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What the Lord Says about Ammon

49 (A) The Lord has this to say about the nation of Ammon:

The people of Israel
have plenty of children
    to inherit their lands.
So why have you worshipers
    of the god Milcom[a]
taken over towns and land
    belonging to the tribe of Gad?
Someday I will send an army
to attack you in Rabbah,
    your capital city.
It will be left in ruins,
and the surrounding villages
    will lie in ashes.
You took some of Israel's land,
but on that day
    Israel will take yours!

Cry, people of Heshbon;[b]
your town will become
    a pile of rubble.[c]
You will turn here and there,
    but your path will be blocked.[d]

Put on sackcloth[e] and mourn,
    you citizens of Rabbah,
because the idol you worship[f]
will be taken
    to a foreign country,
along with its priests
    and temple officials.
You rebellious Ammonites
trust your wealth and ask,
    “Who could attack us?”
But I warn you not to boast
    when your strength is fading.[g]
I, the Lord All-Powerful,
will send neighboring nations
    to strike you with terror.
You will be scattered,
with no one to care
    for your refugees.
Yet someday, I will bring
    your people back home.
I, the Lord, have spoken.

What the Lord Says about Edom

(B)(C) The Lord All-Powerful says about Edom:

Wisdom and common sense
    have vanished from Teman.[h]
I will send disaster to punish
    you descendants of Esau,[i]
so anyone from Dedan[j]
had better turn around
    and run back home.[k]
People who harvest grapes
    leave some for the poor.
Thieves who break in at night
    take only what they want.
10 But I will take everything
that belongs to you,
    people of Edom,
and I will uncover every place
    where you try to hide.
Then you will die,
and so will your children,
    relatives, and neighbors.
11 But I can be trusted
to care for your orphans
    and widows.

12 Even those nations that don't deserve to be punished will have to drink from the cup of my anger. So how can you possibly hope to escape? 13 I, the Lord, swear in my own name that your city of Bozrah[l] and all your towns will suffer a horrible fate. They will lie in ruins forever, and people will use the name “Bozrah” as a curse word.

14 I have sent a messenger
    to command the nations
to prepare for war
    against you people of Edom.
15 Your nation will be small,
    yet hated by other nations.
16 Pride tricks you into thinking
that other nations
    look at you with fear.[m]
You live along the cliffs
and high in the mountains
    like the eagles,
but I am the Lord,
    and I will bring you down.
17 People passing by your country
will be shocked and horrified
    to see a disaster
18 (D) as bad as the destruction
of Sodom and Gomorrah
    and towns nearby.
The towns of Edom will be empty.

19 (E) I, the Lord, will attack you
    like a lion from the forest,
attacking sheep in a meadow
    along the Jordan.
In a moment the flock runs,
    and the land is empty.
Who will I choose to attack you?
    I will do it myself!
No one can force me to fight
    or chase me away.
20 Listen to my plans for you,
    people of Edom.[n]
Your children will be dragged off
    and your country destroyed.
21 The sounds of your destruction
will reach the Red Sea[o]
    and cause the earth to shake.
22 An enemy will swoop down
    to attack you,
like an eagle spreading its wings
    and circling over Bozrah.
Your warriors will be as fearful
    as women giving birth.[p]

What the Lord Says about Damascus

23 (F) The Lord says about Damascus:

The towns of Hamath and Arpad[q]
    have heard your bad news.
They have lost hope,
and worries roll over them
    like ocean waves.[r]
24 You people of Damascus
    have lost your courage,
and in panic you turn to run,
    gripped by fear and pain.[s]

25 Once I was pleased
    with your famous city.
But now I warn you, “Escape
    while you still can!”[t]
26 Soon, even your best soldiers
    will lie dead in your streets.
I, the Lord All-Powerful,
    have spoken.

27 I will set fire to your city walls
and burn down the fortresses
    King Benhadad built.

Nebuchadnezzar and the People of the Desert

28 Here is what the Lord says about the Kedar tribe and the desert villages[u] that were conquered by King Nebuchadnezzar[v] of Babylonia:

Listen, you people of Kedar
and the other tribes
    of the eastern desert.
I have told Nebuchadnezzar
    to attack and destroy you.
29 His fearsome army
    will surround you,
taking your tents and possessions,
    your sheep and camels.

30 Run and hide,
you people of the desert
    who live in villages![w]
Nebuchadnezzar has big plans
    for you.
31 You have no city walls
    and no neighbors to help,
yet you think you're safe—
    so I told him to attack.
32 Then your camels
and large herds
    will be yours no longer.

People of the Arabian Desert,[x]
disaster will strike you
    from every side,
and you will be scattered
    everywhere on earth.
33 Only jackals[y] will live
where your villages[z] once stood.
    I, the Lord, have spoken.

What the Lord Says about Elam

34-35 Not long after Zedekiah[aa] became king of Judah, the Lord told me to say:

People of Elam,[ab]
    I, the Lord All-Powerful,
will kill the archers
    who make your army strong.
36 Enemies will attack
    from all directions,
and you will be led captive
    to every nation on earth.
37 Their armies will crush
    and kill you,
and you will face the disaster
    that my anger brings.
38 Your king and his officials
will die, and I will rule
    in their place.
I, the Lord, have spoken.

39 But I promise that someday
I will bring your people
    back to their land.

Babylon Will Be Captured

50 (G) The Lord told me to say:

Announce what will happen
and don't leave anything out.
    Raise the signal flags;
shout so all nations can hear—
    Babylon will be captured!

Marduk,[ac] Babylon's god,
will be ashamed and terrified,
    and his idols broken.
The attack on the Babylonians
    will come from the north;
they and their animals will run,
    leaving the land empty.

Israel and Judah Will Return to Their Land

The Lord said:

People of Israel and Judah,
when these things happen
    you will weep, and together
you will return to your land
and worship me,
    the Lord your God.
You will ask the way to Zion
and then come and join with me
    in making an agreement
    you won't break or forget.

My people, you are lost sheep
abandoned in the mountains
    by their shepherds.
You don't even remember
    your resting place.
I am your true pastureland,
the one who gave hope
    to your ancestors.
But you abandoned me,
so when your enemies found you,
    they felt no guilt
    as they gobbled you up.

(H) Escape from Babylonia,
    my people.
Get out of that country!
    Don't wait for anyone else.
In the north I am bringing
    great nations together.
They will attack Babylon
    and capture it.
The arrows they shoot
are like the best soldiers,[ad]
    always finding their target.
10 Babylonia will be conquered,
and its enemies will carry off
    everything they want.

Babylon Will Be Disgraced

The Lord said:

11 People of Babylonia,
you were glad
    to rob my people.
You had a good time,
making more noise
    than horses
and jumping around
    like calves threshing grain.[ae]
12 The city of Babylon
    was like a mother to you.
But it will be disgraced
and become nothing
    but a barren desert.
13 My anger will destroy Babylon,
    and no one will live there.
Everyone who passes by
will be shocked to see
    what has happened.

14 Babylon has rebelled against me.
    Archers, take your places.
Shoot all your arrows at Babylon.
15     Attack from every side!

Babylon surrenders!
The enemy tears down
    its walls and towers.
I am taking my revenge
by doing to Babylon what it did
    to other cities.
16 There is no one in Babylonia
    to plant or harvest crops.
Even foreigners who lived there
have left for their homelands,
    afraid of the enemy armies.

17 Israel is a flock of sheep
    scattered by hungry lions.
The king of Assyria[af]
    first gobbled Israel up.
Then Nebuchadnezzar,[ag]
king of Babylonia,
    crunched on Israel's bones.
18 I, the Lord All-Powerful,
the God of Israel,
    punished the king of Assyria,
and I will also punish
    the king of Babylonia.
19 But I will bring Israel
    back to its own land.
The people will be like sheep
    eating their fill
on Mount Carmel
    and in Bashan,
in the hill country of Ephraim
    and in Gilead.
20 I will rescue a few people
    from Israel and Judah.
I will forgive them so completely
that their sin and guilt
    will disappear,
    never to be found.

The Lord's Commands to the Enemies of Babylonia

21 The Lord said:

I have told
    the enemies of Babylonia,
“Attack the people of Merathaim
    and Pekod.[ah]
Kill them all!
    Destroy their possessions!”

22 Sounds of war
and the noise of destruction
    can be heard.
23 Babylonia was a hammer
pounding every country,
    but now it lies broken.
What a shock to the nations
    of the world!

24 Babylonia challenged me,
    the Lord God All-Powerful,
but that nation doesn't know
it is caught in a trap
    that I set.
25 I've brought out my weapons,
and with them I will put a curse
    on Babylonia.

26 Come from far away,
    you enemies of Babylon!
Pile up the grain
    from its storehouses,
and destroy it completely,
    along with everything else.
27 Kill the soldiers of Babylonia,
because the time has come
    for them to be punished.

28 The Babylonian army
destroyed my temple,
    but soon I will take revenge.
Then refugees from Babylon
    will tell about it in Zion.

29 (I) Attack Babylon, enemy archers;
set up camp around the city,
    and don't let anyone escape.
It challenged me, the holy God,
so do to it
    what it did to other cities.

Proud Babylon Will Fall

30 People of Babylon,
    I, the Lord, promise
that even your best soldiers
    will lie dead in the streets.

31 Babylon, you should be named,
    “The Proud One.”
But the time has come when I,
the Lord All-Powerful,
    will punish you.
32 You are proud,
but you will stumble and fall,
    and no one will help you up.
I will set your villages on fire,
and everything around you
    will go up in flames.

33 You Babylonians were cruel
    to Israel and Judah.
You took them captive, and now
    you refuse to let them go.
34 But I, the Lord All-Powerful,
    will rescue and protect them.
I will bring peace to their land
    and trouble to yours.
35 I have declared war on you,
    your officials, and advisors.
36 This war will prove
that your prophets
    are liars and fools.
And it will frighten
    your warriors.
37 Then your chariot horses
and the foreigners in your army
    will refuse to go into battle,
and the enemy will carry away
    everything you treasure.
38 Your rivers and canals
    will dry up.

All of this will happen,
because your land
    is full of idols,
and they have made fools
    of you.
39 (J) Never again will people live
    in your land—
only desert animals, jackals,[ai]
    and unclean birds.
40 (K) I destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah
    and the nearby towns,
and I will destroy Babylon
    just as completely.
No one will live there again.

Babylonia Is Invaded

The Lord said:

41 Far to the north,
a nation and its allies
    have been awakened.
They are powerful
    and ready for war.
42 Bows and arrows and swords
    are in their hands.
The soldiers are cruel
    and show no pity.
The hoofbeats of their horses echo
    like ocean waves
    crashing against the shore.
The army has lined up for battle
and is coming to attack you,
    people of Babylonia!

43 Ever since your king heard
    about this army,
he has been weak with fear;
he twists and turns in pain
    like a woman giving birth.
44 Babylonia, I will attack you
    like a lion from the forest,
attacking sheep in a meadow
    along the Jordan.
In a moment the flock runs,
    and the land is empty.
Who will I choose to attack you?
    I will do it myself!
No one can force me to fight
    or chase me away.
45 Listen to my plans for you,
    people of Babylonia.
Your children will be dragged off,
    and your country destroyed.
46 The sounds of your destruction
will be heard among the nations,
    and the earth will shake.


  1. 49.1 Milcom: The national god of Ammon, probably the same as the god Molech in 32.35.
  2. 49.3 Heshbon: See also 48.45; since Heshbon was near the border of Moab and Ammon, it was probably ruled by the country that was stronger at the time.
  3. 49.3 your town will become a pile of rubble: Or “because the town of Ai has been destroyed”; referring to an Ammonite town named Ai, not the town of that name near Bethel in the land of Israel.
  4. 49.3 You will turn … blocked: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  5. 49.3 sackcloth: See the note at 4.8.
  6. 49.3 the idol you worship: Hebrew “Milcom” (see verse 1 and the note there).
  7. 49.4 when … fading: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  8. 49.7,8 Teman: The name of a town in Edom, sometimes used as the name of the northern half of the nation of Edom; here it probably stands for the whole nation.
  9. 49.7,8 Esau: The ancestor of the nation of Edom.
  10. 49.7,8 Dedan: The name of a town in northwest Arabia, also used of the northwest region of Arabia along the Red Sea.
  11. 49.7,8 anyone … home: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  12. 49.13 Bozrah: The main city and capital of Edom.
  13. 49.16 Pride … fear: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  14. 49.20 Edom: The Hebrew text also uses the name “Teman” (see the note at 49.7,8).
  15. 49.21 Red Sea: Hebrew yam suph, here referring to the Gulf of Aqaba, since the term is extended to include the northeastern arm of the Red Sea (see also the note at Exodus 13.18).
  16. 49.22 as fearful … birth: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  17. 49.23 Hamath and Arpad: Two towns in Syria that had been the capitals of small kingdoms allied with the more powerful kingdom whose capital was Damascus.
  18. 49.23 worries … waves: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  19. 49.24 gripped by fear and pain: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  20. 49.25 can: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text of verse 25.
  21. 49.28 desert villages: The Hebrew text has “kingdoms of Hazor,” which probably refers to several kingdoms of desert peoples who were not nomads, but who lived in small villages.
  22. 49.28 Nebuchadnezzar: See the note at 21.2.
  23. 49.30 villages: See the note at 49.28.
  24. 49.32 People of the Arabian Desert: One possible meaning for the difficult Hebrew text.
  25. 49.33 jackals: See the note at 9.11.
  26. 49.33 villages: See the note at 49.28.
  27. 49.34,35 Zedekiah: See the note at 1.3.
  28. 49.34,35 Elam: A nation east of Babylonia, attacked by Nebuchadnezzar about 596 b.c.
  29. 50.2 Marduk: The Hebrew text has “Bel” and “Marduk,” two names for the same god.
  30. 50.9 the best soldiers: Some Hebrew manuscripts and two ancient translations; most Hebrew manuscripts “soldiers that kill children.”
  31. 50.11 threshing grain: Hebrew; two ancient translations “in a pasture.”
  32. 50.17 king of Assyria: Either Shalmaneser V, who ruled 726–722 b.c., conquered most of the northern kingdom, and surrounded its capital city Samaria; or Sargon II, who ruled 721–705 b.c. and took thousands of prisoners back to Assyria.
  33. 50.17 Nebuchadnezzar: See the note at 21.2.
  34. 50.21 Merathaim … Pekod: Hebrew forms of two Babylonian names that refer to the land of Babylonia. Merathaim probably referred to lagoons near the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers or to the Persian Gulf, but in Hebrew it means “Twice as Rebellious.” Pekod referred to a tribe of southeastern Babylonia, but in Hebrew it means “Punishment.”
  35. 50.39 jackals: See the note at 9.11.

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