11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad(A)—in order that God’s purpose(B) in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”[a](C) 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[b](D)

14 What then shall we say?(E) Is God unjust? Not at all!(F) 15 For he says to Moses,

“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
    and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[c](G)

16 It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.(H) 17 For Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[d](I) 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.(J)

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  1. Romans 9:12 Gen. 25:23
  2. Romans 9:13 Mal. 1:2,3
  3. Romans 9:15 Exodus 33:19
  4. Romans 9:17 Exodus 9:16

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