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And Hashem said unto Moshe, See, I have made thee as Elohim to Pharaoh: and Aharon thy brother shall be thy navi.

Thou shalt speak all that I command thee: and Aharon thy brother shall speak unto Pharaoh, that he send the Bnei Yisroel out of his land.

And I will harden the lev Pharaoh, and multiply My Otot and My Mofetim in Eretz Mitzrayim.

But Pharaoh shall not pay heed unto you, that I may lay My yad upon Mitzrayim, and bring forth Mine tzve’os, and My people the Bnei Yisroel, out of Eretz Mitzrayim by shefatim gedolim (great judgments).

And the Egyptians shall know that I am Hashem, when I stretch forth My yad upon Mitzrayim, bringing out Bnei Yisroel from among them.

And Moshe and Aharon did as Hashem commanded them, so did they.

And Moshe was fourscore years old, and Aharon fourscore three years, when they spoke unto Pharaoh.

And Hashem spoke unto Moshe and Aharon, saying,

When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Show a mofet (miracle) for you: then thou shalt say unto Aharon, Take thy matteh, and cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a serpent.

10 And Moshe and Aharon went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so as Hashem had commanded: and Aharon cast down his matteh before Pharaoh, and his avadim, and it became a serpent.

11 Then Pharaoh also called the chachamim and the mechashefim: now the kharetumei Mitzrayim, they also did in like manner with their secret lore.

12 For they cast down every man his matteh, and they became serpents: but the matteh Aharon swallowed up their mattot.

13 And He hardened lev Pharaoh, that he paid heed not unto them; as Hashem had said.

14 And Hashem said unto Moshe, the lev Pharaoh is hardened, he refuseth to let the people go.

15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the boker; hinei, he goeth out unto the mayim; and thou shalt stand by the bank of the Nile to meet him; and the matteh which was turned to a nachash shalt thou take in thine yad.

16 And thou shalt say unto him, Hashem Elohei HaIvrim hath sent me unto thee, saying, Let My people go, that they may serve Me in the midbar: and, hinei, hitherto thou wouldest not hear.

17 Thus saith Hashem, In this thou shalt know that I am Hashem: hinei, I will strike with the matteh that is in Mine yad upon the mayim which are in the Nile, and they shall be turned to dahm.

18 And the dag (fish) that is in the Nile shall die, and the Nile shall stink; and the Egyptians shall loathe to drink of the mayim of the Nile.

19 And Hashem spoke unto Moshe, Say unto Aharon, Take thy matteh, and stretch out thine yad upon the mayim of Mitzrayim, upon their streams, upon their rivers, and upon their ponds, and upon all their mikveh of mayim, that they may become dahm; and that there may be dahm throughout kol Eretz Mitzrayim, both in vessels of wood, and in vessels of stone.

20 And Moshe and Aharon did so, as Hashem commanded; and he lifted up the matteh, and smote the waters that were in the Nile, in the sight of Pharaoh, and in the sight of his avadim; and all the mayim that were in the Nile were turned to dahm.

21 And the dag (fish) that was in the Nile died; and the Nile stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the mayim of the Nile; and there was dahm throughout kol Eretz Mitzrayim.

22 And the kharetumei Mitzrayim did so with their secret lore: and lev Pharaoh was hardened, neither did he pay heed unto them; as Hashem had said.

23 And Pharaoh turned and went into his bais, neither did he set his mind to this also.

24 And all the Egyptians dug around the Nile for mayim to drink; they could not drink of the mayim of the Nile.

25 And seven days came and went, after Hashem had struck the Nile.

Then the Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God(A) to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet.(B) You are to say everything I command you, and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh to let the Israelites go out of his country. But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart,(C) and though I multiply my signs and wonders(D) in Egypt, he will not listen(E) to you. Then I will lay my hand on Egypt and with mighty acts of judgment(F) I will bring out my divisions,(G) my people the Israelites. And the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord(H) when I stretch out my hand(I) against Egypt and bring the Israelites out of it.”

Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord commanded(J) them. Moses was eighty years old(K) and Aaron eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh.

Aaron’s Staff Becomes a Snake

The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Perform a miracle,(L)’ then say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh,’ and it will become a snake.”(M)

10 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did just as the Lord commanded. Aaron threw his staff down in front of Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a snake. 11 Pharaoh then summoned wise men and sorcerers,(N) and the Egyptian magicians(O) also did the same things by their secret arts:(P) 12 Each one threw down his staff and it became a snake. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their staffs. 13 Yet Pharaoh’s heart(Q) became hard and he would not listen(R) to them, just as the Lord had said.

The Plague of Blood

14 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is unyielding;(S) he refuses to let the people go. 15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning as he goes out to the river.(T) Confront him on the bank of the Nile,(U) and take in your hand the staff that was changed into a snake. 16 Then say to him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to say to you: Let my people go, so that they may worship(V) me in the wilderness. But until now you have not listened.(W) 17 This is what the Lord says: By this you will know that I am the Lord:(X) With the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood.(Y) 18 The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink;(Z) the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.’”(AA)

19 The Lord said to Moses, “Tell Aaron, ‘Take your staff(AB) and stretch out your hand(AC) over the waters of Egypt—over the streams and canals, over the ponds and all the reservoirs—and they will turn to blood.’ Blood will be everywhere in Egypt, even in vessels[a] of wood and stone.”

20 Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord had commanded.(AD) He raised his staff in the presence of Pharaoh and his officials and struck the water of the Nile,(AE) and all the water was changed into blood.(AF) 21 The fish in the Nile died, and the river smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink its water. Blood was everywhere in Egypt.

22 But the Egyptian magicians(AG) did the same things by their secret arts,(AH) and Pharaoh’s heart(AI) became hard; he would not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the Lord had said. 23 Instead, he turned and went into his palace, and did not take even this to heart. 24 And all the Egyptians dug along the Nile to get drinking water(AJ), because they could not drink the water of the river.

The Plague of Frogs

25 Seven days passed after the Lord struck the Nile.


  1. Exodus 7:19 Or even on their idols