A Living Sacrifice

12 (A)I appeal to you therefore, brothers,[a] by the mercies of God, (B)to present your bodies (C)as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.[b] (D)Do not be conformed to this world,[c] but be transformed by (E)the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may (F)discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.[d]

Gifts of Grace

For (G)by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you (H)not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, (I)each according to (J)the measure of faith that God has assigned. For (K)as in one body we have many members,[e] and the members do not all have the same function, so we, (L)though many, (M)are one body in Christ, and individually (N)members one of another. (O)Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if (P)prophecy, (Q)in proportion to our faith; if (R)service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching; the one who exhorts, in his exhortation; the one who contributes, in generosity; (S)the one who leads,[f] with zeal; the one who does acts of mercy, with (T)cheerfulness.

Marks of the True Christian

(U)Let love be genuine. (V)Abhor what is evil; hold fast to what is good. 10 (W)Love one another with brotherly affection. (X)Outdo one another in showing honor. 11 Do not be slothful in zeal, (Y)be fervent in spirit,[g] (Z)serve the Lord. 12 (AA)Rejoice in hope, (AB)be patient in tribulation, (AC)be constant in prayer. 13 (AD)Contribute to the needs of the saints and (AE)seek to show hospitality.

14 (AF)Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse them. 15 (AG)Rejoice with those who rejoice, weep with those who weep. 16 (AH)Live in harmony with one another. (AI)Do not be haughty, but associate with the lowly.[h] (AJ)Never be wise in your own sight. 17 (AK)Repay no one evil for evil, but (AL)give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. 18 If possible, so far as it depends on you, (AM)live peaceably with all. 19 Beloved, (AN)never avenge yourselves, but leave it[i] to the wrath of God, for it is written, (AO)“Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.” 20 To the contrary, (AP)“if your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink; for by so doing you will heap burning coals on his head.” 21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Submission to the Authorities

13 Let every person (AQ)be subject to the governing authorities. For (AR)there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good conduct, but to bad. Would you have no fear of the one who is in authority? Then do what is good, and you (AS)will receive his approval, for (AT)he is God's servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, (AU)an avenger who carries out God's wrath on the wrongdoer. Therefore one must be in subjection, not only to avoid God's wrath but also (AV)for the sake of conscience. For because of this you also pay taxes, for the authorities are ministers of God, attending to this very thing. (AW)Pay to all what is owed to them: taxes to whom taxes are owed, revenue to whom revenue is owed, respect to whom respect is owed, honor to whom honor is owed.

Fulfilling the Law Through Love

(AX)Owe no one anything, except to love each other, for (AY)the one who loves another has fulfilled the law. For the commandments, (AZ)“You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and any other commandment, are summed up in this word: (BA)“You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” 10 Love does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore (BB)love is the fulfilling of the law.

11 Besides this you know the time, that the hour has come for you (BC)to wake from sleep. (BD)For salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed. 12 (BE)The night is far gone; the day is at hand. So then let us (BF)cast off (BG)the works of darkness and (BH)put on the armor of light. 13 (BI)Let us walk properly as in the daytime, (BJ)not in orgies and drunkenness, not in sexual immorality and sensuality, (BK)not in quarreling and jealousy. 14 But (BL)put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, (BM)to gratify its desires.

Do Not Pass Judgment on One Another

14 As for (BN)the one who is weak in faith, welcome him, but not to quarrel over opinions. (BO)One person believes he may eat anything, while the weak person eats only vegetables. Let not the one who eats despise the one who abstains, and (BP)let not the one who abstains pass judgment on the one who eats, for God has welcomed him. (BQ)Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master[j] that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand.

(BR)One person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. (BS)Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. The one who observes the day, observes it in honor of the Lord. The one who eats, eats in honor of the Lord, since (BT)he gives thanks to God, while the one who abstains, abstains in honor of the Lord and gives thanks to God. For (BU)none of us lives to himself, and none of us dies to himself. For if we live, we live to the Lord, and if we die, we die to the Lord. So then, (BV)whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord's. For to this end Christ (BW)died and lived again, that he might be Lord both (BX)of the dead and of the living.

10 Why do you pass judgment on your brother? Or you, why do you despise your brother? For (BY)we will all stand before (BZ)the judgment seat of God; 11 for it is written,

(CA)“As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me,
    and every tongue shall confess[k] to God.”

12 So then (CB)each of us will give an account of himself to God.

Do Not Cause Another to Stumble

13 (CC)Therefore let us not pass judgment on one another any longer, but rather decide (CD)never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of a brother. 14 I know and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus (CE)that nothing is unclean in itself, (CF)but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean. 15 For if your brother is grieved by what you eat, (CG)you are no longer walking in love. (CH)By what you eat, do not destroy the one for whom Christ died. 16 (CI)So do not let what you regard as good be spoken of as evil. 17 (CJ)For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking but (CK)of righteousness and (CL)peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. 18 Whoever thus serves Christ is (CM)acceptable to God and approved by men. 19 So then let us (CN)pursue what makes for peace and for (CO)mutual upbuilding.

20 (CP)Do not, for the sake of food, destroy the work of God. (CQ)Everything is indeed clean, but (CR)it is wrong for anyone to make another stumble by what he eats. 21 (CS)It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble.[l] 22 The faith that you have, keep between yourself and God. (CT)Blessed is the one who has no reason to pass judgment on himself for what he approves. 23 But whoever has doubts is condemned if he eats, because the eating is not from faith. For whatever does not proceed from faith is sin.[m]

The Example of Christ

15 (CU)We who are strong (CV)have an obligation to bear with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves. (CW)Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up. For (CX)Christ did not please himself, but as it is written, (CY)“The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.” For (CZ)whatever was written in former days was written for our (DA)instruction, that through endurance and through (DB)the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. May the God of endurance and encouragement grant you (DC)to live in such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus, that together you may with one voice glorify (DD)the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore welcome one another as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God.

Christ the Hope of Jews and Gentiles

For I tell you that Christ (DE)became a servant to the circumcised to show God's truthfulness, in order (DF)to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs, and in order (DG)that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy. As it is written,

(DH)“Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles,
    and sing to your name.”

10 And again it is said,

(DI)“Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.”

11 And again,

(DJ)“Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles,
    and let all the peoples extol him.”

12 And again Isaiah says,

(DK)(DL)“The root of Jesse will come,
    even he who arises to rule the Gentiles;
(DM)in him will the Gentiles hope.”

13 May the God of hope fill you with all (DN)joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.

Paul the Minister to the Gentiles

14 (DO)I myself am satisfied about you, my brothers,[n] that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with (DP)all knowledge and able to instruct one another. 15 But on some points I have written to you very boldly by way of reminder, (DQ)because of the grace given me by God 16 to be (DR)a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles (DS)in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that (DT)the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 17 In Christ Jesus, then, I have (DU)reason to be proud of (DV)my work for God. 18 For I will not venture to speak of anything except (DW)what Christ has accomplished through me (DX)to bring the Gentiles to obedience—by word and deed, 19 (DY)by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God—so that (DZ)from Jerusalem and all the way around (EA)to Illyricum I have fulfilled the ministry of the gospel of Christ; 20 and thus I make it my ambition to preach the gospel, not where Christ has already been named, (EB)lest I build on someone else's foundation, 21 but as it is written,

(EC)“Those who have never been told of him will see,
    and those who have never heard will understand.”

Paul's Plan to Visit Rome

22 This is the reason why (ED)I have so often been hindered from coming to you. 23 But now, since I no longer have any room for work in these regions, and (EE)since I have longed for many years to come to you, 24 I hope to see you in passing as I go (EF)to Spain, and (EG)to be helped on my journey there by you, once I have enjoyed your company for a while. 25 At present, however, (EH)I am going to Jerusalem bringing aid to the saints. 26 For (EI)Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the saints at Jerusalem. 27 For they were pleased to do it, and indeed (EJ)they owe it to them. For if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material blessings. 28 When therefore I have completed this and have delivered to them what has been collected,[o] I will leave (EK)for Spain by way of you. 29 I know that when I come to you I will come in the fullness of the blessing[p] of Christ.

30 I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by (EL)the love of the Spirit, (EM)to strive together with me in your prayers to God on my behalf, 31 (EN)that I may be delivered from the unbelievers in Judea, and that (EO)my service for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints, 32 so that by God's will I may come to you with joy and (EP)be refreshed in your company. 33 May (EQ)the God of peace be with you all. Amen.


  1. Romans 12:1 Or brothers and sisters
  2. Romans 12:1 Or your rational service
  3. Romans 12:2 Greek age
  4. Romans 12:2 Or what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God
  5. Romans 12:4 Greek parts; also verse 5
  6. Romans 12:8 Or gives aid
  7. Romans 12:11 Or fervent in the Spirit
  8. Romans 12:16 Or give yourselves to humble tasks
  9. Romans 12:19 Greek give place
  10. Romans 14:4 Or lord
  11. Romans 14:11 Or shall give praise
  12. Romans 14:21 Some manuscripts add or be hindered or be weakened
  13. Romans 14:23 Some manuscripts insert here 16:25–27
  14. Romans 15:14 Or brothers and sisters; also verse 30
  15. Romans 15:28 Greek sealed to them this fruit
  16. Romans 15:29 Some manuscripts insert of the gospel

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