A Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore, I urge you,(A) brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,(B) holy and pleasing to God—this is your true and proper worship. Do not conform(C) to the pattern of this world,(D) but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.(E) Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is(F)—his good, pleasing(G) and perfect will.

Humble Service in the Body of Christ

For by the grace given me(H) I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. For just as each of us has one body with many members, and these members do not all have the same function,(I) so in Christ we, though many, form one body,(J) and each member belongs to all the others. We have different gifts,(K) according to the grace given to each of us. If your gift is prophesying,(L) then prophesy in accordance with your[a] faith;(M) if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teach;(N) if it is to encourage, then give encouragement;(O) if it is giving, then give generously;(P) if it is to lead,[b] do it diligently; if it is to show mercy, do it cheerfully.

Love in Action

Love must be sincere.(Q) Hate what is evil; cling to what is good.(R) 10 Be devoted to one another in love.(S) Honor one another above yourselves.(T) 11 Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor,(U) serving the Lord. 12 Be joyful in hope,(V) patient in affliction,(W) faithful in prayer.(X) 13 Share with the Lord’s people who are in need.(Y) Practice hospitality.(Z)

14 Bless those who persecute you;(AA) bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn.(AB) 16 Live in harmony with one another.(AC) Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.[c] Do not be conceited.(AD)

17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil.(AE) Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everyone.(AF) 18 If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.(AG) 19 Do not take revenge,(AH) my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,”[d](AI) says the Lord. 20 On the contrary:

“If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
    if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.”[e](AJ)

21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Submission to Governing Authorities

13 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities,(AK) for there is no authority except that which God has established.(AL) The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted,(AM) and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended.(AN) For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.(AO) Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.(AP)

This is also why you pay taxes,(AQ) for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes;(AR) if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.

Love Fulfills the Law

Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for whoever loves others has fulfilled the law.(AS) The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not covet,”[f](AT) and whatever other command there may be, are summed up(AU) in this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.”[g](AV) 10 Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.(AW)

The Day Is Near

11 And do this, understanding the present time: The hour has already come(AX) for you to wake up from your slumber,(AY) because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. 12 The night is nearly over; the day is almost here.(AZ) So let us put aside the deeds of darkness(BA) and put on the armor(BB) of light. 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness,(BC) not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy.(BD) 14 Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ,(BE) and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the flesh.[h](BF)

The Weak and the Strong

14 Accept the one whose faith is weak,(BG) without quarreling over disputable matters. One person’s faith allows them to eat anything, but another, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables.(BH) The one who eats everything must not treat with contempt(BI) the one who does not, and the one who does not eat everything must not judge(BJ) the one who does, for God has accepted them. Who are you to judge someone else’s servant?(BK) To their own master, servants stand or fall. And they will stand, for the Lord is able to make them stand.

One person considers one day more sacred than another;(BL) another considers every day alike. Each of them should be fully convinced in their own mind. Whoever regards one day as special does so to the Lord. Whoever eats meat does so to the Lord, for they give thanks to God;(BM) and whoever abstains does so to the Lord and gives thanks to God. For none of us lives for ourselves alone,(BN) and none of us dies for ourselves alone. If we live, we live for the Lord; and if we die, we die for the Lord. So, whether we live or die, we belong to the Lord.(BO) For this very reason, Christ died and returned to life(BP) so that he might be the Lord of both the dead and the living.(BQ)

10 You, then, why do you judge your brother or sister[i]? Or why do you treat them with contempt?(BR) For we will all stand before God’s judgment seat.(BS) 11 It is written:

“‘As surely as I live,’(BT) says the Lord,
‘every knee will bow before me;
    every tongue will acknowledge God.’”[j](BU)

12 So then, each of us will give an account of ourselves to God.(BV)

13 Therefore let us stop passing judgment(BW) on one another. Instead, make up your mind not to put any stumbling block or obstacle in the way of a brother or sister.(BX) 14 I am convinced, being fully persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean in itself.(BY) But if anyone regards something as unclean, then for that person it is unclean.(BZ) 15 If your brother or sister is distressed because of what you eat, you are no longer acting in love.(CA) Do not by your eating destroy someone for whom Christ died.(CB) 16 Therefore do not let what you know is good be spoken of as evil.(CC) 17 For the kingdom of God is not a matter of eating and drinking,(CD) but of righteousness, peace(CE) and joy in the Holy Spirit,(CF) 18 because anyone who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and receives human approval.(CG)

19 Let us therefore make every effort to do what leads to peace(CH) and to mutual edification.(CI) 20 Do not destroy the work of God for the sake of food.(CJ) All food is clean,(CK) but it is wrong for a person to eat anything that causes someone else to stumble.(CL) 21 It is better not to eat meat or drink wine or to do anything else that will cause your brother or sister to fall.(CM)

22 So whatever you believe about these things keep between yourself and God. Blessed is the one who does not condemn(CN) himself by what he approves. 23 But whoever has doubts(CO) is condemned if they eat, because their eating is not from faith; and everything that does not come from faith is sin.[k]

15 We who are strong ought to bear with the failings of the weak(CP) and not to please ourselves. Each of us should please our neighbors for their good,(CQ) to build them up.(CR) For even Christ did not please himself(CS) but, as it is written: “The insults of those who insult you have fallen on me.”[l](CT) For everything that was written in the past was written to teach us,(CU) so that through the endurance taught in the Scriptures and the encouragement they provide we might have hope.

May the God who gives endurance and encouragement give you the same attitude of mind(CV) toward each other that Christ Jesus had, so that with one mind and one voice you may glorify(CW) the God and Father(CX) of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Accept one another,(CY) then, just as Christ accepted you, in order to bring praise to God. For I tell you that Christ has become a servant of the Jews[m](CZ) on behalf of God’s truth, so that the promises(DA) made to the patriarchs might be confirmed and, moreover, that the Gentiles(DB) might glorify God(DC) for his mercy. As it is written:

“Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles;
    I will sing the praises of your name.”[n](DD)

10 Again, it says,

“Rejoice, you Gentiles, with his people.”[o](DE)

11 And again,

“Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles;
    let all the peoples extol him.”[p](DF)

12 And again, Isaiah says,

“The Root of Jesse(DG) will spring up,
    one who will arise to rule over the nations;
    in him the Gentiles will hope.”[q](DH)

13 May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace(DI) as you trust in him, so that you may overflow with hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.(DJ)


  1. Romans 12:6 Or the
  2. Romans 12:8 Or to provide for others
  3. Romans 12:16 Or willing to do menial work
  4. Romans 12:19 Deut. 32:35
  5. Romans 12:20 Prov. 25:21,22
  6. Romans 13:9 Exodus 20:13-15,17; Deut. 5:17-19,21
  7. Romans 13:9 Lev. 19:18
  8. Romans 13:14 In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit.
  9. Romans 14:10 The Greek word for brother or sister (adelphos) refers here to a believer, whether man or woman, as part of God’s family; also in verses 13, 15 and 21.
  10. Romans 14:11 Isaiah 45:23
  11. Romans 14:23 Some manuscripts place 16:25-27 here; others after 15:33.
  12. Romans 15:3 Psalm 69:9
  13. Romans 15:8 Greek circumcision
  14. Romans 15:9 2 Samuel 22:50; Psalm 18:49
  15. Romans 15:10 Deut. 32:43
  16. Romans 15:11 Psalm 117:1
  17. Romans 15:12 Isaiah 11:10 (see Septuagint)