The Remnant of Israel

11 I ask then: Did God reject his people? By no means!(A) I am an Israelite myself, a descendant of Abraham,(B) from the tribe of Benjamin.(C) God did not reject his people,(D) whom he foreknew.(E) Don’t you know what Scripture says in the passage about Elijah—how he appealed to God against Israel: “Lord, they have killed your prophets and torn down your altars; I am the only one left, and they are trying to kill me”[a]?(F) And what was God’s answer to him? “I have reserved for myself seven thousand who have not bowed the knee to Baal.”[b](G) So too, at the present time there is a remnant(H) chosen by grace.(I) And if by grace, then it cannot be based on works;(J) if it were, grace would no longer be grace.

What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain.(K) The elect among them did, but the others were hardened,(L) as it is written:

“God gave them a spirit of stupor,
    eyes that could not see
    and ears that could not hear,(M)
to this very day.”[c](N)

And David says:

“May their table become a snare and a trap,
    a stumbling block and a retribution for them.
10 May their eyes be darkened so they cannot see,(O)
    and their backs be bent forever.”[d](P)

Ingrafted Branches

11 Again I ask: Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all!(Q) Rather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles(R) to make Israel envious.(S) 12 But if their transgression means riches for the world, and their loss means riches for the Gentiles,(T) how much greater riches will their full inclusion bring!

13 I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles,(U) I take pride in my ministry 14 in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy(V) and save(W) some of them. 15 For if their rejection brought reconciliation(X) to the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?(Y) 16 If the part of the dough offered as firstfruits(Z) is holy, then the whole batch is holy; if the root is holy, so are the branches.

17 If some of the branches have been broken off,(AA) and you, though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others(AB) and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive root, 18 do not consider yourself to be superior to those other branches. If you do, consider this: You do not support the root, but the root supports you.(AC) 19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 20 Granted. But they were broken off because of unbelief, and you stand by faith.(AD) Do not be arrogant,(AE) but tremble.(AF) 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, he will not spare you either.

22 Consider therefore the kindness(AG) and sternness of God: sternness to those who fell, but kindness to you, provided that you continue(AH) in his kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off.(AI) 23 And if they do not persist in unbelief, they will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.(AJ) 24 After all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree,(AK) how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree!

All Israel Will Be Saved

25 I do not want you to be ignorant(AL) of this mystery,(AM) brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited:(AN) Israel has experienced a hardening(AO) in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in,(AP) 26 and in this way[e] all Israel will be saved.(AQ) As it is written:

“The deliverer will come from Zion;
    he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.
27 And this is[f] my covenant with them
    when I take away their sins.”[g](AR)

28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies(AS) for your sake; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs,(AT) 29 for God’s gifts and his call(AU) are irrevocable.(AV) 30 Just as you who were at one time disobedient(AW) to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience, 31 so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now[h] receive mercy as a result of God’s mercy to you. 32 For God has bound everyone over to disobedience(AX) so that he may have mercy on them all.


33 Oh, the depth of the riches(AY) of the wisdom and[i] knowledge of God!(AZ)
    How unsearchable his judgments,
    and his paths beyond tracing out!(BA)
34 “Who has known the mind of the Lord?
    Or who has been his counselor?”[j](BB)
35 “Who has ever given to God,
    that God should repay them?”[k](BC)
36 For from him and through him and for him are all things.(BD)
    To him be the glory forever! Amen.(BE)

A Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore, I urge you,(BF) brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,(BG) holy and pleasing to God—this is your true and proper worship. Do not conform(BH) to the pattern of this world,(BI) but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.(BJ) Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is(BK)—his good, pleasing(BL) and perfect will.

Humble Service in the Body of Christ

For by the grace given me(BM) I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. For just as each of us has one body with many members, and these members do not all have the same function,(BN) so in Christ we, though many, form one body,(BO) and each member belongs to all the others. We have different gifts,(BP) according to the grace given to each of us. If your gift is prophesying,(BQ) then prophesy in accordance with your[l] faith;(BR) if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teach;(BS) if it is to encourage, then give encouragement;(BT) if it is giving, then give generously;(BU) if it is to lead,[m] do it diligently; if it is to show mercy, do it cheerfully.

Love in Action

Love must be sincere.(BV) Hate what is evil; cling to what is good.(BW) 10 Be devoted to one another in love.(BX) Honor one another above yourselves.(BY) 11 Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor,(BZ) serving the Lord. 12 Be joyful in hope,(CA) patient in affliction,(CB) faithful in prayer.(CC) 13 Share with the Lord’s people who are in need.(CD) Practice hospitality.(CE)

14 Bless those who persecute you;(CF) bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn.(CG) 16 Live in harmony with one another.(CH) Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.[n] Do not be conceited.(CI)

17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil.(CJ) Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everyone.(CK) 18 If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.(CL) 19 Do not take revenge,(CM) my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,”[o](CN) says the Lord. 20 On the contrary:

“If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
    if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.”[p](CO)

21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Submission to Governing Authorities

13 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities,(CP) for there is no authority except that which God has established.(CQ) The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted,(CR) and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended.(CS) For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.(CT) Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.(CU)

This is also why you pay taxes,(CV) for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes;(CW) if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.

Love Fulfills the Law

Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for whoever loves others has fulfilled the law.(CX) The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not covet,”[q](CY) and whatever other command there may be, are summed up(CZ) in this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.”[r](DA) 10 Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.(DB)

The Day Is Near

11 And do this, understanding the present time: The hour has already come(DC) for you to wake up from your slumber,(DD) because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. 12 The night is nearly over; the day is almost here.(DE) So let us put aside the deeds of darkness(DF) and put on the armor(DG) of light. 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness,(DH) not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy.(DI) 14 Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ,(DJ) and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the flesh.[s](DK)

The Weak and the Strong

14 Accept the one whose faith is weak,(DL) without quarreling over disputable matters. One person’s faith allows them to eat anything, but another, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables.(DM) The one who eats everything must not treat with contempt(DN) the one who does not, and the one who does not eat everything must not judge(DO) the one who does, for God has accepted them. Who are you to judge someone else’s servant?(DP) To their own master, servants stand or fall. And they will stand, for the Lord is able to make them stand.

One person considers one day more sacred than another;(DQ) another considers every day alike. Each of them should be fully convinced in their own mind. Whoever regards one day as special does so to the Lord. Whoever eats meat does so to the Lord, for they give thanks to God;(DR) and whoever abstains does so to the Lord and gives thanks to God. For none of us lives for ourselves alone,(DS) and none of us dies for ourselves alone. If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord.(DT) For this very reason, Christ died and returned to life(DU) so that he might be the Lord of both the dead and the living.(DV)

10 You, then, why do you judge your brother or sister[t]? Or why do you treat them with contempt?(DW) For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat.(DX) 11 It is written:

“‘As surely as I live,’(DY) says the Lord,
‘every knee will bow before me;
    every tongue will acknowledge God.’”[u](DZ)

12 So then, each of us will give an account of ourselves to God.(EA)

13 Therefore let us stop passing judgment(EB) on one another. Instead, make up your mind not to put any stumbling block or obstacle in the way of a brother or sister.(EC) 14 I am convinced, being fully persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean in itself.(ED) But if anyone regards something as unclean, then for that person it is unclean.(EE) 15 If your brother or sister is distressed because of what you eat, you are no longer acting in love.(EF) Do not by your eating destroy someone for whom Christ died.(EG) 16 Therefore do not let what you know is good be spoken of as evil.(EH) 17 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking,(EI) but of righteousness, peace(EJ) and joy in the Holy Spirit,(EK) 18 because anyone who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and receives human approval.(EL)

19 Let us therefore make every effort to do what leads to peace(EM) and to mutual edification.(EN) 20 Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food.(EO) All food is clean,(EP) but it is wrong for a person to eat anything that causes someone else to stumble.(EQ) 21 It is better not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause your brother or sister to fall.(ER)

22 So whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who does not condemn(ES) himself by what he approves. 23 But whoever has doubts(ET) is condemned if they eat, because their eating is not from faith; and everything that does not come from faith is sin.[v]


  1. Romans 11:3 1 Kings 19:10,14
  2. Romans 11:4 1 Kings 19:18
  3. Romans 11:8 Deut. 29:4; Isaiah 29:10
  4. Romans 11:10 Psalm 69:22,23
  5. Romans 11:26 Or and so
  6. Romans 11:27 Or will be
  7. Romans 11:27 Isaiah 59:20,21; 27:9 (see Septuagint); Jer. 31:33,34
  8. Romans 11:31 Some manuscripts do not have now.
  9. Romans 11:33 Or riches and the wisdom and the
  10. Romans 11:34 Isaiah 40:13
  11. Romans 11:35 Job 41:11
  12. Romans 12:6 Or the
  13. Romans 12:8 Or to provide for others
  14. Romans 12:16 Or willing to do menial work
  15. Romans 12:19 Deut. 32:35
  16. Romans 12:20 Prov. 25:21,22
  17. Romans 13:9 Exodus 20:13-15,17; Deut. 5:17-19,21
  18. Romans 13:9 Lev. 19:18
  19. Romans 13:14 In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit.
  20. Romans 14:10 The Greek word for brother or sister (adelphos) refers here to a believer, whether man or woman, as part of God’s family; also in verses 13, 15 and 21.
  21. Romans 14:11 Isaiah 45:23
  22. Romans 14:23 Some manuscripts place 16:25-27 here; others after 15:33.

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