New English Translation
1 This is the Lord’s message that came to Zephaniah son of Cushi, son of Gedaliah, son of Amariah, son of Hezekiah during the time of[a] Josiah son of Amon, king of Judah:
The Lord’s Day of Judgment is Approaching
2 “I will destroy[b] everything from the face of the earth,” says the Lord.
3 “I will destroy people and animals;
I will destroy the birds in the sky
and the fish in the sea.
(The idolatrous images of these creatures will be destroyed along with evil people.)[c]
I will remove[d] humanity from the face of the earth,” says the Lord.
4 “I will attack[e] Judah
and all who live in Jerusalem.
I will remove[f] from this place every trace of Baal worship,[g]
as well as the very memory[h] of the pagan priests.[i]
5 I will remove[j] those who worship the stars in the sky from their rooftops,[k]
those who swear allegiance to the Lord[l] while taking oaths in the name of[m] their ‘king,’[n]
6 and those who turn their backs on[o] the Lord
and do not want the Lord’s help or guidance.”[p]
7 Be silent before the Sovereign Lord,[q]
for the Lord’s day of judgment[r] is almost here.[s]
The Lord has prepared a sacrificial meal;[t]
he has ritually purified[u] his guests.
8 “On the day of the Lord’s sacrificial meal,
I will punish the princes[v] and the king’s sons,
and all who wear foreign styles of clothing.[w]
9 On that day I will punish all who leap over the threshold,[x]
who fill the house of their master[y] with wealth taken by violence and deceit.[z]
10 On that day,” says the Lord,
“a loud cry will go up[aa] from the Fish Gate,[ab]
wailing from the city’s newer district,[ac]
and a loud crash[ad] from the hills.
11 Wail, you who live in the market district,[ae]
for all the merchants[af] will disappear[ag]
and those who count money[ah] will be removed.[ai]
12 At that time I will search through Jerusalem with lamps.
I will punish the people who are entrenched in their sin,[aj]
those who think to themselves,[ak]
‘The Lord neither rewards nor punishes.’[al]
13 Their wealth will be stolen
and their houses ruined!
They will not live in the houses they have built,
nor will they drink the wine from the vineyards they have planted.
14 The Lord’s great day of judgment[am] is almost here;
it is approaching very rapidly!
There will be a bitter sound on the Lord’s day of judgment;
at that time warriors will cry out in battle.[an]
15 That day will be a day of God’s anger,[ao]
a day of distress and hardship,
a day of devastation and ruin,
a day of darkness and gloom,
a day of clouds and dark skies,
16 a day of trumpet blasts[ap] and battle cries.[aq]
Judgment will fall on[ar] the fortified cities and the high corner towers.
17 I will bring distress on the people[as]
and they will stumble[at] like blind men,
for they have sinned against the Lord.
Their blood will be poured out like dirt;
their flesh[au] will be scattered[av] like manure.
18 Neither their silver nor their gold will be able to deliver them
in the day of the Lord’s angry judgment.
The whole earth[aw] will be consumed by his fiery wrath.[ax]
Indeed,[ay] he will bring terrifying destruction[az] on all who live on the earth.”[ba]
- Zephaniah 1:1 tn Heb “in the days of.”
- Zephaniah 1:2 tc The consonantal text repeats אסף אסף with the vowels for the Qal infinitive absolute of אָסַף (ʾasaf, “gather up, retract”) followed by a Hiphil first person jussive form of סוּף (suf, “come to an end”). A similar combination appears in Jer 8:13, but it is textually disputed based on the LXX. Here a literal translation might be, “Withdrawing, I will bring to an end.” While this English rendering may sound reasonable, this is very unusual Hebrew grammar and the small number of similar cases are textually disputed. Some prefer to emend the text so that the infinitive and finite form of the verb are from the same root and same stem. Some render as “I will certainly sweep away” (NIV, ESV, Holman), probably assuming a Hiphil of אָסַף, though this root does not otherwise occur in the Hiphil, and if it did, it should mean “I will remove” (NASB). HALOT includes a Qal stem gloss “to destroy” (HALOT 74 qal 4), but this meaning is applied only to this example and one other textually disputed reference, that is, the dictionary’s gloss is merely accommodating this problem and is not evidence. Read as Hiphil forms of סוּף, the text would mean “I will certainly bring to an end,” which is conceptually similar to destroying. For a discussion of proposals see J. J. M. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah (OTL), 167, 169.
- Zephaniah 1:3 tn Heb “And the stumbling blocks [or, “ruins”] with the evil”; or “the things that make the evil stumble.” The line does not appear in the original form of the LXX; it may be a later scribal addition. The present translation assumes the “stumbling blocks” are idolatrous images of the aforementioned animals, birds, and fish. See J. J. M. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah (OTL), 167, and Adele Berlin, Zephaniah (AB), 73-74.
- Zephaniah 1:3 tn Heb “cut off.”
- Zephaniah 1:4 tn Heb “I will stretch out my hand against,” is an idiom for hostile action.
- Zephaniah 1:4 tn Heb “cut off.”
- Zephaniah 1:4 tn Heb “the remnant of Baal.”
- Zephaniah 1:4 tn Heb “name.” Here the “name” is figurative for the memory of those who bear it.
- Zephaniah 1:4 tc Heb “of the pagan priests with the priests.” The first word (כְּמָרִים, kemarim) refers to idolatrous priests in its two other appearances in the OT (2 Kgs 23:5, Hos 10:5), while the second word (כֹּהֲנִים, kohanim) is the normal term for “priest” and is used of both legitimate and illegitimate priests in the OT. It is likely that the second term, which is omitted in the LXX, is a later scribal addition to the Hebrew text, defining the extremely rare word that precedes (see J. J. M. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah [OTL], 167-68; cf. also NEB, NRSV). Some argue that both words are original; among the modern English versions that include both are NASB and NIV. Possibly the first word refers to outright pagan priests, while the second has in view once-legitimate priests of the Lord who had drifted into idolatrous practices. Another option is found in Adele Berlin, who translates, “the idolatrous priests among the priests,” understanding the second word as giving the general category of which the idolatrous priests are a part (Zephaniah [AB 25A], 75).
- Zephaniah 1:5 tn The words “I will remove” are repeated from v. 4b for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text vv. 4b-6 contain a long list of objects for the verb “I will remove” in v. 4b. In the present translation a new sentence was begun at the beginning of v. 5 in keeping with the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences.
- Zephaniah 1:5 tn Heb “those who worship on their roofs the host of heaven.” The “host of heaven” included the sun, moon, planets, and stars, all of which were deified in the ancient Near East.
- Zephaniah 1:5 tc The MT reads, “those who worship, those who swear allegiance to the Lord.” The original form of the LXX omits the phrase “those who worship”; it may have been accidentally repeated from the preceding line. J. J. M. Roberts prefers to delete as secondary the phrase “those who swear allegiance” (J. J. M. Roberts, Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah [OTL], 168).
- Zephaniah 1:5 tn Heb “those who swear by.”
- Zephaniah 1:5 tn The referent of “their king” is unclear. It may refer sarcastically to a pagan god (perhaps Baal) worshiped by the people. Some English versions (cf. NEB, NASB, NRSV) prefer to emend the text to “Milcom,” the name of an Ammonite god (following some LXX mss, Syriac, and Vulgate) or “Molech,” a god to whom the Israelites offered their children (cf. NIV, NLT). For a discussion of the options, see Adele Berlin, Zephaniah (AB 25A), 75-77.
- Zephaniah 1:6 tn Heb “turn back from [following] after.”
- Zephaniah 1:6 tn Heb “who do not seek the Lord and do not inquire of him.” The present translation assumes the first verb refers to praying for divine help and the second to seeking his revealed will through an oracle. Note the usage of the two verbs in 2 Chr 20:3-4.
- Zephaniah 1:7 tn Heb “Lord Yahweh.”
- Zephaniah 1:7 tn Heb “the day of the Lord.”sn The origin of the concept of “the day of the Lord” is uncertain. It may have originated in the ancient Near Eastern idea of the sovereign’s day of conquest, where a king would boast that he had concluded an entire military campaign in a single day (see D. Stuart, “The Sovereign’s Day of Conquest,” BASOR 221 : 159-64). In the OT the expression is applied to several acts of divine judgment, some historical and others still future (see A. J. Everson, “The Days of Yahweh,” JBL 93 : 329-37). In the OT the phrase first appears in Amos (assuming that Amos predates Joel and Obadiah), where it seems to refer to a belief on the part of the northern kingdom that God would intervene on Israel’s behalf and judge the nation’s enemies. Amos affirms that the Lord’s day of judgment is indeed approaching, but he declares that it will be a day of disaster, not deliverance, for Israel. Here in Zephaniah, the “day of the Lord” includes God’s coming judgment of Judah, as well as a more universal outpouring of divine anger.
- Zephaniah 1:7 tn Or “near.”
- Zephaniah 1:7 tn Heb “a sacrifice.” This same word also occurs in the following verse.sn Because a sacrificial meal presupposes the slaughter of animals, it is used here as a metaphor of the bloody judgment to come.
- Zephaniah 1:7 tn Or “consecrated” (ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
- Zephaniah 1:8 tn Or “officials” (NRSV, TEV); NLT “leaders.”
- Zephaniah 1:8 sn The very dress of the royal court, foreign styles of clothing, revealed the degree to which Judah had assimilated foreign customs.
- Zephaniah 1:9 sn The point of the statement all who hop over the threshold is unclear. A ritual or superstition associated with the Philistine god Dagon may be in view (see 1 Sam 5:5).
- Zephaniah 1:9 tn The referent of “their master” is unclear. The king or a pagan god may be in view.
- Zephaniah 1:9 tn Heb “who fill…with violence and deceit.” The expression “violence and deceit” refers metonymically to the wealth taken by oppressive measures.
- Zephaniah 1:10 tn The words “will go up” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Zephaniah 1:10 sn The Fish Gate was located on Jerusalem’s north side (cf. 2 Chr 33:14; Neh 3:3; 12:39).
- Zephaniah 1:10 tn Heb “from the second area.” This may refer to an area northwest of the temple where the rich lived (see Adele Berlin, Zephaniah [AB 25A], 86; cf. NASB, NRSV “the Second Quarter”; NIV “the New Quarter”).
- Zephaniah 1:10 tn Heb “great breaking.”
- Zephaniah 1:11 tn Heb “in the Mortar.” The Hebrew term מַכְתֵּשׁ (makhtesh, “mortar”) is apparently here the name of a low-lying area where economic activity took place.
- Zephaniah 1:11 tn Or perhaps “Canaanites.” Cf. BDB 489 s.v. I and II כְּנַעֲנִי. Translators have rendered the term either as “the merchant people” (KJV, NKJV), “the traders” (NRSV), “merchants” (NEB, NIV), or, alternatively, “the people of Canaan” (NASB).
- Zephaniah 1:11 tn Or “be destroyed.”
- Zephaniah 1:11 tn Heb “weigh out silver.”
- Zephaniah 1:11 tn Heb “be cut off.” In the Hebrew text of v. 11b the perfect verbal forms emphasize the certainty of the judgment, speaking of it as if it were already accomplished.
- Zephaniah 1:12 tn Heb “who thicken on their sediment.” The imagery comes from wine making, where the wine, if allowed to remain on the sediment too long, will thicken into syrup. The image suggests that the people described here were complacent in their sinful behavior and interpreted the delay in judgment as divine apathy.
- Zephaniah 1:12 tn Heb “who say in their hearts.”
- Zephaniah 1:12 tn Heb “The Lord does not do good nor does he do evil.”
- Zephaniah 1:14 tn Heb “The great day of the Lord.” The words “of judgment” are supplied in the translation here and later in this verse for clarity. See the note on the expression “day of judgment” in v. 7.
- Zephaniah 1:14 tn Heb “the sound of the day of the Lord, bitter [is] one crying out there, a warrior.” The present translation does four things: (1) It takes מַר (mar, “bitter”) with what precedes (contrary to the accentuation of the MT). (2) It understands the participle צָרַח (tsarakh, “cry out in battle”) as verbal with “warrior” as its subject. (3) It takes שָׁם (sham, “there”) in a temporal sense, meaning “then, at that time.” (4) It understands “warrior” as collective.
- Zephaniah 1:15 tn Heb “a day of wrath.” The word “God’s” is supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Zephaniah 1:16 tn Heb “a ram’s horn.” By metonymy the Hebrew text mentions the trumpet (“ram’s horn”) in place of the sound it produces (“trumpet blasts”).
- Zephaniah 1:16 sn This description of the day of the Lord consists of an initial reference to anger, followed by four pairs of synonyms. The joining of synonyms in this way emphasizes the degree of the characteristic being described. The first two pairs focus on the distress and ruin that judgment will bring; the second two pairs picture this day of judgment as being very dark (darkness) and exceedingly overcast (gloom). The description concludes with the pairing of two familiar battle sounds, the blast on the ram’s horn (trumpet blasts) and the war cries of the warriors (battle cries).
- Zephaniah 1:16 tn Heb “against.” The words “judgment will fall” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Zephaniah 1:17 tn “The people” refers to mankind in general (see vv. 2-3) or more specifically to the residents of Judah (see vv. 4-13).
- Zephaniah 1:17 tn Heb “walk.”
- Zephaniah 1:17 tn Some take the referent of “flesh” to be more specific here; cf. NEB (“bowels”), NAB (“brains”), NIV (“entrails”).
- Zephaniah 1:17 tn The words “will be scattered” are supplied in the translation for clarity based on the parallelism with “will be poured out” in the previous line.
- Zephaniah 1:18 tn Or “land” (cf. NEB). This same word also occurs at the end of the present verse.
- Zephaniah 1:18 tn Or “passion”; traditionally, “jealousy.”
- Zephaniah 1:18 tn Or “for.”
- Zephaniah 1:18 tn Heb “complete destruction, even terror, he will make.”
- Zephaniah 1:18 tn It is not certain where the Lord’s words end and the prophet’s words begin. It is possible that Zephaniah begins speaking in the middle of v. 17 or at the beginning of v. 18 (note the third person pronouns referring to the Lord).