22 The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron and his sons to treat with respect the sacred offerings(A) the Israelites consecrate to me, so they will not profane my holy name.(B) I am the Lord.(C)

“Say to them: ‘For the generations to come, if any of your descendants is ceremonially unclean and yet comes near the sacred offerings that the Israelites consecrate to the Lord,(D) that person must be cut off from my presence.(E) I am the Lord.

“‘If a descendant of Aaron has a defiling skin disease[a] or a bodily discharge,(F) he may not eat the sacred offerings until he is cleansed. He will also be unclean if he touches something defiled by a corpse(G) or by anyone who has an emission of semen, or if he touches any crawling thing(H) that makes him unclean, or any person(I) who makes him unclean, whatever the uncleanness may be. The one who touches any such thing will be unclean(J) till evening.(K) He must not eat any of the sacred offerings unless he has bathed himself with water.(L) When the sun goes down, he will be clean, and after that he may eat the sacred offerings, for they are his food.(M) He must not eat anything found dead(N) or torn by wild animals,(O) and so become unclean(P) through it. I am the Lord.(Q)

“‘The priests are to perform my service(R) in such a way that they do not become guilty(S) and die(T) for treating it with contempt. I am the Lord, who makes them holy.(U)

10 “‘No one outside a priest’s family may eat the sacred offering, nor may the guest of a priest or his hired worker eat it.(V) 11 But if a priest buys a slave with money, or if slaves are born in his household, they may eat his food.(W) 12 If a priest’s daughter marries anyone other than a priest, she may not eat any of the sacred contributions. 13 But if a priest’s daughter becomes a widow or is divorced, yet has no children, and she returns to live in her father’s household as in her youth, she may eat her father’s food. No unauthorized person, however, may eat it.

14 “‘Anyone who eats a sacred offering by mistake(X) must make restitution to the priest for the offering and add a fifth of the value(Y) to it. 15 The priests must not desecrate the sacred offerings(Z) the Israelites present to the Lord(AA) 16 by allowing them to eat(AB) the sacred offerings and so bring upon them guilt(AC) requiring payment.(AD) I am the Lord, who makes them holy.(AE)’”

Unacceptable Sacrifices

17 The Lord said to Moses, 18 “Speak to Aaron and his sons and to all the Israelites and say to them: ‘If any of you—whether an Israelite or a foreigner residing in Israel(AF)—presents a gift(AG) for a burnt offering to the Lord, either to fulfill a vow(AH) or as a freewill offering,(AI) 19 you must present a male without defect(AJ) from the cattle, sheep or goats in order that it may be accepted on your behalf.(AK) 20 Do not bring anything with a defect,(AL) because it will not be accepted on your behalf.(AM) 21 When anyone brings from the herd or flock(AN) a fellowship offering(AO) to the Lord to fulfill a special vow or as a freewill offering,(AP) it must be without defect or blemish(AQ) to be acceptable.(AR) 22 Do not offer to the Lord the blind, the injured or the maimed, or anything with warts or festering or running sores. Do not place any of these on the altar as a food offering presented to the Lord. 23 You may, however, present as a freewill offering an ox[b] or a sheep that is deformed or stunted, but it will not be accepted in fulfillment of a vow. 24 You must not offer to the Lord an animal whose testicles are bruised, crushed, torn or cut.(AS) You must not do this in your own land, 25 and you must not accept such animals from the hand of a foreigner and offer them as the food of your God.(AT) They will not be accepted on your behalf, because they are deformed and have defects.(AU)’”

26 The Lord said to Moses, 27 “When a calf, a lamb or a goat(AV) is born, it is to remain with its mother for seven days.(AW) From the eighth day(AX) on, it will be acceptable(AY) as a food offering presented to the Lord. 28 Do not slaughter a cow or a sheep and its young on the same day.(AZ)

29 “When you sacrifice a thank offering(BA) to the Lord, sacrifice it in such a way that it will be accepted on your behalf. 30 It must be eaten that same day; leave none of it till morning.(BB) I am the Lord.(BC)

31 “Keep(BD) my commands and follow them.(BE) I am the Lord. 32 Do not profane my holy name,(BF) for I must be acknowledged as holy by the Israelites.(BG) I am the Lord, who made you holy(BH) 33 and who brought you out of Egypt(BI) to be your God.(BJ) I am the Lord.”

The Appointed Festivals

23 The Lord said to Moses, “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘These are my appointed festivals,(BK) the appointed festivals of the Lord, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies.(BL)

The Sabbath

“‘There are six days when you may work,(BM) but the seventh day is a day of sabbath rest,(BN) a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work;(BO) wherever you live, it is a sabbath to the Lord.

The Passover and the Festival of Unleavened Bread(BP)

“‘These are the Lord’s appointed festivals, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times:(BQ) The Lord’s Passover(BR) begins at twilight on the fourteenth day of the first month.(BS) On the fifteenth day of that month the Lord’s Festival of Unleavened Bread(BT) begins; for seven days(BU) you must eat bread made without yeast. On the first day hold a sacred assembly(BV) and do no regular work. For seven days present a food offering to the Lord.(BW) And on the seventh day hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work.’”

Offering the Firstfruits

The Lord said to Moses, 10 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you(BX) and you reap its harvest,(BY) bring to the priest a sheaf(BZ) of the first grain you harvest.(CA) 11 He is to wave the sheaf before the Lord(CB) so it will be accepted(CC) on your behalf; the priest is to wave it on the day after the Sabbath. 12 On the day you wave the sheaf, you must sacrifice as a burnt offering to the Lord a lamb a year old(CD) without defect,(CE) 13 together with its grain offering(CF) of two-tenths of an ephah[c](CG) of the finest flour mixed with olive oil—a food offering presented to the Lord, a pleasing aroma—and its drink offering(CH) of a quarter of a hin[d] of wine.(CI) 14 You must not eat any bread, or roasted or new grain,(CJ) until the very day you bring this offering to your God.(CK) This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come,(CL) wherever you live.(CM)

The Festival of Weeks(CN)

15 “‘From the day after the Sabbath, the day you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, count off seven full weeks. 16 Count off fifty days up to the day after the seventh Sabbath,(CO) and then present an offering of new grain to the Lord. 17 From wherever you live, bring two loaves made of two-tenths of an ephah(CP) of the finest flour, baked with yeast, as a wave offering of firstfruits(CQ) to the Lord. 18 Present with this bread seven male lambs, each a year old and without defect, one young bull and two rams. They will be a burnt offering to the Lord, together with their grain offerings and drink offerings(CR)—a food offering, an aroma pleasing to the Lord. 19 Then sacrifice one male goat for a sin offering[e] and two lambs, each a year old, for a fellowship offering. 20 The priest is to wave the two lambs before the Lord as a wave offering,(CS) together with the bread of the firstfruits. They are a sacred offering to the Lord for the priest. 21 On that same day you are to proclaim a sacred assembly(CT) and do no regular work.(CU) This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.

22 “‘When you reap the harvest(CV) of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest.(CW) Leave them for the poor and for the foreigner residing among you.(CX) I am the Lord your God.’”

The Festival of Trumpets(CY)

23 The Lord said to Moses, 24 “Say to the Israelites: ‘On the first day of the seventh month you are to have a day of sabbath rest, a sacred assembly(CZ) commemorated with trumpet blasts.(DA) 25 Do no regular work,(DB) but present a food offering to the Lord.(DC)’”

The Day of Atonement(DD)

26 The Lord said to Moses, 27 “The tenth day of this seventh month(DE) is the Day of Atonement.(DF) Hold a sacred assembly(DG) and deny yourselves,[f] and present a food offering to the Lord. 28 Do not do any work(DH) on that day, because it is the Day of Atonement, when atonement is made for you before the Lord your God. 29 Those who do not deny themselves on that day must be cut off from their people.(DI) 30 I will destroy from among their people(DJ) anyone who does any work on that day. 31 You shall do no work at all. This is to be a lasting ordinance(DK) for the generations to come, wherever you live. 32 It is a day of sabbath rest(DL) for you, and you must deny yourselves. From the evening of the ninth day of the month until the following evening you are to observe your sabbath.”(DM)

The Festival of Tabernacles(DN)

33 The Lord said to Moses, 34 “Say to the Israelites: ‘On the fifteenth day of the seventh(DO) month the Lord’s Festival of Tabernacles(DP) begins, and it lasts for seven days. 35 The first day is a sacred assembly;(DQ) do no regular work.(DR) 36 For seven days present food offerings to the Lord, and on the eighth day hold a sacred assembly(DS) and present a food offering to the Lord.(DT) It is the closing special assembly; do no regular work.

37 (“‘These are the Lord’s appointed festivals, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies for bringing food offerings to the Lord—the burnt offerings and grain offerings, sacrifices and drink offerings(DU) required for each day. 38 These offerings(DV) are in addition to those for the Lord’s Sabbaths(DW) and[g] in addition to your gifts and whatever you have vowed and all the freewill offerings(DX) you give to the Lord.)

39 “‘So beginning with the fifteenth day of the seventh month, after you have gathered the crops of the land, celebrate the festival(DY) to the Lord for seven days;(DZ) the first day is a day of sabbath rest, and the eighth day also is a day of sabbath rest. 40 On the first day you are to take branches(EA) from luxuriant trees—from palms, willows and other leafy trees(EB)—and rejoice(EC) before the Lord your God for seven days. 41 Celebrate this as a festival to the Lord for seven days each year. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come; celebrate it in the seventh month. 42 Live in temporary shelters(ED) for seven days: All native-born Israelites are to live in such shelters 43 so your descendants will know(EE) that I had the Israelites live in temporary shelters when I brought them out of Egypt. I am the Lord your God.’”

44 So Moses announced to the Israelites the appointed festivals of the Lord.

Olive Oil and Bread Set Before the Lord(EF)

24 The Lord said to Moses, “Command the Israelites to bring you clear oil of pressed olives for the light so that the lamps may be kept burning continually. Outside the curtain that shields the ark of the covenant law in the tent of meeting, Aaron is to tend the lamps before the Lord from evening till morning, continually. This is to be a lasting ordinance(EG) for the generations to come. The lamps on the pure gold lampstand(EH) before the Lord must be tended continually.

“Take the finest flour and bake twelve loaves of bread,(EI) using two-tenths of an ephah[h](EJ) for each loaf. Arrange them in two stacks, six in each stack, on the table of pure gold(EK) before the Lord. By each stack put some pure incense(EL) as a memorial[i] portion(EM) to represent the bread and to be a food offering presented to the Lord. This bread is to be set out before the Lord regularly,(EN) Sabbath after Sabbath,(EO) on behalf of the Israelites, as a lasting covenant. It belongs to Aaron and his sons,(EP) who are to eat it in the sanctuary area,(EQ) because it is a most holy(ER) part of their perpetual share of the food offerings presented to the Lord.”

A Blasphemer Put to Death

10 Now the son of an Israelite mother and an Egyptian father went out among the Israelites, and a fight broke out in the camp between him and an Israelite. 11 The son of the Israelite woman blasphemed the Name(ES) with a curse;(ET) so they brought him to Moses.(EU) (His mother’s name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri the Danite.)(EV) 12 They put him in custody until the will of the Lord should be made clear to them.(EW)

13 Then the Lord said to Moses: 14 “Take the blasphemer outside the camp. All those who heard him are to lay their hands on his head, and the entire assembly is to stone him.(EX) 15 Say to the Israelites: ‘Anyone who curses their God(EY) will be held responsible;(EZ) 16 anyone who blasphemes(FA) the name of the Lord is to be put to death.(FB) The entire assembly must stone them. Whether foreigner or native-born, when they blaspheme the Name they are to be put to death.

17 “‘Anyone who takes the life of a human being is to be put to death.(FC) 18 Anyone who takes the life of someone’s animal must make restitution(FD)—life for life. 19 Anyone who injures their neighbor is to be injured in the same manner: 20 fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth.(FE) The one who has inflicted the injury must suffer the same injury. 21 Whoever kills an animal must make restitution,(FF) but whoever kills a human being is to be put to death.(FG) 22 You are to have the same law for the foreigner(FH) and the native-born.(FI) I am the Lord your God.’”

23 Then Moses spoke to the Israelites, and they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him.(FJ) The Israelites did as the Lord commanded Moses.

The Sabbath Year

25 The Lord said to Moses at Mount Sinai,(FK) “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When you enter the land I am going to give you, the land itself must observe a sabbath to the Lord. For six years sow your fields, and for six years prune your vineyards and gather their crops.(FL) But in the seventh year the land is to have a year of sabbath rest,(FM) a sabbath to the Lord. Do not sow your fields or prune your vineyards.(FN) Do not reap what grows of itself(FO) or harvest the grapes(FP) of your untended vines.(FQ) The land is to have a year of rest. Whatever the land yields during the sabbath year(FR) will be food for you—for yourself, your male and female servants, and the hired worker and temporary resident who live among you, as well as for your livestock and the wild animals(FS) in your land. Whatever the land produces may be eaten.

The Year of Jubilee(FT)(FU)

“‘Count off seven sabbath years—seven times seven years—so that the seven sabbath years amount to a period of forty-nine years. Then have the trumpet(FV) sounded everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month;(FW) on the Day of Atonement(FX) sound the trumpet throughout your land. 10 Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty(FY) throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee(FZ) for you; each of you is to return to your family property(GA) and to your own clan. 11 The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee(GB) for you; do not sow and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines.(GC) 12 For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat only what is taken directly from the fields.

13 “‘In this Year of Jubilee(GD) everyone is to return to their own property.

14 “‘If you sell land to any of your own people or buy land from them, do not take advantage of each other.(GE) 15 You are to buy from your own people on the basis of the number of years(GF) since the Jubilee. And they are to sell to you on the basis of the number of years left for harvesting crops. 16 When the years are many, you are to increase the price, and when the years are few, you are to decrease the price,(GG) because what is really being sold to you is the number of crops. 17 Do not take advantage of each other,(GH) but fear your God.(GI) I am the Lord your God.(GJ)

18 “‘Follow my decrees and be careful to obey my laws,(GK) and you will live safely in the land.(GL) 19 Then the land will yield its fruit,(GM) and you will eat your fill and live there in safety.(GN) 20 You may ask, “What will we eat in the seventh year(GO) if we do not plant or harvest our crops?” 21 I will send you such a blessing(GP) in the sixth year that the land will yield enough for three years.(GQ) 22 While you plant during the eighth year, you will eat from the old crop and will continue to eat from it until the harvest of the ninth year comes in.(GR)

23 “‘The land(GS) must not be sold permanently, because the land is mine(GT) and you reside in my land as foreigners(GU) and strangers. 24 Throughout the land that you hold as a possession, you must provide for the redemption(GV) of the land.

25 “‘If one of your fellow Israelites becomes poor and sells some of their property, their nearest relative(GW) is to come and redeem(GX) what they have sold. 26 If, however, there is no one to redeem it for them but later on they prosper(GY) and acquire sufficient means to redeem it themselves, 27 they are to determine the value for the years(GZ) since they sold it and refund the balance to the one to whom they sold it; they can then go back to their own property.(HA) 28 But if they do not acquire the means to repay, what was sold will remain in the possession of the buyer until the Year of Jubilee. It will be returned(HB) in the Jubilee, and they can then go back to their property.(HC)

29 “‘Anyone who sells a house in a walled city retains the right of redemption a full year after its sale. During that time the seller may redeem it. 30 If it is not redeemed before a full year has passed, the house in the walled city shall belong permanently to the buyer and the buyer’s descendants. It is not to be returned in the Jubilee. 31 But houses in villages without walls around them are to be considered as belonging to the open country. They can be redeemed, and they are to be returned in the Jubilee.

32 “‘The Levites always have the right to redeem their houses in the Levitical towns,(HD) which they possess. 33 So the property of the Levites is redeemable—that is, a house sold in any town they hold—and is to be returned in the Jubilee, because the houses in the towns of the Levites are their property among the Israelites. 34 But the pastureland belonging to their towns must not be sold; it is their permanent possession.(HE)

35 “‘If any of your fellow Israelites become poor(HF) and are unable to support themselves among you, help them(HG) as you would a foreigner and stranger, so they can continue to live among you. 36 Do not take interest(HH) or any profit from them, but fear your God,(HI) so that they may continue to live among you. 37 You must not lend them money at interest(HJ) or sell them food at a profit. 38 I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt to give you the land of Canaan(HK) and to be your God.(HL)

39 “‘If any of your fellow Israelites become poor and sell themselves to you, do not make them work as slaves.(HM) 40 They are to be treated as hired workers(HN) or temporary residents among you; they are to work for you until the Year of Jubilee. 41 Then they and their children are to be released, and they will go back to their own clans and to the property(HO) of their ancestors.(HP) 42 Because the Israelites are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt,(HQ) they must not be sold as slaves. 43 Do not rule over them ruthlessly,(HR) but fear your God.(HS)

44 “‘Your male and female slaves are to come from the nations around you; from them you may buy slaves. 45 You may also buy some of the temporary residents living among you and members of their clans born in your country, and they will become your property. 46 You can bequeath them to your children as inherited property and can make them slaves for life, but you must not rule over your fellow Israelites ruthlessly.

47 “‘If a foreigner residing among you becomes rich and any of your fellow Israelites become poor and sell themselves(HT) to the foreigner or to a member of the foreigner’s clan, 48 they retain the right of redemption(HU) after they have sold themselves. One of their relatives(HV) may redeem them: 49 An uncle or a cousin or any blood relative in their clan may redeem them. Or if they prosper,(HW) they may redeem themselves. 50 They and their buyer are to count the time from the year they sold themselves up to the Year of Jubilee.(HX) The price for their release is to be based on the rate paid to a hired worker(HY) for that number of years. 51 If many years remain, they must pay for their redemption a larger share of the price paid for them. 52 If only a few years remain until the Year of Jubilee, they are to compute that and pay for their redemption accordingly.(HZ) 53 They are to be treated as workers hired from year to year; you must see to it that those to whom they owe service do not rule over them ruthlessly.(IA)

54 “‘Even if someone is not redeemed in any of these ways, they and their children are to be released in the Year of Jubilee, 55 for the Israelites belong to me as servants. They are my servants, whom I brought out of Egypt.(IB) I am the Lord your God.(IC)

Footnotes

  1. Leviticus 22:4 The Hebrew word for defiling skin disease, traditionally translated “leprosy,” was used for various diseases affecting the skin.
  2. Leviticus 22:23 The Hebrew word can refer to either male or female.
  3. Leviticus 23:13 That is, probably about 7 pounds or about 3.2 kilograms; also in verse 17
  4. Leviticus 23:13 That is, about 1 quart or about 1 liter
  5. Leviticus 23:19 Or purification offering
  6. Leviticus 23:27 Or and fast; similarly in verses 29 and 32
  7. Leviticus 23:38 Or These festivals are in addition to the Lord’s Sabbaths, and these offerings are
  8. Leviticus 24:5 That is, probably about 7 pounds or about 3.2 kilograms
  9. Leviticus 24:7 Or representative

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