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Lukas 19 Hoffnung für Alle (HOF)

Jesus bei Zachäus

19 Jesus zog mit seinen Jüngern durch Jericho. Dort lebte ein sehr reicher Mann namens Zachäus, der oberste Zolleinnehmer. Zachäus wollte Jesus unbedingt sehen; aber er war sehr klein, und die Menschenmenge machte ihm keinen Platz. Da rannte er ein Stück voraus und kletterte auf einen Maulbeerfeigenbaum, der am Weg stand. Von hier aus hoffte er, einen Blick auf Jesus werfen zu können. Als Jesus dort vorbeikam, schaute er hinauf und rief: »Zachäus, komm schnell herunter! Ich soll heute dein Gast sein!« Eilig stieg Zachäus vom Baum herunter und nahm Jesus voller Freude mit in sein Haus.

Als die Leute das sahen, empörten sie sich über Jesus: »Wie kann er das nur tun? Er lädt sich bei einem Gauner und Betrüger[a] ein!«

Zachäus aber wandte sich an Jesus und sagte: »Herr, ich werde die Hälfte meines Vermögens an die Armen verteilen, und wem ich am Zoll zu viel abgenommen habe, dem gebe ich es vierfach zurück.« Da entgegnete ihm Jesus: »Heute hat Gott dir und allen, die in deinem Haus leben, Rettung gebracht. Denn auch du bist ein Nachkomme von Abraham. 10 Der Menschensohn ist gekommen, Verlorene zu suchen und zu retten.«

Beauftragt zu handeln (Matthäus 25,14‒30)

11 Die Leute hörten Jesus aufmerksam zu. Sie meinten, Gottes Reich würde unmittelbar anbrechen, sobald Jesus in Jerusalem eintraf. Darum erzählte er ihnen noch ein Gleichnis:

12 »Ein Fürst trat eine weite Reise an, um sich zum König über sein Volk krönen zu lassen. Dann sollte er wieder in sein Land zurückkehren. 13 Bevor er abreiste, rief er zehn seiner Verwalter zu sich, gab jedem ein Pfund Silberstücke und sagte: ›Setzt dieses Geld gewinnbringend ein, bis ich zurückkomme!‹

14 Die Bürger seines Landes aber hassten ihn. Sie schickten eine Gesandtschaft hinter ihm her mit der Erklärung: ›Diesen Mann werden wir nicht als Herrscher anerkennen!‹ 15 Trotzdem wurde er gekrönt und kam als König in sein Land zurück. Er befahl die Diener zu sich, denen er das Geld gegeben hatte, und wollte wissen, welchen Gewinn sie damit erzielt hatten.

16 Der erste kam und berichtete: ›Herr, ich konnte mit deinem Geld das Zehnfache als Gewinn erwirtschaften.‹ 17 ›Ausgezeichnet!‹, rief der König. ›Du bist ein tüchtiger Verwalter! Du bist in dieser kleinen Aufgabe treu gewesen, darum vertraue ich dir die Verwaltung von zehn Städten an.‹ 18 Darauf trat der nächste Mann vor und berichtete: ›Herr, ich konnte mit deinem Pfund Silberstücke das Fünffache hinzuverdienen.‹ 19 ›Gut!‹, antwortete sein Herr. ›Du wirst Verwalter von fünf Städten.‹

20 Nun trat ein anderer Diener vor und sagte: ›Herr, hier hast du dein Geld zurück. Ich habe es in ein Tuch eingewickelt und aufbewahrt! 21 Ich fürchte dich als strengen Herrn. Denn du nimmst, was dir nicht gehört, und du erntest, was andere gesät haben.‹ 22 Da rief der König zornig: ›Du richtest dich mit deinen eigenen Worten, du böser Verwalter! Wenn du schon der Meinung bist, dass ich ein strenger Herr bin, dass ich nehme, was mir nicht gehört, und ernte, was andere gesät haben, 23 warum hast du mein Geld dann nicht zur Bank gebracht? Dann hätte ich immerhin noch Zinsen dafür verlangen können!‹

24 Er forderte die Umstehenden auf: ›Nehmt ihm das Geld weg und gebt es dem, der zehn Pfund Silberstücke erwirtschaftet hat.‹ 25 ›Aber Herr‹, widersprachen seine Leute, ›der hat doch schon genug!‹ 26 Da erwiderte der König: ›Eins ist sicher: Wer viel hat, der bekommt noch mehr dazu. Wer aber nichts hat, dem wird selbst noch das Wenige, das er hat, genommen!

27 Doch jetzt holt meine Feinde her, die mich nicht als König anerkennen wollten, und bringt sie vor meinen Augen um!‹«

Jesus wird als König empfangen (Matthäus 21,1‒11; Markus 11,1‒11; Johannes 12,12‒19)

28 Nachdem Jesus dieses Gleichnis erzählt hatte, ging er weiter nach Jerusalem. 29 In der Nähe von Betfage und Betanien, zwei Ortschaften am Ölberg, schickte er zwei seiner Jünger voraus mit dem Auftrag: 30 »Geht in das Dorf da vorne! Gleich am Ortseingang werdet ihr einen jungen Esel finden, der dort angebunden ist. Auf ihm ist noch nie jemand geritten. Bindet ihn los und bringt ihn her! 31 Sollte euch jemand fragen, warum ihr das tut, dann sagt einfach: ›Der Herr braucht ihn.‹«

32 Die Jünger gingen dorthin und fanden alles so, wie Jesus es ihnen beschrieben hatte. 33 Als sie den Esel losbanden, fragten die Besitzer: »Warum tut ihr das?« 34 Sie antworteten: »Der Herr braucht ihn.«

35 Dann brachten sie den jungen Esel zu Jesus. Sie legten dem Tier ihre Mäntel auf den Rücken und ließen Jesus aufsteigen. 36 So zog er weiter, und die Menschen breiteten ihre Kleider als Teppich vor ihm aus.

37 Als Jesus sich schon der Stelle näherte, wo der Weg vom Ölberg nach Jerusalem hinunterführt, brach die ganze Menge der Jünger in Jubel aus. Sie dankten Gott für die vielen Wunder, die sie miterlebt hatten. Laut sangen sie:

38 »Gepriesen sei der König, der im Auftrag des Herrn kommt! Gott hat Frieden mit uns geschlossen. Lob und Ehre sei Gott hoch im Himmel!«

39 Empört riefen da einige Pharisäer aus der Menge: »Lehrer, verbiete das deinen Jüngern!« 40 Er antwortete ihnen: »Glaubt mir: Wenn sie schweigen, dann werden die Steine am Weg schreien.«

Tränen über eine Stadt

41 Als Jesus die Stadt Jerusalem vor sich liegen sah, weinte er über sie. 42 »Wenn doch auch du heute erkannt hättest, was dir Frieden bringt!«, rief er. »Aber jetzt bist du mit Blindheit geschlagen. 43 Es kommt eine Zeit, in der deine Feinde einen Wall um deine Mauern aufschütten und dich von allen Seiten belagern. 44 Sie werden dich dem Erdboden gleichmachen und deine Bewohner töten. Kein Stein wird auf dem anderen bleiben. Denn du hast die Gelegenheit, als Gott dir nahekam, nicht genutzt.«

Jesus jagt die Händler aus dem Tempel (Matthäus 21,12‒17; Markus 11,15‒19; Johannes 2,13‒16)

45 Kaum hatte Jesus den Tempel betreten, da begann er, die Händler hinauszujagen, 46 und rief ihnen zu: »Ihr wisst doch, was Gott in der Heiligen Schrift sagt: ›Mein Haus soll ein Ort des Gebets sein‹,[b] ihr aber habt eine Räuberhöhle daraus gemacht!«

47 Jeden Tag lehrte Jesus im Tempel. Währenddessen suchten die obersten Priester, die Schriftgelehrten und die führenden Männer des Volkes nach einer passenden Gelegenheit, ihn umzubringen. 48 Aber sie wussten nicht, wie sie es anstellen sollten, denn die Menschen folgten Jesus überallhin und achteten auf jedes seiner Worte.

Footnotes:

  1. 19,7 Wörtlich: bei einem Sünder.
  2. 19,46 Jesaja 56,7
Hoffnung für Alle (HOF)

Hoffnung für Alle® (Hope for All) Copyright © 1983, 1996, 2002 by Biblica, Inc.®

Lukas 19 Schlachter 2000 (SCH2000)

Der Oberzöllner Zachäus

19 Und er kam nach Jericho hinein und zog hindurch.

Und siehe, da war ein Mann, genannt Zachäus, ein Oberzöllner, und dieser war reich.

Und er wollte gerne Jesus sehen, wer er sei, und konnte es nicht wegen der Volksmenge; denn er war von kleiner Gestalt.

Da lief er voraus und stieg auf einen Maulbeerbaum, um ihn zu sehen; denn dort sollte er vorbeikommen.

Und als Jesus an den Ort kam, blickte er auf und sah ihn und sprach zu ihm: Zachäus, steige schnell herab; denn heute muss ich in deinem Haus einkehren!

Und er stieg schnell herab und nahm ihn auf mit Freuden.

Als sie es aber sahen, murrten sie alle und sprachen: Er ist bei einem sündigen Mann eingekehrt, um Herberge zu nehmen!

Zachäus aber trat hin und sprach zu dem Herrn: Siehe, Herr, die Hälfte meiner Güter gebe ich den Armen, und wenn ich jemand betrogen habe, so gebe ich es vierfältig zurück!

Und Jesus sprach zu ihm: Heute ist diesem Haus Heil widerfahren, weil auch er ein Sohn Abrahams ist;

10 denn der Sohn des Menschen ist gekommen, um zu suchen und zu retten, was verloren ist.

Das Gleichnis von den anvertrauten Pfunden

11 Als sie aber dies hörten, fuhr er fort und sagte ein Gleichnis, weil er nahe bei Jerusalem war und sie meinten, das Reich Gottes würde unverzüglich erscheinen.

12 Er sprach nun: Ein Edelmann zog in ein fernes Land, um sich die Königswürde zu holen und dann wiederzukommen.

13 Und er rief zehn seiner Knechte, gab ihnen zehn Pfunde und sprach zu ihnen: Handelt damit, bis ich wiederkomme!

14 Seine Bürger aber hassten ihn und schickten ihm eine Gesandtschaft nach und ließen sagen: Wir wollen nicht, dass dieser über uns herrsche!

15 Und es geschah, als er wiederkam, nachdem er die Königswürde empfangen hatte, da ließ er die Knechte, denen er das Geld gegeben hatte, vor sich rufen, um zu erfahren, was jeder erhandelt habe.

16 Da kam der erste und sprach: Herr, dein Pfund hat zehn Pfund dazugewonnen!

17 Und er sprach zu ihm: Recht so, du guter Knecht! Weil du im Geringsten treu gewesen bist, sollst du Vollmacht über zehn Städte haben!

18 Und der zweite kam und sprach: Herr, dein Pfund hat fünf Pfund erworben!

19 Er aber sprach auch zu diesem: So sollst auch du über fünf Städte gesetzt sein!

20 Und ein anderer kam und sprach: Herr, siehe, hier ist dein Pfund, das ich im Schweißtuch aufbewahrt habe!

21 Denn ich fürchtete dich, weil du ein strenger Mann bist; du nimmst, was du nicht eingelegt, und erntest, was du nicht gesät hast.

22 Da sprach er zu ihm: Nach [dem Wort] deines Mundes will ich dich richten, du böser Knecht! Wusstest du, dass ich ein strenger Mann bin, dass ich nehme, was ich nicht eingelegt, und ernte, was ich nicht gesät habe?

23 Warum hast du dann mein Geld nicht auf der Bank angelegt, sodass ich es bei meiner Ankunft mit Zinsen hätte einziehen können?

24 Und zu den Umstehenden sprach er: Nehmt ihm das Pfund weg und gebt es dem, der die zehn Pfunde hat!

25 Da sagten sie zu ihm: Herr, er hat schon zehn Pfunde!

26 Denn ich sage euch: Wer hat, dem wird gegeben werden; von dem aber, der nicht hat, von ihm wird auch das genommen werden, was er hat.

27 Doch jene meine Feinde, die nicht wollten, dass ich König über sie werde — bringt sie her und erschlagt sie vor mir!

Der Einzug des Messias Jesus in Jerusalem

28 Und nachdem er das gesagt hatte, zog er weiter und reiste hinauf nach Jerusalem.

29 Und es geschah, als er in die Nähe von Bethphage und Bethanien kam, zu dem Berg, welcher Ölberg heißt, da sandte er zwei seiner Jünger

30 und sprach: Geht in das Dorf, das vor euch liegt; und wenn ihr hineinkommt, werdet ihr ein Füllen angebunden finden, auf dem noch nie ein Mensch gesessen hat; bindet es los und führt es her!

31 Und wenn euch jemand fragt: Warum bindet ihr es los?, dann sprecht so zu ihm: Der Herr braucht es!

32 Da gingen die Abgesandten hin und fanden es, wie er ihnen gesagt hatte.

33 Als sie aber das Füllen losbanden, sprachen seine Besitzer zu ihnen: Warum bindet ihr das Füllen los?

34 Sie aber sprachen: Der Herr braucht es!

35 Und sie brachten es zu Jesus und warfen ihre Kleider auf das Füllen und setzten Jesus darauf.

36 Als er aber weiterzog, breiteten sie ihre Kleider aus auf dem Weg.

37 Und als er sich schon dem Abhang des Ölberges näherte, fing die ganze Menge der Jünger freudig an, Gott zu loben mit lauter Stimme wegen all der Wundertaten, die sie gesehen hatten,

38 und sie sprachen: Gepriesen sei der König, der kommt im Namen des Herrn![a] Friede im Himmel und Ehre in der Höhe!

39 Und etliche der Pharisäer unter der Volksmenge sprachen zu ihm: Meister, weise deine Jünger zurecht!

40 Und er antwortete und sprach zu ihnen: Ich sage euch: Wenn diese schweigen sollten, dann würden die Steine schreien!

Jesus weint über Jerusalem

41 Und als er näher kam und die Stadt sah, weinte er über sie

42 und sprach: Wenn doch auch du erkannt hättest, wenigstens noch an diesem deinem Tag, was zu deinem Frieden dient! Nun aber ist es vor deinen Augen verborgen.

43 Denn es werden Tage über dich kommen, da deine Feinde einen Wall um dich aufschütten, dich ringsum einschließen und von allen Seiten bedrängen werden;

44 und sie werden dich dem Erdboden gleichmachen, auch deine Kinder in dir, und in dir keinen Stein auf dem anderen lassen, weil du die Zeit deiner Heimsuchung[b] nicht erkannt hast!

Die zweite Tempelreinigung

45 Und er ging in den Tempel hinein und fing an, die Verkäufer und Käufer darin hinauszutreiben,

46 und sprach zu ihnen: Es steht geschrieben: »Mein Haus ist ein Bethaus«.[c] Ihr aber habt eine Räuberhöhle daraus gemacht!

47 Und er lehrte täglich im Tempel; die obersten Priester aber und die Schriftgelehrten und die Vornehmsten des Volkes trachteten danach, ihn umzubringen;

48 doch sie fanden keinen Weg, wie sie es tun sollten; denn das ganze Volk hing an ihm und hörte ihm zu.

Footnotes:

  1. (19,38) vgl. Ps 118,26.
  2. (19,44) Das Wort bezeichnet den Besuch eines Höherstehenden zur Fürsorge und Hilfe, aber auch zur Aufsicht und Rechtsprechung; hier meint es den gnädigen Besuch des Herrn, der Jerusalem Umkehr und Rettung anbot. Für »Zeit« steht hier kairos = die besondere, von Gott festgesetzte Zeit.
  3. (19,46) w. ein Haus des Gebets (vgl. Jes 56,7).
Schlachter 2000 (SCH2000)

Copyright © 2000 by Geneva Bible Society

Luke 19 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Jesus and Zacchaeus

19 Jesus[a] entered Jericho and was passing through it. Now[b] a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax collector[c] and was rich. He[d] was trying to get a look at Jesus,[e] but being a short man he could not see over the crowd.[f] So[g] he ran on ahead and climbed up into a sycamore tree[h] to see him, because Jesus[i] was going to pass that way. And when Jesus came to that place, he looked up[j] and said to him, “Zacchaeus, come down quickly,[k] because I must[l] stay at your house today.”[m] So he came down quickly[n] and welcomed Jesus[o] joyfully.[p] And when the people[q] saw it, they all complained,[r] “He has gone in to be the guest of a man who is a sinner.”[s] But Zacchaeus stopped and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord, half of my possessions I now give[t] to the poor, and if[u] I have cheated anyone of anything, I am paying back four times as much!” Then[v] Jesus said to him, “Today salvation[w] has come to this household,[x] because he too is a son of Abraham![y] 10 For the Son of Man came[z] to seek and to save the lost.”

The Parable of the Ten Minas

11 While the people were listening to these things, Jesus[aa] proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, and because they thought[ab] that the kingdom of God[ac] was going to[ad] appear immediately. 12 Therefore he said, “A nobleman[ae] went to a distant country to receive[af] for himself a kingdom and then return.[ag] 13 And he summoned ten of his slaves,[ah] gave them ten minas,[ai] and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ 14 But his citizens[aj] hated[ak] him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man[al] to be king[am] over us!’ 15 When[an] he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned[ao] these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted[ap] to know how much they had earned[aq] by trading. 16 So[ar] the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir,[as] your mina[at] has made ten minas more.’ 17 And the king[au] said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful[av] in a very small matter, you will have authority[aw] over ten cities.’ 18 Then[ax] the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ 19 So[ay] the king[az] said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ 20 Then another[ba] slave[bb] came and said, ‘Sir, here is[bc] your mina that I put away for safekeeping[bd] in a piece of cloth.[be] 21 For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe[bf] man. You withdraw[bg] what you did not deposit[bh] and reap what you did not sow.’ 22 The king[bi] said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words,[bj] you wicked slave![bk] So you knew, did you, that I was a severe[bl] man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? 23 Why then didn’t you put[bm] my money in the bank,[bn] so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ 24 And he said to his attendants,[bo] ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’[bp] 25 But[bq] they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’[br] 26 ‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more,[bs] but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away.[bt] 27 But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king,[bu] bring them here and slaughter[bv] them[bw] in front of me!’”

The Triumphal Entry

28 After Jesus[bx] had said this, he continued on ahead,[by] going up to Jerusalem.[bz] 29 Now[ca] when he approached Bethphage[cb] and Bethany, at the place called the Mount of Olives,[cc] he sent two of the disciples, 30 telling them,[cd] “Go to the village ahead of you.[ce] When[cf] you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden.[cg] Untie it and bring it here. 31 If anyone asks you, ‘Why are you untying it?’ just say, ‘The Lord needs[ch] it.’” 32 So those who were sent ahead found[ci] it exactly[cj] as he had told them. 33 As[ck] they were untying the colt, its owners asked them,[cl] “Why are you untying that colt?” 34 They replied, “The Lord needs it.” 35 Then[cm] they brought it to Jesus, threw their cloaks[cn] on the colt,[co] and had Jesus get on[cp] it. 36 As[cq] he rode along, they[cr] spread their cloaks on the road. 37 As he approached the road leading down from[cs] the Mount of Olives,[ct] the whole crowd of his[cu] disciples began to rejoice[cv] and praise[cw] God with a loud voice for all the mighty works[cx] they had seen:[cy] 38 Blessed is the king[cz] who comes in the name of the Lord![da] Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” 39 But[db] some of the Pharisees[dc] in the crowd said to him, “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.”[dd] 40 He answered,[de] “I tell you, if they[df] keep silent, the very stones[dg] will cry out!”

Jesus Weeps for Jerusalem under Judgment

41 Now[dh] when Jesus[di] approached[dj] and saw the city, he wept over it, 42 saying, “If you had only known on this day,[dk] even you, the things that make for peace![dl] But now they are hidden[dm] from your eyes. 43 For the days will come upon you when your enemies will build[dn] an embankment[do] against you and surround you and close in on you from every side. 44 They will demolish you[dp]—you and your children within your walls[dq]—and they will not leave within you one stone[dr] on top of another,[ds] because you did not recognize the time of your visitation from God.”[dt]

Cleansing the Temple

45 Then[du] Jesus[dv] entered the temple courts[dw] and began to drive out those who were selling things there,[dx] 46 saying to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be a house of prayer,’[dy] but you have turned it into a den[dz] of robbers!”[ea]

47 Jesus[eb] was teaching daily in the temple courts. The chief priests and the experts in the law[ec] and the prominent leaders among the people were seeking to assassinate[ed] him, 48 but[ee] they could not find a way to do it,[ef] for all the people hung on his words.[eg]

Footnotes:

  1. Luke 19:1 tn Grk “And entering, he passed through”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  2. Luke 19:2 tn Grk “And behold.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new character. The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  3. Luke 19:2 sn This is the one place in the NT the office of chief tax collector is noted. If the term refers to a managerial rank, this individual would organize and oversee the other tax collectors and collect significant commissions (see also the note on the word tax collector in 3:12). It is possible, however, that in this context the term simply means “major tax collector” and is a comment on the individual’s importance or wealth rather than his rank (see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT] 1:1516).
  4. Luke 19:3 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  5. Luke 19:3 tn Grk “He was trying to see who Jesus was.”
  6. Luke 19:3 tn Grk “and he was not able to because of the crowd, for he was short in stature.”
  7. Luke 19:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Zacchaeus not being able to see over the crowd.
  8. Luke 19:4 sn A sycamore tree would have large branches near the ground like an oak tree and would be fairly easy to climb. These trees reach a height of some 50 ft (about 15 m).
  9. Luke 19:4 tn Grk “that one”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Luke 19:5 tc Most mss (A [D] W [Ψ] ƒ13 33vid M latt) read “Jesus looking up, saw him and said.” The words “saw him and” are not in א B L T Θ ƒ1 579 1241 2542 co. Both the testimony for the omission and the natural tendency toward scribal expansion argue for the shorter reading here.
  11. Luke 19:5 tn Grk “hastening, come down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.
  12. Luke 19:5 sn I must stay. Jesus revealed the necessity of his associating with people like Zacchaeus (5:31-32). This act of fellowship indicated acceptance.
  13. Luke 19:5 sn On today here and in v. 9, see the note on today in 2:11.
  14. Luke 19:6 tn Grk “hastening, he came down.” σπεύσας (speusas) has been translated as a participle of manner.
  15. Luke 19:6 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  16. Luke 19:6 tn The participle χαίρων (chairōn) has been taken as indicating manner.sn Zacchaeus responded joyfully. Luke likes to mention joy as a response to what God was doing (1:14; 2:10; 10:20; 13:17; 15:5, 32; 19:37; 24:41, 52).
  17. Luke 19:7 tn Grk “they”; the referent is unspecified but is probably the crowd in general, who would have no great love for a man like Zacchaeus who had enriched himself many times over at their expense.
  18. Luke 19:7 tn This term is used only twice in the NT, both times in Luke (here and 15:2) and has negative connotations both times (BDAG 227 s.v. διαγογγύζω). The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  19. Luke 19:7 sn Being the guest of a man who is a sinner was a common complaint about Jesus: Luke 5:31-32; 7:37-50; 15:1-2.
  20. Luke 19:8 sn Zacchaeus was a penitent man who resolved on the spot to act differently in the face of Jesus’ acceptance of him. In resolving to give half his possessions to the poor, Zacchaeus was not defending himself against the crowd’s charges and claiming to be righteous. Rather as a result of this meeting with Jesus, he was a changed individual. So Jesus could speak of salvation coming that day (v. 9) and of the lost being saved (v. 10).
  21. Luke 19:8 tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text. It virtually confesses fraud.
  22. Luke 19:9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative
  23. Luke 19:9 sn This is one of the few uses of the specific term salvation in Luke (1:69, 71, 77), though the concept runs throughout the Gospel.
  24. Luke 19:9 sn The household is not a reference to the building, but to the people who lived within it (L&N 10.8).
  25. Luke 19:9 sn Zacchaeus was personally affirmed by Jesus as a descendant (son) of Abraham and a member of God’s family.
  26. Luke 19:10 sn The Son of Man came to seek and to save the lost is Jesus’ mission succinctly defined. See Luke 15:1-32.
  27. Luke 19:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  28. Luke 19:11 tn The present active infinitive δοκεῖν (dokein) has been translated as causal.
  29. Luke 19:11 sn Luke means here the appearance of the full kingdom of God in power with the Son of Man as judge as Luke 17:22-37 describes.
  30. Luke 19:11 tn Or perhaps, “the kingdom of God must appear immediately (see L&N 71.36).
  31. Luke 19:12 tn Grk “a man of noble birth” or “a man of noble status” (L&N 87.27).
  32. Luke 19:12 sn Note that the receiving of the kingdom takes place in the far country. This suggests that those in the far country recognize and acknowledge the king when his own citizens did not want him as king (v. 14; cf. John 1:11-12).
  33. Luke 19:12 sn The background to this story about the nobleman who wentto receive for himself a kingdom had some parallels in the area’s recent history: Archelaus was appointed ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea in 4 b.c., but the people did not like him. Herod the Great also made a similar journey to Rome where he was crowned King of Judea in 40 b.c., although he was not able to claim his kingdom until 37 b.c.
  34. Luke 19:13 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 7:2.
  35. Luke 19:13 sn That is, one for each. A mina was a Greek monetary unit worth 100 denarii or about four months’ wages for an average worker based on a six-day work week.
  36. Luke 19:14 tn Or “subjects.” Technically these people were not his subjects yet, but would be upon his return. They were citizens of his country who opposed his appointment as their king; later the newly-appointed king will refer to them as his “enemies” (v. 27).
  37. Luke 19:14 tn The imperfect is intense in this context, suggesting an ongoing attitude.
  38. Luke 19:14 tn Grk “this one” (somewhat derogatory in this context).
  39. Luke 19:14 tn Or “to rule.”
  40. Luke 19:15 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  41. Luke 19:15 tn Grk “he said for these slaves to be called to him.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one and simplified to “he summoned.”
  42. Luke 19:15 tn Grk “in order that he might know” (a continuation of the preceding sentence). Due to the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he” as subject and the verb “wanted” to convey the idea of purpose.
  43. Luke 19:15 sn The Greek verb earned refers to profit from engaging in commerce and trade (L&N 57.195). This is an examination of stewardship.
  44. Luke 19:16 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the royal summons.
  45. Luke 19:16 tn Or “Lord”; or “Master.” (and so throughout this paragraph).
  46. Luke 19:16 tn See the note on the word “minas” in v. 13.
  47. Luke 19:17 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  48. Luke 19:17 tn See Luke 16:10.
  49. Luke 19:17 sn The faithful slave received expanded responsibility (authority over ten cities) as a result of his faithfulness; this in turn is an exhortation to faithfulness for the reader.
  50. Luke 19:18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  51. Luke 19:19 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the second slave’s report.
  52. Luke 19:19 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  53. Luke 19:20 sn Though ten were given minas, the story stops to focus on the one who did nothing with the opportunity given to him. Here is the parable’s warning about the one who does not trust the master. This figure is called “another,” marking him out as different than the first two.
  54. Luke 19:20 tn The word “slave” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied for stylistic reasons.
  55. Luke 19:20 tn Grk “behold.”
  56. Luke 19:20 tn Or “that I stored away.” L&N 85.53 defines ἀπόκειμαι (apokeimai) here as “to put something away for safekeeping—‘to store, to put away in a safe place.’”
  57. Luke 19:20 tn The piece of cloth, called a σουδάριον (soudarion), could have been a towel, napkin, handkerchief, or face cloth (L&N 6.159).
  58. Luke 19:21 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”
  59. Luke 19:21 tn Grk “man, taking out.” The Greek word can refer to withdrawing money from a bank (L&N 57.218), and in this context of financial accountability that is the most probable meaning. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “you” as subject and translating the participle αἴρεις (aireis) as a finite verb.
  60. Luke 19:21 tn The Greek verb τίθημι (tithēmi) can be used of depositing money with a banker to earn interest (L&N 57.217). In effect the slave charges that the master takes what he has not earned.
  61. Luke 19:22 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the nobleman of v. 12, now a king) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  62. Luke 19:22 tn Grk “out of your own mouth” (an idiom).
  63. Luke 19:22 tn Note the contrast between this slave, described as “wicked,” and the slave in v. 17, described as “good.”
  64. Luke 19:22 tn Or “exacting,” “harsh,” “hard.”
  65. Luke 19:23 tn That is, “If you really feared me why did you not do a minimum to get what I asked for?”
  66. Luke 19:23 tn Grk “on the table”; the idiom refers to a place where money is kept or managed, or credit is established, thus “bank” (L&N 57.215).
  67. Luke 19:24 tn Grk “to those standing by,” but in this context involving an audience before the king to give an accounting, these would not be casual bystanders but courtiers or attendants.
  68. Luke 19:24 tn Grk “the ten minas.”
  69. Luke 19:25 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Those watching the evaluation are shocked, as the one with the most gets even more. The word “already” is supplied at the end of the statement to indicate this surprise and shock.
  70. Luke 19:25 tc A few mss (D W 69 and a few versional witnesses) omit this verse either to harmonize it with Matt 25:28-29 or to keep the king’s speech seamless.
  71. Luke 19:26 tn Grk “to everyone who has, he will be given more.” sn Everyone who has will be given more. Again, faithfulness yields great reward (see Luke 8:18; also Matt 13:12; Mark 4:25).
  72. Luke 19:26 sn The one who has nothing has even what he seems to have taken away from him, ending up with no reward at all (see also Luke 8:18). The exact force of this is left ambiguous, but there is no comfort here for those who are pictured by the third slave as being totally unmoved by the master. Though not an outright enemy, there is no relationship to the master either. Three groups are represented in the parable: the faithful of various sorts (vv. 16, 18); the unfaithful who associate with Jesus but do not trust him (v. 21); and the enemies (v. 27).
  73. Luke 19:27 tn Grk “to rule over them.”
  74. Luke 19:27 tn This term, when used of people rather than animals, has some connotations of violence and mercilessness (L&N 20.72).
  75. Luke 19:27 sn Slaughter them. To reject the king is to face certain judgment from him.
  76. Luke 19:28 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  77. Luke 19:28 tn This could mean “before [his disciples],” but that is slightly more awkward, requiring an elided element (the disciples) to be supplied.
  78. Luke 19:28 sn This is yet another travel note on the journey to Jerusalem. See also Luke 18:31; 19:11. Jesus does not actually enter Jerusalem until 19:45.
  79. Luke 19:29 tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  80. Luke 19:29 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most locate it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.
  81. Luke 19:29 tn Grk “at the mountain called ‘of Olives.’” This form of reference is awkward in contemporary English, so the more familiar “Mount of Olives” has been used in the translation.sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 1.8 mi (3 km) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 100 ft (30 m) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
  82. Luke 19:30 tn Grk “saying.”
  83. Luke 19:30 tn Grk “the village lying before [you]” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.a).
  84. Luke 19:30 tn Grk “in which entering.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek, but because of the length and complexity of the construction a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  85. Luke 19:30 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”
  86. Luke 19:31 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.
  87. Luke 19:32 tn Grk “sent ahead and went and found.”
  88. Luke 19:32 sn Exactly as he had told them. Nothing in Luke 19-23 catches Jesus by surprise. Often he directs the action.
  89. Luke 19:33 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  90. Luke 19:33 tn Grk “said to them.”
  91. Luke 19:35 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  92. Luke 19:35 tn Grk “garments,” but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.
  93. Luke 19:35 sn See Zech 9:9.
  94. Luke 19:35 tn Although ἐπεβίβασαν (epebibasan) is frequently translated “set [Jesus] on it” or “put [Jesus] on it,” when used of a riding animal the verb can mean “to cause to mount” (L&N 15.98); thus here “had Jesus get on it.” The degree of assistance is not specified.
  95. Luke 19:36 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  96. Luke 19:36 tn The disciples initiated this action (since in 19:35 and 37 they are the subject) but the other gospels indicate the crowds also became involved. Thus it is difficult to specify the referent here as “the disciples” or “people.”
  97. Luke 19:37 tn Grk “the descent of”; this could refer to either the slope of the hillside itself or the path leading down from it (the second option has been adopted for the translation, see L&N 15.109).
  98. Luke 19:37 sn See the note on the name Mount of Olives in v. 29.
  99. Luke 19:37 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
  100. Luke 19:37 tn Here the participle χαίροντες (chairontes) has been translated as a finite verb in English; it could also be translated adverbially as a participle of manner: “began to praise God joyfully.”
  101. Luke 19:37 sn See 2:13, 20; Acts 2:47; 3:8-9.
  102. Luke 19:37 tn Or “works of power,” “miracles.” Jesus’ ministry of miracles is what has drawn attention. See Luke 7:22.
  103. Luke 19:37 tn Grk “they had seen, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  104. Luke 19:38 sn Luke adds the title king to the citation from Ps 118:26 to make clear who was meant (see Luke 18:38). The psalm was used in looking for the deliverance of the end, thus leading to the Pharisees’ reaction.
  105. Luke 19:38 sn A quotation from Ps 118:26.
  106. Luke 19:39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. Not all present are willing to join in the acclamation.
  107. Luke 19:39 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
  108. Luke 19:39 sn Teacher, rebuke your disciples. The Pharisees were complaining that the claims were too great.
  109. Luke 19:40 tn Grk “and answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation to “He answered.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  110. Luke 19:40 tn Grk “these.”
  111. Luke 19:40 sn This statement amounts to a rebuke. The idiom of creation speaking means that even creation knows what is taking place, yet the Pharisees miss it. On this idiom, see Gen 4:10 and Hab 2:11.
  112. Luke 19:41 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  113. Luke 19:41 tn Grk “he.”
  114. Luke 19:41 sn When Jesus approached and saw the city. This is the last travel note in Luke’s account (the so-called Jerusalem journey), as Jesus approached and saw the city before entering it.
  115. Luke 19:42 sn On this day. They had missed the time of Messiah’s coming; see v. 44.
  116. Luke 19:42 tn Grk “the things toward peace.” This expression seems to mean “the things that would ‘lead to,’ ‘bring about,’ or ‘make for’ peace.”
  117. Luke 19:42 sn But now they are hidden from your eyes. This becomes an oracle of doom in the classic OT sense; see Luke 13:31-35; 11:49-51; Jer 9:2; 13:7; 14:7. They are now blind and under judgment (Jer 15:5; Ps 122:6).
  118. Luke 19:43 sn Jesus now predicted the events that would be fulfilled in the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. The details of the siege have led some to see Luke writing this after Jerusalem’s fall, but the language of the verse is like God’s exilic judgment for covenant unfaithfulness (Hab 2:8; Jer 6:6, 14; 8:13-22; 9:1; Ezek 4:2; 26:8; Isa 29:1-4). Specific details are lacking and the procedures described (build an embankment against you) were standard Roman military tactics.
  119. Luke 19:43 sn An embankment refers to either wooden barricades or earthworks, or a combination of the two.
  120. Luke 19:44 tn Grk “They will raze you to the ground.” sn The singular pronoun you refers to the city of Jerusalem personified.
  121. Luke 19:44 tn Grk “your children within you.” The phrase “[your] walls” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the city of Jerusalem, metaphorically pictured as an individual, is spoken of here.
  122. Luke 19:44 sn (Not) one stone on top of another is an idiom for total destruction.
  123. Luke 19:44 tn Grk “leave stone on stone.”
  124. Luke 19:44 tn Grk “the time of your visitation.” To clarify what this refers to, the words “from God” are supplied at the end of the verse, although they do not occur in the Greek text.sn You did not recognize the time of your visitation refers to the time God came to visit them. They had missed the Messiah; see Luke 1:68-79.
  125. Luke 19:45 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  126. Luke 19:45 tn Grk “he.”
  127. Luke 19:45 tn Grk “the temple” (also in v. 47).sn The merchants (those who were selling things there) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.
  128. Luke 19:45 sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (here, 19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.
  129. Luke 19:46 sn A quotation from Isa 56:7.
  130. Luke 19:46 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).
  131. Luke 19:46 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.
  132. Luke 19:47 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  133. Luke 19:47 tn Grk “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
  134. Luke 19:47 tn Grk “to destroy.”sn The action at the temple was the last straw. In their view, if Jesus could cause trouble in the holy place, then he must be stopped, so the leaders were seeking to assassinate him.
  135. Luke 19:48 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
  136. Luke 19:48 tn Grk “they did not find the thing that they might do.”
  137. Luke 19:48 sn All the people hung on his words is an idiom for intent, eager listening. Jesus’ popularity and support made it unwise for the leadership to seize him.
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