Laws about Animals for Food

11 The Lord spoke again to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them, “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘(A)These are the creatures which you may eat from all the animals that are on the earth. Whatever has a divided hoof, showing split hoofs, and chews the cud, among the animals, that you may eat. Nevertheless, (B)you are not to eat of these, among those which chew the cud, or among those which have a divided hoof: the camel, for though it chews cud, it does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean to you. Likewise, the rock hyrax, for though it chews cud, it does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean to you. The [a]rabbit also, for though it chews cud, it does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean to you. And the pig, for though it has a divided hoof, and so it shows a split hoof, it does not chew cud; it is unclean to you. You shall not eat any of their flesh nor touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.

(C)These you may eat, of whatever is in the water: everything that has fins and scales, in the water, in the seas, or in the rivers, you may eat. 10 (D)But whatever is in the seas and in the rivers that does not have fins and scales among all the teeming life of the water, and among all the living creatures that are in the water, they are detestable things to you, 11 and they shall be detestable to you; you may not eat any of their flesh, and you shall detest their carcasses. 12 Whatever in the water does not have fins and scales is detestable to you.

Avoid the Unclean

13 ‘Moreover, these (E)you shall detest among the birds; they are detestable, not to be eaten: the [b]eagle, the vulture, and the [c]buzzard, 14 the red kite, the falcon in its kind, 15 every raven in its kind, 16 the ostrich, the owl, the seagull, and the hawk in its kind, 17 the little owl, the cormorant, and the [d]great owl, 18 the white owl, the [e]pelican, and the carrion vulture, 19 the stork, the heron in its kinds, the hoopoe, and the bat.

20 ‘All the [f]winged insects that walk on all fours are detestable to you. 21 Yet these you may eat among all the [g]winged insects that walk on all fours: those which have jointed legs above their feet with which to jump on the earth. 22 These of them you may eat: the locust in its kinds, the devastating locust in its kinds, the cricket in its kinds, and the grasshopper in its kinds. 23 But all other [h]winged insects which are four-footed are detestable to you.

24 ‘By these, moreover, you will be made unclean; whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening, 25 and (F)whoever picks up any of their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening. 26 As for all the animals which have a divided hoof but do not show a split hoof, or do not chew the cud, they are unclean to you; whoever touches them becomes unclean. 27 Also whatever walks on its paws, among all the creatures that walk on all fours, are unclean to you; whoever touches their carcasses becomes unclean until evening, 28 and the one who picks up their carcasses shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you.

29 ‘Now these are to you the unclean among the swarming things which swarm on the earth: the mole, the mouse, and the [i]great lizard in its kinds, 30 the gecko, the [j]crocodile, the lizard, the [k]sand reptile, and the chameleon. 31 These are to you the unclean among all the swarming things; whoever touches them when they are dead becomes unclean until evening. 32 Also anything on which one of them may fall when they are dead becomes unclean, including any wooden article, or clothing, or a hide, or a sack—any article [l]of which use is made—(G)it shall be put in the water and be unclean until evening, then it becomes clean. 33 As for any (H)earthenware vessel into which one of them may fall, whatever is in it becomes unclean and you shall break [m]the vessel. 34 Any of the [n]food which may be eaten, on which water comes, shall become unclean, and any [o]liquid which may be drunk in every vessel shall become unclean. 35 Moreover, everything on which part of their carcass may fall becomes unclean; an oven or a [p]stove shall be smashed; they are unclean and shall continue as unclean to you. 36 Nevertheless, a spring or a cistern [q]collecting water shall be clean, though the one who touches their carcass shall be unclean. 37 Now if a part of their carcass falls on any seed for sowing which is to be sown, it is clean. 38 But if water is put on the seed and a part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.

39 ‘Also if one of the animals dies which you have for food, the one who touches its carcass becomes unclean until evening. 40 (I)He, too, who eats some of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening, and the one who picks up its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until evening.

41 (J)Now every swarming thing that swarms on the earth is detestable, not to be eaten. 42 Whatever crawls on its belly, and whatever walks on all fours, whatever has many feet, in regard to every swarming thing that swarms on the earth, you shall not eat them, because they are detestable. 43 (K)Do not make [r]yourselves detestable through any of the swarming things that swarm; and you shall not make yourselves unclean with them so that you become unclean. 44 For (L)I am the Lord your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and (M)be holy, because I am holy. And you shall not make yourselves unclean with any of the swarming things that swarm on the earth. 45 (N)For I am the Lord who brought you up from the land of Egypt, to be your God; so (O)you shall be holy, because I am holy.’”

46 This is the law regarding the animal and the bird, and every living thing that moves in the waters and everything that swarms on the earth, 47 (P)to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the edible creature and the creature which is not to be eaten.

Laws of Motherhood

12 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying:

‘When a woman gives birth and delivers a male child, then she shall be unclean for seven days; (Q)as she is in the days of her menstruation, she shall be unclean. Then on (R)the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised. And she shall stay at home in her condition of [s]blood purification for thirty-three days; she shall not touch any consecrated thing, nor enter the sanctuary until the days of her purification are completed. But if she gives birth to a female child, then she shall be unclean for two weeks, as in her menstruation; and she shall stay at home in her condition of [t]blood purification for sixty-six days.

(S)When the days of her purification are completed, for a son or for a daughter, she shall bring to the priest at the doorway of the tent of meeting a one-year-old lamb as a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a turtledove (T)as a [u]sin offering. Then he shall offer it before the Lord and make atonement for her, and she shall be cleansed from the [v]flow of her blood. This is the law for her who gives birth to a child, whether a male or a female. But if [w]she cannot afford a lamb, then she shall take (U)two turtledoves or two young doves, (V)the one as a burnt offering and the other as a [x]sin offering; and the (W)priest shall make atonement for her, and she will be clean.’”

The Test for Leprosy

13 Then the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, “When someone has on the skin of his [y]body a swelling, or a scab, or a bright spot, and it becomes an infection of [z]leprosy on the skin of his [aa]body, (X)then he shall be brought to Aaron the priest or to one of his sons the priests. The priest shall look at the infected area on the skin of the [ab]body, and if the hair in the infection has turned white and the infection appears to be deeper than the skin of his [ac]body, it is an infection of leprosy; when the priest has looked at him, he shall pronounce him unclean. But if the bright spot is white on the skin of his [ad]body, and [ae]it does not appear to be deeper than the skin, and the hair on it has not turned white, then the priest shall [af]isolate the person who has the infection for seven days. Then the priest shall look at him on the seventh day, and if in his eyes the infection has [ag]not changed and the infection has not spread on the skin, then the priest shall [ah]isolate him for seven more days. The priest shall then look at him again on the seventh day, and if the infected area has faded and the infection has not spread on the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him clean; it is only a rash. And he shall (Y)wash his clothes and be clean.

“But if the rash spreads farther on the skin after he has shown himself to the priest for his cleansing, he shall appear again to the priest. And the priest shall look, and if the rash has spread on the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is leprosy.

“When the infection of leprosy is on someone, then he shall be brought to the priest. 10 The priest shall then look, and if there is a (Z)white swelling on the skin, and it has turned the hair white, and there is new raw flesh in the swelling, 11 it is [ai]a chronic leprosy on the skin of his [aj]body, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean; he shall not [ak]isolate him, for he is unclean. 12 If the leprosy breaks out farther on the skin, and the leprosy covers all the skin of the person who has the infection from his head even to his feet, [al]as far as the priest can see, 13 then the priest shall look, and behold, if the leprosy has covered his entire [am]body, he shall pronounce the one who has the infection clean; it has all turned white and he is clean. 14 But whenever raw flesh appears on him, he shall be unclean. 15 The priest shall look at the raw flesh, and he shall pronounce him unclean; the raw flesh is unclean, it is leprosy. 16 Or if the raw flesh turns back and is changed to white, then he shall (AA)come to the priest, 17 and the priest shall look at him, and behold, if the infected area has turned white, then the priest shall pronounce the one who has the infection clean; he is clean.

18 “Now when the [an]body has a boil on its skin and it is healed, 19 and in the place of the boil there is a white swelling or a reddish-white, bright spot, then it shall be shown to the priest; 20 and the priest shall look, and behold, if [ao]it appears to be deeper than the skin, and the hair on it has turned white, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is the infection of leprosy, it has broken out in the boil. 21 But if the priest looks at it, and behold, there are no white hairs in it and it is not deeper than the skin and is faded, then the priest shall [ap]isolate him for seven days; 22 and if it spreads farther on the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is an infection. 23 But if the bright spot remains in its place and does not spread, it is only the scar of the boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

24 “Or if the [aq]body sustains in its skin a burn by fire, and the raw flesh of the burn becomes a bright spot, reddish-white, or white, 25 then the priest shall look at it. And if the hair in the bright spot has (AB)turned white and it appears to be deeper than the skin, it is leprosy; it has broken out in the burn. Therefore, the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is an infection of leprosy. 26 But if the priest looks at it, and indeed, there is no white hair in the bright spot and it is no deeper than the skin, but is dim, then the priest shall [ar]isolate him for seven days; 27 and the priest shall look at him on the seventh day. If it spreads farther in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is an infection of leprosy. 28 But if the bright spot remains in its place and has not spread in the skin, but is dim, it is the swelling from the burn; and the priest shall pronounce him clean, for it is only the scar of the burn.

29 “Now if a man or woman has an infection on the head or on the beard, 30 then the priest shall look at the infection, and if it appears to be deeper than the skin and there is thin yellowish hair in it, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean; it is a scale, it is leprosy of the head or of the beard. 31 But if the priest looks at the infection of the scale, and indeed, it appears to be no deeper than the skin and there is no black hair in it, then the priest shall [as]isolate the person with the scaly infection for seven days. 32 And on the seventh day the priest shall look at the infection, and if the scale has not spread and no yellowish hair has [at]grown in it, and the appearance of the scale is no deeper than the skin, 33 then he shall shave himself, but he shall not shave the scale; and the priest shall [au]isolate the person with the scale for seven more days. 34 Then on the seventh day the priest shall look at the scale, and if the scale has not spread in the skin and it appears to be no deeper than the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean; and he shall wash his clothes and be clean. 35 But if the scale spreads farther in the skin after his cleansing, 36 then the priest shall look at him, and if the scale has spread on the skin, the priest need not look for the yellowish hair; he is unclean. 37 If in his sight the scale has remained, however, and black hair has grown in it, the scale has healed, and he is clean; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

38 “When a man or a woman has bright spots on the skin of the [av]body, white bright spots, 39 then the priest shall look, and if the bright spots on the skin of their [aw]bodies are a faint white, it is [ax]eczema that has broken out on the skin; he is clean.

40 “Now if a man [ay]loses the hair of his head, he is only (AC)bald; he is clean. 41 And if his head becomes bald at the [az]front and sides, he is bald on the forehead; he is clean. 42 But if on the bald head or the bald forehead there occurs a reddish-white infection, it is leprosy breaking out on his bald head or on his bald forehead. 43 Then (AD)the priest shall look at him; and if the swelling of the infection is reddish-white on his bald head or on his bald forehead, like the appearance of leprosy in the skin of the [ba]body, 44 he is a leprous man, he is unclean. The priest must pronounce him unclean; his infection is on his head.

45 “As for the person who has the leprous infection, his clothes shall be torn and (AE)the hair of his head shall be [bb]uncovered, and he shall (AF)cover his [bc]mustache and call out, ‘(AG)Unclean! Unclean!’ 46 He shall remain unclean all the days during which he has the infection; he is unclean. He shall live alone; he shall live (AH)outside the camp.

47 “When a garment has [bd]a mark of leprosy in it, whether it is a wool garment or a linen garment, 48 whether in [be]warp or [bf]woof, of linen or of wool, whether in leather or in any article made of leather, 49 if the [bg]mark is greenish or reddish in the garment or in the leather, whether in the [bh]warp or in the woof, or in any article of leather, it is a leprous [bi]mark and it shall be shown to the priest. 50 Then (AI)the priest shall look at the mark and shall [bj]quarantine the article with the mark for seven days. 51 He shall then look at the mark on the seventh day; if the mark has spread in the garment, whether in the [bk]warp or in the woof, or in the leather, whatever the purpose for which the leather is used, the mark is a [bl]leprous malignancy, it is unclean. 52 So he shall burn the garment, whether it is the [bm]warp or the woof, in wool or in linen, or any article of leather, in which the mark occurs; for it is a [bn]leprous malignancy. It shall be burned in the fire.

53 “But if the priest looks, and indeed the mark has not spread in the garment, either in the [bo]warp or in the woof, or in any article of leather, 54 then the priest shall order them to wash the thing in which the mark occurs, and he shall [bp]quarantine it for seven more days. 55 After the article with the mark has been washed, the priest shall again look, and if the mark has not changed its appearance, even if the mark has not spread, it is unclean; you shall burn it in the fire, whether an eating away has produced bareness on the back or on the front of it.

56 “But if the priest looks, and indeed the mark has faded after it has been washed, then he shall tear it out of the garment or out of the leather, whether from the [bq]warp or from the woof; 57 yet if it appears again in the garment, whether in the warp or in the woof, or in any article of leather, it is an outbreak; the article with the mark shall be burned in the fire. 58 But the garment, whether the warp or the woof, or any article of leather from which the mark has disappeared when you washed it, shall then be washed a second time and will be clean.”

59 This is the law for the mark of leprosy in a garment of wool or linen, whether in the warp or in the woof, or in any article of leather, for pronouncing it clean or unclean.

Footnotes

  1. Leviticus 11:6 Or hare
  2. Leviticus 11:13 Or vulture
  3. Leviticus 11:13 Or black vulture
  4. Leviticus 11:17 Specifically, great horned owl
  5. Leviticus 11:18 Or owl; or jackdaw
  6. Leviticus 11:20 Lit swarming things with wings
  7. Leviticus 11:21 See note v 20
  8. Leviticus 11:23 See note v 20
  9. Leviticus 11:29 Or thorn-tailed lizard
  10. Leviticus 11:30 Or lizard
  11. Leviticus 11:30 Species as yet undefined
  12. Leviticus 11:32 Lit with which work is done
  13. Leviticus 11:33 Lit it
  14. Leviticus 11:34 I.e., if touched by a carcass; cf. vv 29-32
  15. Leviticus 11:34 I.e., if touched by a carcass; cf. vv 29-32
  16. Leviticus 11:35 Lit hearth for supporting (two) pots
  17. Leviticus 11:36 Lit a collecting place of
  18. Leviticus 11:43 Lit your souls
  19. Leviticus 12:4 Lit blood of purifying; i.e., ritually clean blood from childbirth
  20. Leviticus 12:5 See note v 4
  21. Leviticus 12:6 Or purification offering
  22. Leviticus 12:7 Lit fountain
  23. Leviticus 12:8 Lit her hand does not find enough for
  24. Leviticus 12:8 Or purification offering
  25. Leviticus 13:2 Lit flesh
  26. Leviticus 13:2 I.e., or a serious, unspecified disease, and so throughout the ch
  27. Leviticus 13:2 Lit flesh
  28. Leviticus 13:3 Lit flesh
  29. Leviticus 13:3 Lit flesh
  30. Leviticus 13:4 Lit flesh
  31. Leviticus 13:4 Lit the appearance of it is not deeper
  32. Leviticus 13:4 Lit separate
  33. Leviticus 13:5 Lit stood
  34. Leviticus 13:5 Lit separate
  35. Leviticus 13:11 Lit aging
  36. Leviticus 13:11 Lit flesh
  37. Leviticus 13:11 Lit separate
  38. Leviticus 13:12 Lit to the entire sight of the priest’s eyes
  39. Leviticus 13:13 Lit flesh
  40. Leviticus 13:18 Lit flesh
  41. Leviticus 13:20 Lit the appearance of it is deeper
  42. Leviticus 13:21 Lit separate
  43. Leviticus 13:24 Lit flesh
  44. Leviticus 13:26 Lit separate
  45. Leviticus 13:31 Lit separate
  46. Leviticus 13:32 Lit been
  47. Leviticus 13:33 Lit separate
  48. Leviticus 13:38 Lit flesh
  49. Leviticus 13:39 Lit flesh
  50. Leviticus 13:39 Lit vitiligo
  51. Leviticus 13:40 Lit becomes bald on his head
  52. Leviticus 13:41 Lit border of his face
  53. Leviticus 13:43 Lit flesh
  54. Leviticus 13:45 Or disheveled
  55. Leviticus 13:45 I.e., mouth
  56. Leviticus 13:47 Lit an infection, and so throughout the ch
  57. Leviticus 13:48 I.e., lengthwise material in weaving
  58. Leviticus 13:48 I.e., material woven crosswise
  59. Leviticus 13:49 Lit infestation; possibly material already contaminated prior to weaving
  60. Leviticus 13:49 See notes v 48
  61. Leviticus 13:49 Lit infestation; possibly material already contaminated prior to weaving
  62. Leviticus 13:50 Lit separate
  63. Leviticus 13:51 See notes v 48
  64. Leviticus 13:51 Lit malignant leprosy
  65. Leviticus 13:52 See notes v 48
  66. Leviticus 13:52 Lit malignant leprosy
  67. Leviticus 13:53 See notes v 48
  68. Leviticus 13:54 Lit separate
  69. Leviticus 13:56 See notes v 48