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On her forehead was written a name, which is a mystery, “Babylon the great, the mother of harlots and of the abominations of the earth.”

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For all the nations have drunk[a]
    the wine of her licentious passion.
The kings of the earth had intercourse with her,
    and the merchants of the earth grew rich from her drive for luxury.”(A)

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Footnotes

  1. 18:3–24 Rome is condemned for her immorality, symbol of idolatry (see note on Rev 14:4), and for persecuting the church; cf. Rev 19:2.

11 The merchants of the earth will weep and mourn for her, because there will be no more markets[a] for their cargo:

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Footnotes

  1. 18:11 Ironically, the merchants weep not so much for Babylon-Rome, but for their lost markets; cf. Ez 27:36.

13 cinnamon, spice,[a] incense, myrrh, and frankincense; wine, olive oil, fine flour, and wheat; cattle and sheep, horses and chariots, and slaves, that is, human beings.

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Footnotes

  1. 18:13 Spice: an unidentified spice plant called in Greek amōmon.

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