithless Israel has shown herself less guilty than false Judah.(K) 12 Go and proclaim these words toward the north, and say:

Return, faithless Israel,
            says the Lord.
I will not look on you in anger,
    for I am merciful,
            says the Lord;
I will not be angry forever.(L)
13 Only acknowledge your guilt,
    that you have rebelled against the Lord your God
and scattered your favors among strangers under every green tree
    and have not obeyed my voice,
            says the Lord.(M)
14 Return, O faithless children,
            says the Lord,
    for I am your husband;
I will take you, one from a city and two from a family,
    and I will bring you to Zion.(N)

15 I will give you shepherds after my own heart who will feed you with knowledge and understanding.(O) 16 And when you have multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, says the Lord, they shall no longer say, “The ark of the covenant of the Lord.” It shall not come to mind or be remembered or missed, nor shall another one be made.(P) 17 At that time Jerusalem shall be called the throne of the Lord, and all nations shall gather to it, to the presence of the Lord in Jerusalem, and they shall no longer stubbornly follow their own evil will.(Q) 18 In those days the house of Judah shall join the house of Israel, and together they shall come from the land of the north to the land that I gave your ancestors for a heritage.(R)

19 I thought
    how I would set you among my children
and give you a pleasant land,
    the most beautiful heritage of all the nations.
And I thought you would call to me, “My Father,”
    and would not turn from following me.(S)
20 Instead, as a faithless wife leaves her husband,
    so you have been faithless to me, O house of Israel,
            says the Lord.(T)

21 A voice on the bare heights[d] is heard,
    the plaintive weeping of Israel’s children,
because they have perverted their way;
    they have forgotten the Lord their God:(U)
22 Return, O faithless children,
    I will heal your faithlessness.

“Here we come to you,
    for you are the Lord our God.(V)
23 Truly the hills are[e] a delusion,
    a tumult on the mountains.
Truly in the Lord our God
    is the salvation of Israel.(W)

24 “But from our youth the shameful thing has devoured all for which our ancestors had labored, their flocks and their herds, their sons and their daughters. 25 Let us lie down in our shame, and let our dishonor cover us, for we have sinned against the Lord our God, we and our ancestors, from our youth even to this day, and we have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God.”(X)

If you return, O Israel,
            says the Lord,
    if you return to me,
if you remove your abominations from my presence
    and do not waver,(Y)
and if you swear, “As the Lord lives!”
    in truth, in justice, and in uprightness,
then nations shall be blessed[f] by you,[g]
    and by you[h] they shall boast.(Z)

For thus says the Lord to the people of Judah and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem:

Break up your fallow ground,
    and do not sow among thorns.(AA)
Circumcise yourselves to the Lord;
    remove the foreskin of your hearts,
    O people of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem,
or else my wrath will go forth like fire
    and burn with no one to quench it,
    because of the evil of your doings.(AB)

Invasion and Desolation of Judah Threatened

Declare in Judah, and proclaim in Jerusalem, and say:

Blow the trumpet through the land;
    shout aloud[i] and say,
“Gather together, and let us go
    into the fortified cities!”(AC)
Raise a standard toward Zion;
    flee for safety; do not delay,
for I am bringing evil from the north
    and a great destruction.(AD)
A lion has gone up from its thicket;
    a destroyer of nations has set out;
    he has gone out from his place
to make your land a waste;
    your cities will be ruins
    without inhabitant.(AE)
Because of this put on sackcloth,
    lament and wail:
“The fierce anger of the Lord
    has not turned away from us.”(AF)

On that day, says the Lord, courage shall fail the king and the officials; the priests shall be appalled and the prophets astounded.(AG) 10 Then I said, “Ah, Lord God, how utterly you have deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, ‘It shall be well with you,’ even while the sword is at the throat!”(AH)

11 At that time it will be said to this people and to Jerusalem: A hot wind comes from me out of the bare heights[j] in the desert toward the daughter of my people, not to winnow or cleanse,(AI) 12 a wind too strong for that. Now it is I who speak in judgment against them.(AJ)

13 Look! He comes up like clouds,
    his chariots like the whirlwind;
his horses are swifter than eagles—
    woe to us, for we are ruined!(AK)
14 O Jerusalem, wash your heart clean of wickedness
    so that you may be saved.
How long shall your evil schemes
    lodge within you?(AL)
15 For a voice declares from Dan
    and proclaims disaster from Mount Ephraim.
16 Tell the nations, “Here they are!”
    Proclaim against Jerusalem,
“Besiegers come from a distant land;
    they shout against the cities of Judah.(AM)
17 They have closed in around her like watchers of a field
    because she has rebelled against me,
            says the Lord.(AN)
18 Your ways and your doings
    have brought this upon you.
This is your doom; how bitter it is!
    It has reached your very heart.”(AO)

Sorrow for a Doomed Nation

19 My anguish, my anguish! I writhe in pain!
    Oh, the walls of my heart!
My heart is beating wildly;
    I cannot keep silent,
for I[k] hear the sound of the trumpet,
    the alarm of war.(AP)
20 Disaster overtakes disaster;
    the whole land is laid waste.
Suddenly my tents are destroyed,
    my curtains in a moment.(AQ)
21 How long must I see the standard
    and hear the sound of the trumpet?
22 “For my people are foolish;
    they do not know me;
they are stupid children;
    they have no understanding.
They are skilled in doing evil
    but do not know how to do good.”(AR)

23 I looked on the earth, and it was complete chaos,
    and to the heavens, and they had no light.(AS)
24 I looked on the mountains, and they were quaking,
    and all the hills moved to and fro.(AT)
25 I looked, and there was no one at all,
    and all the birds of the air had fled.(AU)
26 I looked, and the fruitful land was a desert,
    and all its cities were laid in ruins
    before the Lord, before his fierce anger.(AV)

27 For thus says the Lord: The whole land shall be a desolation, yet I will not make a full end.(AW)

28 Because of this the earth shall mourn
    and the heavens above grow black,
for I have spoken; I have purposed;
    I have not relented, nor will I turn back.(AX)

29 At the noise of horseman and archer
    every town takes to flight;
they enter thickets; they climb among rocks;
    all the towns are forsaken,
    and no one lives in them.(AY)
30 And you, O desolate one,
what do you mean that you dress in crimson,
    that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold,
    that you enlarge your eyes with paint?
In vain you beautify yourself.
    Your lovers despise you;
    they seek your life.(AZ)
31 For I heard a cry as of a woman in labor,
    anguish as of one bringing forth her first child,
the cry of daughter Zion gasping for breath,
    stretching out her hands,
“Woe is me! I am fainting before killers!”(BA)

The Utter Corruption of God’s People

Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem,
    look around and take note!
Search its squares and see
    if you can find one person
who acts justly
    and seeks truth—
so that I may pardon Jerusalem.[l](BB)
Although they say, “As the Lord lives,”
    yet they swear falsely.(BC)
O Lord, do your eyes not look for truth?
You have struck them,
    but they felt no anguish;
you have consumed them,
    but they refused to take correction.
They have made their faces harder than rock;
    they have refused to turn back.(BD)

Then I said, “These are only the poor;
    they have no sense,
for they do not know the way of the Lord,
    the law of their God.(BE)
Let me go to the rich[m]
    and speak to them;
surely they know the way of the Lord,
    the law of their God.”
But they all alike had broken the yoke;
    they had burst the bonds.(BF)

Therefore a lion from the forest shall kill them;
    a wolf from the desert shall destroy them.
A leopard is watching against their cities;
    everyone who goes out of them shall be torn in pieces,
because their transgressions are many;
    their faithlessness is great.(BG)

How can I pardon you?
    Your children have forsaken me
    and have sworn by those who are no gods.
When I fed them to the full,
    they committed adultery
    and trooped to the houses of prostitutes.(BH)
They were well-fed lusty stallions,
    each neighing for his neighbor’s wife.(BI)
Shall I not punish them for these things?
            says the Lord,
    and shall I not bring retribution
    on a nation such as this?(BJ)

10 Go up through her vine rows and destroy,
    but do not make a full end;
strip away her branches,
    for they are not the Lord’s.(BK)
11 For the house of Israel and the house of Judah
    have been utterly faithless to me,
            says the Lord.(BL)
12 They have spoken falsely of the Lord
    and have said, “He will do nothing.
No evil will come upon us,
    and we shall not see sword or famine.”(BM)
13 The prophets are nothing but wind,
    for the word is not in them.
Thus shall it be done to them!(BN)

14 Therefore thus says the Lord, the God of hosts:
Because you have spoken this word,
I am now making my words in your mouth a fire
    and this people wood, and the fire shall devour them.(BO)
15 I am going to bring upon you
    a nation from far away, O house of Israel,
            says the Lord.
It is an enduring nation;
    it is an ancient nation,
a nation whose language you do not know,
    nor can you understand what they say.(BP)
16 Their quiver is like an open tomb;
    all of them are mighty warriors.(BQ)
17 They shall eat up your harvest and your food;
    they shall eat up your sons and your daughters;
they shall eat up your flocks and your herds;
    they shall eat up your vines and your fig trees;
they shall destroy with the sword
    your fortified cities in which you trust.(BR)

18 But even in those days, says the Lord, I will not make a full end of you.(BS) 19 And when your people say, “Why has the Lord our God done all these things to us?” you shall say to them, “As you have forsaken me and served foreign gods in your land, so you shall serve strangers in a land that is not yours.”(BT)

20 Declare this in the house of Jacob;
    proclaim it in Judah:
21 Hear this, O foolish and senseless people,
    who have eyes but do not see,
    who have ears but do not hear.(BU)
22 Do you not fear me? says the Lord;
    Do you not tremble before me?
I placed the sand as a boundary for the sea,
    a perpetual barrier that it cannot pass;
though the waves toss, they cannot prevail;
    though they roar, they cannot pass over it.(BV)
23 But this people has a stubborn and rebellious heart;
    they have turned aside and gone away.(BW)
24 They do not say in their hearts,
    “Let us fear the Lord our God,
who gives the rain in its season,
    the autumn rain and the spring rain,
and keeps for us
    the weeks appointed for the harvest.”(BX)
25 Your iniquities have turned these away,
    and your sins have deprived you of good.(BY)
26 For the wicked are found among my people.
    They lie in wait like hunters;
destroyers,[n] they catch humans.(BZ)
27 Like a cage full of birds,
    their houses are full of treachery;
therefore they have become great and rich;(CA)
28     they have grown fat and sleek.
They know no limits in deeds of wickedness;
    they do not judge with justice
the cause of the orphan, to make it prosper,
    and they do not defend the rights of the needy.(CB)
29 Shall I not punish them for these things?
            says the Lord,
    and shall I not bring retribution
    on a nation such as this?(CC)

30 An appalling and horrible thing
    has happened in the land:(CD)
31 the prophets prophesy falsely,
    and the priests rule as the prophets direct;[o]
my people love to have it so,
    but what will you do when the end comes?(CE)


  1. 3.1 Gk Syr: Heb Saying, If
  2. 3.2 Or the trails
  3. 3.8 Gk mss Syr: Heb I
  4. 3.21 Or the trails
  5. 3.23 Gk Syr Vg: Heb Truly from the hills is
  6. 4.2 Or shall bless themselves
  7. 4.2 Cn: Heb him
  8. 4.2 Cn: Heb him
  9. 4.5 Or shout, take your weapons: Heb shout, fill (your hand)
  10. 4.11 Or the trails
  11. 4.19 Or for you, O my soul,
  12. 5.1 Heb it
  13. 5.5 Or the great
  14. 5.26 Meaning of Heb uncertain
  15. 5.31 Or rule by their own authority

False Asceticism

Now the Spirit expressly says that in later[a] times some will renounce[b] the faith by paying attention to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons,(A) through the hypocrisy of liars whose consciences are seared with a hot iron. They forbid marriage and abstain from certain foods, which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth.(B) For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, provided it is received with thanksgiving,(C) for it is sanctified by God’s word and by prayer.

A Good Minister of Jesus Christ

If you put these instructions before the brothers and sisters, you will be a good servant[c] of Christ Jesus, nourished on the words of the faith and of the sound teaching that you have followed.(D) Have nothing to do with profane and foolish tales. Train yourself in godliness,(E) for, while physical training is of some value, godliness is valuable in every way, holding promise for both the present life and the life to come.(F) The saying is sure and worthy of full acceptance. 10 For to this end we toil and suffer reproach,[d] because we have our hope set on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of those who believe.(G)

11 Command and teach these things.(H) 12 Let no one despise your youth, but set the believers an example in speech and conduct, in love, in faith, in purity.(I) 13 Until I arrive, give attention to the public reading of scripture,[e] to exhorting, to teaching. 14 Do not neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you through prophecy with the laying on of hands by the council of elders.(J) 15 Put these things into practice, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress. 16 Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; continue in these things, for in doing this you will save both yourself and your hearers.(K)


  1. 4.1 Or the last
  2. 4.1 Or move away from
  3. 4.6 Or deacon
  4. 4.10 Other ancient authorities read struggle
  5. 4.13 Gk to the reading