Pharaoh as a Felled Cedar of Lebanon

31 In the eleventh year,(A) in the third month on the first day, the word of the Lord came to me:(B) “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and to his hordes:

“‘Who can be compared with you in majesty?
Consider Assyria,(C) once a cedar in Lebanon,(D)
    with beautiful branches overshadowing the forest;
it towered on high,
    its top above the thick foliage.(E)
The waters(F) nourished it,
    deep springs made it grow tall;
their streams flowed
    all around its base
and sent their channels
    to all the trees of the field.(G)
So it towered higher(H)
    than all the trees of the field;
its boughs increased
    and its branches grew long,
    spreading because of abundant waters.(I)
All the birds of the sky
    nested in its boughs,
all the animals of the wild
    gave birth(J) under its branches;
all the great nations
    lived in its shade.(K)
It was majestic in beauty,
    with its spreading boughs,
for its roots went down
    to abundant waters.(L)
The cedars(M) in the garden of God
    could not rival it,
nor could the junipers
    equal its boughs,
nor could the plane trees(N)
    compare with its branches—
no tree in the garden of God
    could match its beauty.(O)
I made it beautiful
    with abundant branches,
the envy of all the trees of Eden(P)
    in the garden of God.(Q)

10 “‘Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: Because the great cedar towered over the thick foliage, and because it was proud(R) of its height, 11 I gave it into the hands of the ruler of the nations, for him to deal with according to its wickedness. I cast it aside,(S) 12 and the most ruthless of foreign nations(T) cut it down and left it. Its boughs fell on the mountains and in all the valleys;(U) its branches lay broken in all the ravines of the land. All the nations of the earth came out from under its shade and left it.(V) 13 All the birds settled on the fallen tree, and all the wild animals lived among its branches.(W) 14 Therefore no other trees by the waters are ever to tower proudly on high, lifting their tops above the thick foliage. No other trees so well-watered are ever to reach such a height; they are all destined(X) for death,(Y) for the earth below, among mortals who go down to the realm of the dead.(Z)

15 “‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says: On the day it was brought down to the realm of the dead I covered the deep springs with mourning for it; I held back its streams, and its abundant waters were restrained. Because of it I clothed Lebanon with gloom, and all the trees of the field withered away.(AA) 16 I made the nations tremble(AB) at the sound of its fall when I brought it down to the realm of the dead to be with those who go down to the pit. Then all the trees(AC) of Eden,(AD) the choicest and best of Lebanon, the well-watered trees, were consoled(AE) in the earth below.(AF) 17 They too, like the great cedar, had gone down to the realm of the dead, to those killed by the sword,(AG) along with the armed men who lived in its shade among the nations.

18 “‘Which of the trees of Eden can be compared with you in splendor and majesty? Yet you, too, will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the earth below; you will lie among the uncircumcised,(AH) with those killed by the sword.

“‘This is Pharaoh and all his hordes, declares the Sovereign Lord.’”

A Lament Over Pharaoh

32 In the twelfth year, in the twelfth month on the first day, the word of the Lord came to me:(AI) “Son of man, take up a lament(AJ) concerning Pharaoh king of Egypt and say to him:

“‘You are like a lion(AK) among the nations;
    you are like a monster(AL) in the seas(AM)
thrashing about in your streams,
    churning the water with your feet
    and muddying the streams.(AN)

“‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says:

“‘With a great throng of people
    I will cast my net over you,
    and they will haul you up in my net.(AO)
I will throw you on the land
    and hurl you on the open field.
I will let all the birds of the sky settle on you
    and all the animals of the wild gorge themselves on you.(AP)
I will spread your flesh on the mountains
    and fill the valleys(AQ) with your remains.
I will drench the land with your flowing blood(AR)
    all the way to the mountains,
    and the ravines will be filled with your flesh.(AS)
When I snuff you out, I will cover the heavens
    and darken their stars;
I will cover the sun with a cloud,
    and the moon will not give its light.(AT)
All the shining lights in the heavens
    I will darken(AU) over you;
    I will bring darkness over your land,(AV)
declares the Sovereign Lord.
I will trouble the hearts of many peoples
    when I bring about your destruction among the nations,
    among[a] lands you have not known.
10 I will cause many peoples to be appalled at you,
    and their kings will shudder with horror because of you
    when I brandish my sword(AW) before them.
On the day(AX) of your downfall
    each of them will tremble
    every moment for his life.(AY)

11 “‘For this is what the Sovereign Lord says:

“‘The sword(AZ) of the king of Babylon(BA)
    will come against you.(BB)
12 I will cause your hordes to fall
    by the swords of mighty men—
    the most ruthless of all nations.(BC)
They will shatter the pride of Egypt,
    and all her hordes will be overthrown.(BD)
13 I will destroy all her cattle
    from beside abundant waters
no longer to be stirred by the foot of man
    or muddied by the hooves of cattle.(BE)
14 Then I will let her waters settle
    and make her streams flow like oil,
declares the Sovereign Lord.
15 When I make Egypt desolate
    and strip the land of everything in it,
when I strike down all who live there,
    then they will know that I am the Lord.(BF)

16 “This is the lament(BG) they will chant for her. The daughters of the nations will chant it; for Egypt and all her hordes they will chant it, declares the Sovereign Lord.”

Egypt’s Descent Into the Realm of the Dead

17 In the twelfth year, on the fifteenth day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me:(BH) 18 “Son of man, wail for the hordes of Egypt and consign(BI) to the earth below both her and the daughters of mighty nations, along with those who go down to the pit.(BJ) 19 Say to them, ‘Are you more favored than others? Go down and be laid among the uncircumcised.’(BK) 20 They will fall among those killed by the sword. The sword is drawn; let her be dragged(BL) off with all her hordes.(BM) 21 From within the realm of the dead(BN) the mighty leaders will say of Egypt and her allies, ‘They have come down and they lie with the uncircumcised,(BO) with those killed by the sword.’

22 “Assyria is there with her whole army; she is surrounded by the graves of all her slain, all who have fallen by the sword. 23 Their graves are in the depths of the pit(BP) and her army lies around her grave.(BQ) All who had spread terror in the land of the living are slain, fallen by the sword.

24 “Elam(BR) is there, with all her hordes around her grave. All of them are slain, fallen by the sword.(BS) All who had spread terror in the land of the living(BT) went down uncircumcised to the earth below. They bear their shame with those who go down to the pit.(BU) 25 A bed is made for her among the slain, with all her hordes around her grave. All of them are uncircumcised,(BV) killed by the sword. Because their terror had spread in the land of the living, they bear their shame with those who go down to the pit; they are laid among the slain.

26 “Meshek and Tubal(BW) are there, with all their hordes around their graves. All of them are uncircumcised, killed by the sword because they spread their terror in the land of the living. 27 But they do not lie with the fallen warriors of old,[b](BX) who went down to the realm of the dead with their weapons of war—their swords placed under their heads and their shields[c] resting on their bones—though these warriors also had terrorized the land of the living.

28 “You too, Pharaoh, will be broken and will lie among the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword.

29 “Edom(BY) is there, her kings and all her princes; despite their power, they are laid with those killed by the sword. They lie with the uncircumcised, with those who go down to the pit.(BZ)

30 “All the princes of the north(CA) and all the Sidonians(CB) are there; they went down with the slain in disgrace despite the terror caused by their power. They lie uncircumcised(CC) with those killed by the sword and bear their shame with those who go down to the pit.(CD)

31 “Pharaoh—he and all his army—will see them and he will be consoled(CE) for all his hordes that were killed by the sword, declares the Sovereign Lord. 32 Although I had him spread terror in the land of the living, Pharaoh(CF) and all his hordes will be laid among the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword, declares the Sovereign Lord.”(CG)


  1. Ezekiel 32:9 Hebrew; Septuagint bring you into captivity among the nations, / to
  2. Ezekiel 32:27 Septuagint; Hebrew warriors who were uncircumcised
  3. Ezekiel 32:27 Probable reading of the original Hebrew text; Masoretic Text punishment

Warning and Encouragement

14 Make every effort to live in peace with everyone(A) and to be holy;(B) without holiness no one will see the Lord.(C) 15 See to it that no one falls short of the grace of God(D) and that no bitter root(E) grows up to cause trouble and defile many. 16 See that no one is sexually immoral,(F) or is godless like Esau, who for a single meal sold his inheritance rights as the oldest son.(G) 17 Afterward, as you know, when he wanted to inherit this blessing, he was rejected. Even though he sought the blessing with tears,(H) he could not change what he had done.

The Mountain of Fear and the Mountain of Joy

18 You have not come to a mountain that can be touched and that is burning with fire; to darkness, gloom and storm;(I) 19 to a trumpet blast(J) or to such a voice speaking words(K) that those who heard it begged that no further word be spoken to them,(L) 20 because they could not bear what was commanded: “If even an animal touches the mountain, it must be stoned to death.”[a](M) 21 The sight was so terrifying that Moses said, “I am trembling with fear.”[b](N)

22 But you have come to Mount Zion,(O) to the city(P) of the living God,(Q) the heavenly Jerusalem.(R) You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly, 23 to the church of the firstborn,(S) whose names are written in heaven.(T) You have come to God, the Judge of all,(U) to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,(V) 24 to Jesus the mediator(W) of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood(X) that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.(Y)

25 See to it that you do not refuse(Z) him who speaks.(AA) If they did not escape when they refused him who warned(AB) them on earth, how much less will we, if we turn away from him who warns us from heaven?(AC) 26 At that time his voice shook the earth,(AD) but now he has promised, “Once more I will shake not only the earth but also the heavens.”[c](AE) 27 The words “once more” indicate the removing of what can be shaken(AF)—that is, created things—so that what cannot be shaken may remain.

28 Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken,(AG) let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe,(AH) 29 for our “God is a consuming fire.”[d](AI)

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  1. Hebrews 12:20 Exodus 19:12,13
  2. Hebrews 12:21 See Deut. 9:19.
  3. Hebrews 12:26 Haggai 2:6
  4. Hebrews 12:29 Deut. 4:24

Psalm 113

Praise the Lord.[a](A)

Praise the Lord, you his servants;(B)
    praise the name of the Lord.
Let the name of the Lord be praised,(C)
    both now and forevermore.(D)
From the rising of the sun(E) to the place where it sets,
    the name of the Lord is to be praised.

The Lord is exalted(F) over all the nations,
    his glory above the heavens.(G)
Who is like the Lord our God,(H)
    the One who sits enthroned(I) on high,(J)
who stoops down to look(K)
    on the heavens and the earth?

He raises the poor(L) from the dust
    and lifts the needy(M) from the ash heap;
he seats them(N) with princes,
    with the princes of his people.
He settles the childless(O) woman in her home
    as a happy mother of children.

Praise the Lord.

Psalm 114

When Israel came out of Egypt,(P)
    Jacob from a people of foreign tongue,
Judah(Q) became God’s sanctuary,(R)
    Israel his dominion.

The sea looked and fled,(S)
    the Jordan turned back;(T)
the mountains leaped(U) like rams,
    the hills like lambs.

Why was it, sea, that you fled?(V)
    Why, Jordan, did you turn back?
Why, mountains, did you leap like rams,
    you hills, like lambs?

Tremble, earth,(W) at the presence of the Lord,
    at the presence of the God of Jacob,
who turned the rock into a pool,
    the hard rock into springs of water.(X)


  1. Psalm 113:1 Hebrew Hallelu Yah; also in verse 9

18 The one who guards a fig tree will eat its fruit,(A)
    and whoever protects their master will be honored.(B)

19 As water reflects the face,
    so one’s life reflects the heart.[a]

20 Death and Destruction[b] are never satisfied,(C)
    and neither are human eyes.(D)

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  1. Proverbs 27:19 Or so others reflect your heart back to you
  2. Proverbs 27:20 Hebrew Abaddon

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