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Psalm 148[a]

148 Praise the Lord.
Praise the Lord from the sky.
Praise him in the heavens.
Praise him, all his angels.[b]
Praise him, all his heavenly assembly.[c]
Praise him, O sun and moon.
Praise him, all you shiny stars.[d]
Praise him, O highest heaven,
and you waters above the sky.[e]
Let them praise the name of the Lord,
for he gave the command and they came into existence.
He established them so they would endure;[f]
he issued a decree that will not be revoked.[g]
Praise the Lord from the earth,
you sea creatures and all you ocean depths,
O fire and hail, snow and clouds,[h]
O stormy wind that carries out his orders,[i]
you mountains and all you hills,
you fruit trees and all you cedars,
10 you animals and all you cattle,
you creeping things and birds,
11 you kings of the earth and all you nations,
you princes and all you leaders[j] on the earth,
12 you young men and young women,
you elderly, along with you children.
13 Let them praise the name of the Lord,
for his name alone is exalted;
his majesty extends over the earth and sky.
14 He has made his people victorious,[k]
and given all his loyal followers reason to praise—
the Israelites, the people who are close to him.[l]
Praise the Lord!


  1. Psalm 148:1 sn Psalm 148. The psalmist calls upon all creation to praise the Lord, for he is the creator and sovereign king of the world.
  2. Psalm 148:2 tn Or “heavenly messengers.”
  3. Psalm 148:2 tn Heb “all his host.”
  4. Psalm 148:3 tn Heb “stars of light.”
  5. Psalm 148:4 sn The “water” mentioned here corresponds to the “waters above” mentioned in Gen 1:7. See also Ps 104:3. For a discussion of the picture envisioned by the psalmist, see L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 47.
  6. Psalm 148:6 tn Or “forever and ever.”
  7. Psalm 148:6 tn Heb “and it will not pass away.”
  8. Psalm 148:8 tn In Ps 119:83 the noun refers to “smoke,” but here, where the elements of nature are addressed, the clouds, which resemble smoke, are probably in view.
  9. Psalm 148:8 tn Heb “[that] does his word.”
  10. Psalm 148:11 tn Or “judges.”
  11. Psalm 148:14 tn Heb “and he lifted up a horn for his people.” The horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (see Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt/lift up the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 75:10; 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). Another option is to take the “horn” as a symbol for the Davidic king, through whom the Lord gives his people military victory.
  12. Psalm 148:14 tn “[there is] praise for all his loyal followers, to the sons of Israel, the people near him.” Here “praise” stands by metonymy for the victory that prompts it.