4 [a]John, to the seven churches that are in [the province of] [b]Asia: [c]Grace [be granted] to you and peace [inner calm and spiritual well-being], from Him Who is [existing forever] and Who was [continually existing in the past] and Who is to come, and from [d]the seven Spirits that are before His throne,
Revelation 1:4John and his brother James were among the first apostles chosen by Jesus, and were the sons of Zebedee and Salome. In addition to the Revelation, John wrote the Gospel and the three letters that bear his name.
Revelation 1:4The Roman province of Asia (now western Turkey) was formed in 129 b.c.
Revelation 1:4Like Paul, the apostle John takes the standard Jewish greeting of “Peace [Heb shalom] to you” and modifies it by adding grace, without which no one could obtain peace with God.
Revelation 1:4A literal translation, perhaps referring to the perfect fullness of the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
8 “I am the [a]Alpha and the Omega [the Beginning and the End],” says the Lord God, “Who is [existing forever] and Who was [continually existing in the past] and Who is to come, the Almighty [the Omnipotent, the Ruler of all].”
Revelation 1:8An expression of God’s absolute supremacy over all things.
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